A MATTER that is of great economic and vast sociological importance is the rapidly growing army of the unemployed, the great majority of whom are not qualified to fill positions requiring skill or special training, and yet lack the education necessary to enable them to undertake anything but manual labor. That the source of these conditions lies in our educational system is explained in an article in the current issue of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT by L. W. Dooley, who discusses the subject at length and makes practical remedial suggestions. An outline of this article is given in the following paragraphs, and it is evident the article is well worth the attention of all interested in sociological conditions. Waste is repugnant to us to-day. This same cry of greater efficiency of the modern time has entered our educational system. Citizens and public spirited men are criticising our schools through the newspapers and magazines. They claim that there is great waste in our schools, the essential is neglected, and the boys and girls are not properly prepared for life. The practical abandonment of the apprenticeship in the country, except in a few isolated places like Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company, is bringing about a want of skilled workmen which the modern industrial system is failing to supply. On the other hand, the great number of unskilled workers have increased, and all of them have not been able to obtain employment. The great industrial demand of the present and of the recent past is making this want felt more and more sharply. The whole country is awakening to the necessities of the case and demanding a remedy. Organized educational forces are moving rapidly in the direction of making our school system more practical. There can be but little question that our school system has lagged behind the development of those forces of business organization with which they should be clearly articulated. Our school system is only just now entering upon the stage of efficiency which industry has long since considered. Nowadays educational experts are beginning to see that the dull pupils can be rescued and that stupidity has various causes, a great many of which may be cured. In years gone by, if a girl or boy did not get on well in school, he or she was most likely noted as being just plain stupid, and called a dunce, and allowed to drag along until the day came when they would leave school. These children have been referred to as the scrap heap of the public school system. This educational scrap heap, designated by our present school system as worthless, has great imitative power and capacity for mechanical work and experiences no difficulty in obtaining work at a high initial wage in what are called by our social workers "blind alleys" or "dead end" employment, that is, employment such as messenger boys, attendants in bowling alleys, doffers in mills, attendants in glass, factories, etc., in which the experience gained under the present industrial and educational conditions is said to form no basis for advancement into more skilled and better paid work as the child grows older. When these young men reach the age of eighteen they have passed their usefulness in this type of juvenile work, and find there are not positions enough for them in other parts of the mill, and they leave and form our great unskilled army. In order to reduce our so-called educational scrap-heap it is necessary to change our school system so that it will educate the whole boy and girl of this day. A manual training department should be attached to every school in this country. Children should be taught as soon as they go to school to use their hands, as the father and mother did in the rural communities a generation ago. We must act on the principle admitted by everybody who knows or cares anything about education, that the way to secure a good training for the mind is not to end the school life at the most plastic period, fourteen years of age, or in the case of foreigners, as soon as they can pass an examination, but to insist that every boy shall spend a certain number of hours a week under educational training and sound teaching till he reaches manhood. In order to overcome the educational weakness of our present dead end or blind alley occupations, we must provide opportunities for working youths on a part time system, an education which will meet with their interests and tastes, assisting each to become proficient in some line of work that he may enter after passing his usefulness in the so-called blind alley position. Our public school system should audit our social accounts and publish the opportunities available to young people, that they may choose their life work scientifically, and in this way reduce our scrap-heap of unskilled labor to a minimum. Blind alley jobs will then become ports of entry into more skilled and profitable positions. Toothbrush Holder and Sterilizer THE man who cares to subject his toothbrush to a microscopic examination will find that even though his teeth and gums are in sound condition, the bristles of his toothbrush will be swarming with millions of organisms. This filthy condition can be kept down to some extent by the use of antiseptic toothpowders and pastes, but a still more effective method has recently been devised, which will render the brush absolutely sterile. The handle of the brush is made hollow and can be unscrewed from the brush proper, forming a receptacle into which the brush may be inserted. Inside the handle a disinfectant is kept which will sterilize the brush. The brush sealed in its hollow handle makes a very convenient package for travelers who now have difficulty in keeping their brushes out of contact with dirt. The Supreme Court and Unfair Competition.--The Supreme Court in the case involving L. E. Waterman Company and Modern Pen Company among other things said that when the use of his own name upon his goods by a later competitor will and does lead the public to understand that those goods are- the product of a concern already established and well known under that name, and when the profit of the confusion is known to and, if that be material, is intended by the later man, the law will require him to take reasonable precautions to prevent the mistake. The Commissioner of Patents on Compulsory Licenses* THERE Is agitation growing largely out of the conditions created by the war, in favor of the introduction of compulsory license and compulsory working of patents in this country. The embarrassments of the present situation are perhaps most keenly felt in the dye and drug trades. I shall not undertake to minimize the difficulties, but they certainly do not sill arise out of our patent system. The difficulties are economic. They are very acute in Great Britain in spite of provisions of her patent system which we are urged to adopt. If all of the patents now held by Germans and not worked in this country, relating to chemicals used in these two trades, were thrown open to the public, it would involve a large investment of capital to prepare to manufacture these chemicals here. At a conference held in the office of the Secretary of the Interior shortly after the war began, the statement was made by an expert in the dye trade that it would require about $100,000 of investment per color to supply the market of the United States with dyes. The point was made then and has been frequently made since, notably in the Journal of Industrial and Hnr/ineerinff Chemistry of November, 1914, that protection against resumption of competition from Germany, in excess of what is now provided by the Tariff Act, is essential. I shall not discuss the tariff, but limit my discussion to proposed changes of our patent laws. The first thing to be considered is that compulsory working, revocation, and compulsory license must be made applicable to all patents granted in this country. It has been proposed to limit them to patents granted to foreigners. We had a somewhat similar provision in our law from 1836 to 1870. But the entire body of treaties known as the International Convention which have been negotiated since that time are based upon the fundamental provision of Article 3, that "The subjects or citizens of each of the contracting countries shall enjoy in all of the other countries of the union . . . the advantage which the respective laws now grant, or may hereafter grant, to the citizens of that country." This article embraces not merely patents of utility and design, but also trade-marks. Any departure from this convention would render nugatory the work looking to enlargement of trade which has been done in connection with these treaties during more than thirty years. In addition to the International Convention, we have a special treaty with Germany, proclaimed August 1st, 1909, which has been liberally construed by the Germnn courts in favor of American citizens. We may, I think, therefore dismiss all suggestions that these new provisions be limited to foreign patentees. ? recent report transmitted by our Consul General at London, dated October 22nd. 1011. states that at the end of 1912, after the Act of 1907 had been in operation in Great Britain for five years, about $50,000 per week was being paid in Great Britain as wages in factories established because of the compulsory working features of that Act, and that by the end of 1913, $10,-000,000 had been spent for factories and equipment. This sum divided over five or six years is not very impressive, but leaves ample room for the argument that the disturbance of the patent system introduced by this compulsory feature outweighs the pecuniary advantages assuming the latter to be entirely genuine. In Great Britain a curious result has been evolved by judicial construction. Among the cases reported in the IV uni ruled Official Journal is that in the matter of Ilatseheks's patent (1900 Journal, page 228). Here Mr. Justice Parker held that the question is not whether the market of England is supplied mainly or satisfactorily by manufacture of the invention conducted in England, but whether England as one of the great commercial nations of the world is enjoying her fair share in the manufacturing and marketing of the invention. See what a vast field such a conclusion opens. The endeavor to investigate the trade of the industrial world in any patented article, and the question what proportion Great Britain is entitled to in view of her standing as a manufacturing nation, would involve, if adequately gene into, a record which would make the Seiden record look like a Webster's spelling book alongside of one of his unabridged dictionaries. Tn an address before the Board of Trade last June, Mr. Levenstein, to whose efforts the. passage of the requirement of the compulsory working was largely due, while claiming that the prospect of benefit from this section was bright at the start, frankly admits that it has been a failure. He attributes this not to the difficulty which I have pointed out above, but to an opinion expressed by Mr. Justice Parker, also in the Hatscheks case, to the effect that the burden of proof that the manufacture is carried on mainly or exclusively outside of the United Kingdom must be borne by the petitioner for revocation. Mr. Levenstein says: "The mischief, if I may call it so, became at once apparent. While we had about seventy-three applications up to the end of 1009, there was one patent revoked in 1910, and in this instance I suppose it was revoked because of no defense. Tn 1911 no proceedings were reported. In 1912 there was one application, and in 1913 there was one revocation." In Germany during earlier times they had a drastic compulsory working enactment, but since 1911 the working clause has been substantially identical with the clause in the British statute. I am not informed specifically as to how it has worked in Germany. But DuBois Raymond, an eminent German authority, in his paper published in the Report of the Investigation of the United States Patent Office (1012, pages 434-435), says: "I do not know of a single instance in which a firm, to comply with the working clause of a foreign patent law, has started a bona fide work shop to supply the market of the country governed by such law, and it stands to reason that in the great majority of cases it would be commercially much more rational to abandon the foreign patent and endeavor to maintain, without patent protection, whatever footing in the market had been gained." As to the compulsory license provisions of Germany, Great Britain, and Canada, it is a well-known fact that up to the time of the outbreak of the European war, at any rate, they have not been applied. Dr. Osterrieth in his paper published in the Report of the Investigation of the United States Patent Oflice (1912, page 379), states that this clause in the German law proved most ineffective, "as no single case of revocation on this ground has been known." In Great Britain almost no applications have been made for compulsory licenses. There is no such case reported in the whole volume of the Illustrated Official Journal for the year 1909. Later reports show that the same state of affairs existed down to the outbreak of the European war. In Canada also no compulsory license has ever been granted. One reason unquestionably is that without the free co-operation of the inventor and patentee, it is impracticable to operate under a license because of the difficulty of manufacturing on a commercial sen le anything with the development of which one is not familiar. There is another objection which is, I think, even more important. If a compulsory license provision is to be effective it means a new class of litigation respecting property which is almost fatally burdened with litigation under present conditions. If it is not to be of any practicable effectiveness, it of course should be avoided. It will necessarily reduce the value of patents. The mere prospect of increased litigation would insure this result. Moreover, the policy of compulsory license raises a question of the theory of compensation of patentees which I think will almost certainly result in great hardship. Let me cite, by way of illustration of my point, the famous drug known as "606." This number means that there had been 606 experiments, 605 of which failed to produce the desired result satisfactorily. This is an exaggerated case, doubtless, but it is characteristic of invention-development that the losses incident to failures which precede the final success are large. Yet when the compensation of the patentee is to be determined, he must, in order to defend his property, present all of the failures and their bearing upon the development of the invention. The chances are far more than even that in the end the rule will be merely to grant fair compensation for the enjoyment of the final successful invention as if it had been struck off at a blow. It will certainly be very difficult to induce a court to grant return on what will be looked upon as junk. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR LANE recently announced the discovery by the United States Bureau of Mines of two chemical processes, one of which, it is claimed, will be of tremendous importance to the oil industry, greatly increasing the supply of gasoline, while the other will give the United States the important materials necessary for the dye industry and the manufacture of high explosives used in warfare and in engineering operations. The first of these processes promises to enable the independent refiners in this country to increase their output of gasoline from petroleum 200 per cent or more. With an estimated production on the part of the independent refiners of 12,000,000 barrels of gasoline in a year, this will mean an output from the, independents alone of 36,000,000 barrels,, greater than the total production to-day from all sources. The second process includes the manufacture from crude petroleum of what is known chemically as toluol and benzol, both of which have heretofore been obtained from coal tar. As Germany has specialized far beyond other countries in by-products from coal, the United States and the rest of the world have been dominated by that country as regards those products of toluol and benzol which are the important bases for the production of dye stuffs and high explosives, and especially smokeless powder. The discoverer of these two valuable processes, after many years of research, is Dr. Walter F. Rittman, chemical engineer of the Bureau of Mines, the work having been done at Columbia University, New York, the facilities of the laboratory there having been turned over to the Federal Government by President Nicholas Murray Butler. It is claimed by Dr. Rittman that his process is safer, simpler and is more economical in time than processes now in use, and these are economic factors of great importance. With a steadily increasing demand for gasoline for automobiles, motorboats, and engines, this fortunate discovery comes at the proper time. It is but two years ago that the automobile industry, fearful that the supply of gasoline might not be adequate for its rapidly expanding business, offered through the International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs, a prize of $100,000 for a substitute for gasoline that would cost less than gasoline. Happily the urgency of this situation has passed and at the present time there is a plentiful supply of motor fuel to meet immediate demand. This new process adds to the hope, that in spite of the wonderful growth in the use of gasoline, there may not be any shortage in the future. It indicates an increased production of gasoline from the present production of petroleum--an output of 50,000,000 barrels instead of 25,000,000, as under the present methods. It will render free for use to all, the results of that efficient and intelligent research which has heretofore been only at the command of the wealthy. When it is realized that the gasoline industry each year in this country yields products amounting in value to between $100,000,000 and $150,000,000, the importance of this discovery is seen. Among necessary ingredients of high explosives used in modern warfare toluol and benzol are in the first rank. Heretofore these products have mainly been obtained in Germany and England from coal tar, and the explosives manufacturers have had to depend largely on the supply from these sources in the making of explosives. Some toluol and benzol have been obtained from American coal and water-gas tars, but this supply does not begin to satisfy the present demands. The Federal Government now proposes to obtain the toluol and benzol from crude petroleum also. These products can be produced from practically any American petroleum by the Rittman process, and the supply can be made sufficient not only for the entire American trade, but also for other purposes. This process has gone far enough to indicate that the two products can be produced at a reasonable cost. Dr. Rittman concludes from his experiments that this process may become more economical than the German method of obtaining these products from coal tar, as this process not only makes toluol and benzol, but also gasoline in considerable quantities. He has intimated the possibility of the value of the gasoline being an important factor in paying the costs of the process. The Current Supplement ????? important subject of establishing a definite uni-* versai standard for determining horse-power and the making of accurate measurements of power is fully covered in the article on The Relation of the Horse-power to the Kilowatt in the current issue of the SCIENTIFIC AMEBICAN SUPPLEMENT, NO. 2045, March 13th, 1915. The Rural School and the Hook Worm contains valuable information in relation to a subject of great importance. The Defense of Belgium by Inundation gives an interesting description of that portion of Belgium where the German advance was checked by the opening of the dikes. The Educational Scrap Heap is a most valuable discussion of one of the most important educational problems now confronting us. Gyrostatic Action describes a number of gyrostatic devices available for controlling moving bodie.s, especially as applied to aeroplanes, submarines, and automobile torpedoes. The use of a powerful electromagnet for removing particles of metal from wounds and the eyes describes an invention of great value both in peace and war. Deformation of the Earth by the Moon discusses a most interesting but difficult problem and some of the methods of solution. The consideration of police departments from an engineering standpoint is in the line of a more scientific and practical handling of criminal matters. The Strongest Vault in the World describes the remarkable structure that was installed in the new banking house of J. P. Morgan & Co. Theories about Thunder adds considerable information on a familiar subject. Some timely information in relation to trinitrotoluene, the explosive so largely used in military operations, and popularly known as TNT, is given in a short article; and there are notes on the comparison of the silver and iodine voltameters.