WE have had occasion recently to discuss in our columns the extension of docking facilities for the port of New York, rendered imperative by the ever-increasing size of trans-Atlantic liners. This week's issue of our Supplement, No. 1859, bl'ings an account of the steps taken at Southampton by our cousins across the sea to face the situation. Our English correspondent writes on the new docks in the course of construction for the White Star Line.-The readers of the Scie:tific American are familiar with the Soya bean. This remarkable seed yields a “vegetable milk,” from which may Abe derived, as from animal milk, a cheese and a species of casein. - These points and others are dealt with in an article on the “Extended “Utilization of Soya Bean Products."-An illustrated account of the methods employed in measuring radio-activity is given by Andre Conte.-The fourth instalment of Donald Murray's valuable article on Printing Telegraphy appears in this issue.-How much money is lost to r8!ilway companies by locomotives held up in the repair shop is the question dealt with in an article entitled “What is a Locomotive's Time Worth."-The dimensions of the M'Adoo tunnel .Impose certam. restn. ctl. Ons upon the cars operated therein. These cars are illustrated and described in a special article.-It is extremely difficult to extinguish fires in such inflammable liquids as kerosene. What can be done by spreading a blank't .f foam over the surface of such burnm. g h.qm.d I. S described in an article from Prometheus. -W. A. DuPuy gives an account of Dr. L. W. Austin, Government Expert on Radio-Telegraphy, and his important achievements.-E. F. Harran, of the Calcutta Port “Commission, writes on” the Indian tea trade.-An illustrated article is devoted to “The Influence of Erosion by Water in Modeling the Landscape; “ -Some notes on “Underground Water for Public “Use” are cited from a recent pamphlet issued by the “United States Geological Survey.-Prof. Chal'les E. Munroe writes on “Our Dependence upon the N.Itrate Supply for Nat.Ional Defense."-Prof. Dobereck speaks on the subject of “The Proper Motions of the Fixed Stars." AT several po.mts on the Bn. tI. sh coasts there are located cuttlefish farms, where the lIttle creatures are kept In tanks or ponds to be “milked” of their ink. The pond or tank is connected with the sea by a pipe, and a thousand or more cuttles are kept in a single one. They present a curious sight as they move about, trailing their long arms and staring out of their bulging eyas. They are guarded by screens with a viaw to preventing fright, for, if they are suddenly scared, they will emit their “milk” in the water, a dead loss to the cuttlefish farmer. The fluid, or milk, is very valuable, and each cuttle will yield 8!bout $3.50 worth a yaar. It is secreted in a bag, which can be opened and closed at will, the cuttie ejecting the fluid to darken the water so that it may escape unseen 'when attacked. The best cuttlefish are obtained in China, where for some reason or other, they produce the best quality of “milk." Whan ,the farmer considers it an opportune time to milk the cutNes he proceeds by opening the sluices of the ponds and gently agitating the water. The cuttles then swim around the pond. and as soon as one pa§ses througr, the sluice is closed. The cuttle passas down a small channel into a basin or metal receptacle, and as soon as it is securely there the water is drained of. I is then frightened, and at once squirts the fluid from the ,bag. When it is exhausted it is lifted out, the milk is collected, and the basin is prepared for another. Aeronautic Notes Current Aviation Meets. -The first big aviation meet of the ¦present year in the Middle “West opened on the 12th inst. in ChicagO. Over twoscore aeroplanes of different types, piloted by the leading American aviators, were entered, and $80,000 in prize money was cDmpeted fDr. The meet was held at Grant Park on the shore Df Lake Michigan, which, thDUgh a windy SPDt, did nDt affect the flights materially. The first big meet of the year in the East Dpens at BDstDn on the 26th, while a secDnd “Western meet will be held at St. LDUis, beginning September 30th. Big Prizes for Cross-country Flights.- The offer Df $10,000 to Harry AtWODd fDr a 1,000-mile cross-cDuntry flight, which is said to have baen made recently by a prDminent patent attDrney Df “WashingtDn, has caused this daring aviatDr to attempt a flight frDm either Milwaukee Dr st. LDUis to New YDrk in the near future. A prize Df a like amDunt has been Dffered by Gen. Charles M. TaylDr, the prDprietDr Df the BostDn Globe, for a 150-mile interstate mDnDplane circuit race during tha BDstDn meat. This is the secDnd $10,000 prize dDn8ted by General TaylDr, as he gava a simHar amDunt a year agO fDr a flight from the aviation field at Squantum to the BDstDn Light and return. This prize was WDn by Grahame. White with his BIGriDt mDnoplane. A prize O'f $7,500 has alsO' been put up rDr biplanes to race Dver the same CDU"He Dn September 2nd. The cities included in the circuit are Nashua, N H., WDrcester. Mass., and PrDvidence, R. r. The $10,000 will ba divided intO three prizes Df $7,500 $1,500 and $1,000, respectively, while in the biplane race the prizes will be $5,000, $1,500 and $1,000. The First Inter-city Aeroplane Race.- The first aerDplane race acrDSS cDuntry frDm New YDrk ,tD Philadelphia was flDwn on saturday, August 5th, when Messrs. Beachy, Ely, and RDbinson of the Curtiss fDrce started frDm GDvernDrs Island, faw up the HudsDn to Thirty-third Street, circled over the rODf Df the Gimbel building, and headed fDr Philadelphia. Beachy, whO has already made a name fDr himself by his flight over Niagara FalIs a shDrt time agO, WDn the race, his time frDm stDre to stDre for the 90 miles being % minute less than twO hDurs, including a stDP at Trenton, in Drder to take Dn fuel. RDbinsDn was secDnd in twO hDurs and Dne-half, while Ely Dnly gDt as far as Princeton JunctiDn. Just befDre reac h ing Philadelphia Beachy passed intO a shDwer and <was thDrDughly sDaked ere he CIrcled a;bove the Gimbel building in PhiIadeI-phia, saluted the statue of William Penn Dn tDP Df the City HaH, and landed in FairmDunt Park. NDtwithstanding this fact, he gave a fine exhibHiDn flight while waiting fDr his brDther aviator. All three aviatDrs used Curtiss 50 horsa-power biplanes having 8-cylinder V-ty,pe motDrs. The prize was $5,000 in ca s h. It was put up by the Gimbel firm wIth an idea Df encouraging cross-country inter-c'lty aerDplane racing. A New Distance RecDrd fDr the Mi-chelin Trophy.-M. Vedrines, the winner Df the Paris-Madrid race, made a trial fDr the Michelin trophy on the 9th inst. in France, and succeeded in cDvering 800 kilDmeters (497.09 miles) in 7 hDurs, 56 minutes, and 36 secDnds. This CDrrespDnds to an average speed Df 62% miles an hDur, which is excellent for a sustained flight Dver a clDsed circuit. This new reeDrel supplants that made by M. LDridan Df 469 miles in 11% hours Dn the 21st ult. The new recDrd was made with | a MDrane mDnDplane instead of with a Farman biplane which ,was used by M. LDridan. In cDmpeting for the trDphy this year the flight must be mada acrDSS (JDuntry, back and forth between two pDints frDm 50 to 100 IdlDmeters apart. ,CDmpetitDrs may descend as often as they please to take Dn fuel Dr make repairs, but nO part Df the machine can be replaced that is sealed by the Dfcials. An ¦average speed Df 50 kilometers (31 miles; an hour must be maintained. The win-] ner Df the trDphy this year will be the pilDt whO, before NDvember 1st, has CDVereel the greatest distance over a clDsed circuit. This distance must exc eed the 582.935 kilDme ters (362.21 m iles) sCDred by M. Tabute a u last year.
This article was originally published with the title "The Current Supplement, Cuttlefish Farms, and more" in Scientific American 105, 8, 178-179 (August 1911)