THE front page of our current Supplement, No. 1869, shows a fine illustration of a rather remarkable bucket chain excavator at work in a Hungarian cement pit.—A peculiar amalgam which appears to consist of a mixture of mercury with the radicle ammonium, has been known since the days of Berzelius. Its true character has long been a matter of dispute, and is of interest as furnishing an apparent example of a compound radicle possessing true metallic properties. The subject of such synthetic metals is discussed by Prof. McCoy.—An article reproduced from Nature deals with the hydro-electric plants of Norway and their application to electro-chemistry.—A catalytic process for effecting the direct union of hydrogen and nitrogen to am onia has been worked up by Prof. Haber. An account of this important development has been given by F. A. McDermott.—We have all of us at one time or another twanged the spokes of our bicycle to determine whether they were in proper condition. A similar but more elaborate test is now applied to the wires of aeroplanes, according to an invention of Capt. F. Largier, which is described and illustrated in the current issue.—A most interesting review of recent developments of astronomy is given by J. S. Plaskett. —An illustrated deals with the varied uses of the royal palm, one of the most striking vegetable features of Cuba. —The fruit industry in the West has grown to gigantic dimensions. A single frost may cause vast losses. Prof. Mc-Adiehas published somewhat extensively on the subject of frost protection in fruit orchards. Some of his work, illustrated with photographs furnished by him, is reported in a brief article.—The article on caisson sickness is brought to its conclusion in a second installment.—Those interested in locomotive engineering will find valuable information in an article on a new fourteen-wheel express locomotive. —A high-speed cast-iron flywheel of remarkable design is described and illustrated in an article derived from Power. —The versatile genius of Swedenborg led him, among other things, to evolve some plans for a flying machine. This historical curiosity is reproduced from a publication of the Swedenborgian Association. Death of Eugene Ely FLYING at the State Fair Grounds, Macon, Georgia, on the 19th of this month, Eugene Ely, in a Curtiss biplane, lost control of his machine and dashed to earth. As the machine neared the ground, Ely attempted to leap clear of the machinery; in this he was partially successful, but the impact was sufficient to crush him so badly that he died shortly afterward. Eugene Ely joined Glenn H. Curtiss in the summer of 1910. Last November he spr;,.ng into fame when he launched his aeroplane from the U. S. S. “Birmingham,” and flew to shore, eight miles away. In January he reversed this feat by flying from shore to the armored cruiser “Pennsylvania,” landing on a special platform built on the deck of the vessel. He was with the army aviation corps at San Antonio, Texas, where his work at scouting was notable. The Development of Spitzbergen PRESS reports from Copenhagen state that the total export of coal from Spitzbergen this year will amount to 25 large cargoes, and it is expected that fully 100 will be exported next year. The political status of Spitzbergen is still undetermined, but it has been fully surveyed by the, Norwegian government, which is also about to open a wireless station there, and it is evident that Norway will do its utmost to establish sovereignty over this far northern country. It is stated that the Norwegians have discovered new mineral deposits, the situation- of which is kept secret. i DO YOU HAVE KNIVES TO GRIND, SILVER TO POLISH, SM/k'LL TOOLS TQ OPERATE. WASHING MACHJNES OR WRINGERS To RUN? LET THE RED DEVIL. IWater Mo tor Do Your Work Attached to any wa ter faucet will develop up to 3 H. P. according to size of pi pe and w:tter k pressure. Only perfect small motor made. Improve bucket wheel construction. 6 in. Motor tor Mechanics and Tradesmen. Washing Machine, % H. P. on Yz in. pipe, 80 Ibs.water pres-P. on 60 Il>s. pressure, 2 ill. pipe. Net j $5, cash with order. NI).1492—4 in. Dlolor for grinding, polishing", fans, sewing machines ; for Doctors, Dentists, Druggists, etc., with emery,bu8ing- wheel, si lver polish ami pulley,$3. No. 14'J3-4 ill. Motor and pulley only $2.50, cash -with order. Money back for any reason. Order your motor from dealer or from us. Send ^ your water pressure and size of supply pipe. A.;tive Agents wanted. Catalog free. WATER O. 12; utica, n.y. Valuable Books The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulas Edited by ALBERT A. HOPKINS. Octavo, 1077 pages. 15,000 Receipts. Cloth. $5.00 ; half morocco, $6.50. tjJ This valuable work is a careful compilation of about 15,000 selected formulas, covering nearly every branch of the useful arts andiiidustries. Never before has such a large collection of valuableformulas, useful to everyone, been offered to the public. Those engaged in any branch of industry will probably find in this volume much that is of practica I use in their respective callings. Those in search of salable articles which can be manufactured on a small scale, will find hundreds of most excellent suggestions. It should have a place in every laboratory, factory and home. Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory Compiled and edited by A. RUSSELL BOND. 12mo., 467 pages, 370 illustrations. Price, $2.00. (]I This is a compilation of hundreds of valuable suggestions and ingenious ideas for the mechanic and those mechanically inclined, and tells how all kinds of jobs can be done with home-made tools and appliances. The suggestions are practical. and the solutions to which they refer are of frequent occurrence. It may be regarded as the best collection of ideas of resourceful men published, and appeals to all those who find use for tools either in the home or workshop. The book is fully illustrated, in many cases with working drawings. which show clearly how the work is done. Any of these books will be sent, postpaid, on receipt of advertised price Munn&Co., Inc., Publishers 361 Broadway New York City SPARK COILS AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION 160 describes the making of a li-inch spark cor! and condenser. 1514 tells you how to make a coil for gas-engine ignition. 1522 explains fully the construction of a jump-spark coil and condenser for gas-engine ignition. I 124 describes the construction of a 6-inch spark coil. 1087 gives a full account of the making of an alternating current coil giving a 5-inch spark. 1527 describes a 4-inch spark coil and condenser. 1402 gives data for the construction of coils of a definite length of spark. Thisset o/sellen papers will be supplied for 70c. A ny single copy will be mailed for /0c. Munn&Co., Inc., Publishers, 361 Broadway, N.Y. City jf^S Mao-ica 1 Apparatus. v£^9 Grand Book Catalogue, Over 700 engravings 25c, Parlor Tricks Catalogue, free. M ARTINKA&CO.. Jlfrs., 4»3 Sixtb Ave., New York FREE SAMPLE Goes With First Letter Something new. Every firm wants it. Orders $1.00 to $100. Big demand everywhere. Nice pleasant business. Write at once. METALLIC SIGN CO, 438 N. Clark, Chicago October 28, ] 911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 399 "QTAP” Large Line of S lAR Attachments LATHES s. For Foot or Power Suitable for line acmrale work in the n-pair simp, sai'iitre, tool room aii'i inadmit' shop. Send for Catalogue H SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 695 Water Street Seneca Falls, N. Y., U.S.A. SEBASTIAN LATHES 8 to 15 Inch Swing High Quality Low Prices Catalog Free THE SEBASTIAN LATHE CO., 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati, 0. This GRINDER as no pumps, no valves. No piping inquired to supply it with water. Always ready for use. Simplest in constructiOn, most efficient in operation. Price W(7/ interest you. W. F.&Jno. Barnes Co. Established 1872. 1999 Ruby St. Rockford, III. ^ !18u USE GRINDSTONES P If so we can supply you. All sizes mounted and unmounted, always ,kept in stock. Remember, we make a I:' pecialtyof selecting at ones for all special purposes. :Scnrl,for catalogue “i.' ' The CI/EVEI.AM) STO:>OE CO. 6th Floor, Hickox Bldg., Cleveland, O. THE EDISON S Concrete ouse How it is constructed, how much it will cost, is it practical from an architectural and engineering standpoint? These and other important questions relating to the structure are discussed in a good, thorough. illustrated article published in Scientific A men'can Supplement J 685. Price 10 cents by mail. Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN&CO., inc., Publishers, 361 Broadway, N. Y. li^F'Tri'll^lrfLHI Coiliss Engines, Brewers aml Bottlers' Machinery O*o VILTER MFG. CO. Clinton Street, ./Milwaukee, Wis. THE SCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. -STEEL STAMPS LETTERS&FIGURES. BRIDGEPORT CONN. Makes repairs neat^, and quick. Mends harness, shoesr Icanvas. Myers' Sewing Awl makes~” Lock Stitch. $1 prepaid. Big money for agents. C. A. MYERS CO., 6374Lexington Ave,Chicago, III. I Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY ... E.V. BAILLARD CO., 24Frankfort St.,N.Y. Experimental&Model Work Circa/or and Advice Free Wm. Gardam&Son, 8286 Park Place, N. Y. DI TDD CD Expert Manufacturers RUDDER Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS & CO., 288-290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. m-s-s^Wf \ MT*im To manufacture METAL gjfe” WAIN 1 KAJ SPECIALTIES, 20 year, experience in making Dies. Tools and Specral Machinery. Expert work. Complete equipment. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS Dept. 2, 412 So. Clinton Street, - Chicago, III. MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOIST for Outrieger hoists. Kasterthan rClevators,and hoist direct from teams. Saves handling at le,s expense Uanfd. hy VOLNEY W. i!ASON&CO., Inc. Providence, \l. I.. IJ. 8. A. II lES, FINE TOOLS t|fEcjAL_H IETAL SPECIALTIES . INVENTIONS OORE&CO., !ndia"a &cK-1 PERFECTED: 1 IllBRSCATlsVoT Anyihing 118-124 Nortli clinton sto. Quality in this “RED DEVIL” too (Made in sameway as our ' 'Red Devil' ' glass cutters) Sizes 6 Yz to 12 range in price from SI .05 to $3.00 per pair. No. 271-10 size costs you $1. 25 per pair, has 2V£” cut. If your local dealer can't, we will ship prepaid, one pair only, on receipt of price. SMITH&HEMENWAY CO. 150 Chambers Street New York City