An interesting branch of American manufacture, is that of Spool Cotton Thread. This is exhibited in all the processof the manufacture from the raw cotton to the finished thread by Green & Daniels, of Providence, R. I. The first process is the carding, which is done in thp ordinary way of cardinal- cotton. It is then drawn in the usual manner,and then taken to a lap machine ,consisting, essentially, of the old-time railway head, with drawing rolls attached. This machine is very compact, and, we are told, is the best machine for the purpose now in use. It is strictly an American machine. The cotton next goes through a process called combing, on a machine called a combing machine, the only machine of foreign construction employed in the work. This contains eight thousand needles, the action 'If which upon the cotton gives it a peculiar silky, light, and gauzy appearance, and the operation of combing may be considered as the finishing operation in preparing the cotton for thread; all the subsequent operations tending directly to the formation of the thread itself. The cotton, after combing, is drawn three times, and then spun into roving not larger than wrapping twine. It is now spun into yarn of wonderful fineness and uniform thickness, on a ring spinning frame. It next passes to a doubler, and iS laid up in two or three-ply, as desired. From this machine it passes to a twister, which speedily reduces it to a fine and beautiful cord. These cords are then twisted on another frame to make a three or six-cord thread, as required. It is next reeled into skeins, then bleached, when it is ready for spooling. The spooling machine is a small but pretty machine, on which the winding is done with great celerity. The thread is now ready for market, except packing, etc. The finished thread shown is of excellent quality, and its applicability to sewing-machine work is demonstrated by its use on a sewing machine in the same inclosure with the machinery for manufacturing the thread. This display excites much interest in the visitors to the fair, and is a fine feature of the exhibition. Adjacent to this inclosure stands a CIRCULAR LOOM jor weaving twilled shade line, used for hanging pictures, window shades, etc. This loom weaves a texture which covers a strong central linen cord. The outer texture is of wool, silk, or cotton, or mixtures of these materials. The peculiarity of this loom is, that the shuttle stands still and the warp travels. It cannot be well described without diagrams hut it is a very mgenious, compact, and beautiful machine. It is exhibited by Palmer&Kendall, of New York. S. R. Parkhurst, of Newark, N. J., exhibita a BURRING MACHINE, with patent steel ring feed rollers adapted to dear all grades and qualities of wool, even the most difficult Mestizo. Ho also exhibits a newly constructed d ouble-cylind er WOOL AND COTTON PICKER, which, it is claimed, will pick, dust, bur, oil, and mix the wool ready for the cards at a single operation. He also exhibits a Double-cylinder Cotton Gin, improved by the addition of d°uble cylinders and connected with a steel brush, and an endless slotted apron to convey the cotton in the seed to the gmning cylinders,thereupon securing the seeds and conveying them away from the ginning parts of the machine. It is claimed that this gin will separate the seed from 700 lbs. of cotton per hour, without injury to the staple. A METALLIC WASTE CARD, for working or reducing yarn, thread waste, and soft flannels to wool is shown by Chaa. G. Sargent, of Graniteville, Mass. These machines He, in principle, carding machines, clothe 266 Jdmtifit Smttifau. [October 23, 1869. with strong, sharp-pointed steel teeth, so adjusted as to work on the twist of yarn or thread waste—combing or teazeling out gradually, the twist holding the fiber of wool together, and forming it into a thread. This gradual removing of the twist by the combing or carding process, leaves the fibers of wood composing the thread waste long and strong, with nearly the original length of staple. This gentleman also exhibits an improved machine for cleaning fibrous materials, essentially the same patented by him in 1861. Chapin&Downes, of Providence, R. I., exhibit a double-cylinder longitudinal GIG, which, among other advantages that have caused its extensive adoption, is arranged to work on broad or narrow goods, gigging two narrow pieces in the same time, and with as much facility as one broad piece. C. L. Goddard, of New York. exhibits a patent Steel Ring Burring Machine, attached to a wool-carding machine. A peculiar feature of this machine is the solid packing rings, which are whole, like the steel rings, and make the cylinder permanent and solid until worn out. The same gentleman exhibits a mestizo wool-burring machine, which combs open the wool by a comparatively slow and harmless process, and removes the dust, Mestizo,and all other burs, or other extraneous matters,at the same time, oiling the wool. H. W. Butterworth, of Philadelphia, Pa., exhibits a warp dryer,which, however, has not operated at any time we have been at the Fair as yet. It looks, however, like a good” machine. The Empire, Heddle Works, of Stockport, N. Y., exhibit one of their patent heddle frames, which might, from the adroitness of its movements, be almost jancied to be alive. It forms the eye in a new manner, making the twist next the eye so tight that the finest warp of woolen, cotton, or silk can not enter. It gives any requisite shape or size to the eye,and sharp angles, at the ends, are avoided. Both the machine and the heddles it makes, elicit much favorable comment. These are, we believe, all the machines on exhibition connected with textile manufacture, and our readers will doubtless agree with us, that the display is very meager. It certainly does not properly exhibit the progress made in the manufacture of such machinery in the United States. There is a fine display of machinists' tools in the machinery department, though it cannot be called a very extensive one. It, however, pretty fairly represents the present status of the manufacture iu the country. The machinery of this kind is placed in inclosures allotted to the various manufactures. Three prominent manufacturers are represented, and we will notice the displays of each separately. Hewes&Phillips, of Newark, N. J., exhibit a Planer which will do work 2-J- feet in width or hight, having nothing novel except the belt-shipping lever, by which lead is given to either one or the other ot the belts at will. A saving in wear of belts is claimed for this arrangement,and ease in taking apart and putting together. The belt shippers are supplied with gibs which can be replaced when worn. This firm also exhibit a 12-inch upright boring press, evidently a good tool. The pattern is new. The head can be raised and lowered independently of the feed, 'which is utomatic. It has a peculiar arrage- ment of back gear, the head is balanced,and there are other good features. They have, also, on exhibition, a 6-inch slotter, a very compact and powerful machine, and a 20-inch lathe, 12 feet long. All these machines are handsomely finished and their designs are good. A peculiarity of the machines made by this firm,is eccentric gearing on all t11e tools where a quick return is desired, by which they secure a quicker return than any other similar machines exhibited. They have, also, in their inclosure, an 84-inch gear cutter, which, though presenting, perhaps, no novel features, is worthy of remark for its general excellence. Wm. Sellers&Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., exhibit a 10-inch lathe, 13 feet in length, with a very novel and interesting feature. The feed gear for ordinary turning is composed of friction wheels, so arranged that, by a lever, which the workman operates with the left hand (the right hand remaining free to operate the other parts of the lathe), the feed may be. slackened or accelerated at will, without any alteration in the speed of the lathe. This feature will give increased facilities in certain kinds of work, and the device is generally admired by the many experienced mechanics who witness its operation. This lathe has also a system ot back gear by which a perfectly positive motion is attainable when desired. Sellers&Co., also show a powerful 48-inch slotter, with compound table, a shaping machine, for small work, and a bolt cutter, all of which are well known to the mechanical world, and need no special comment from us, except that they fully sustain the enviable reputation of this firm. They also exhibit several sizes of the celebrated Giffard injector, with a model showing the internal construction of this para'oxical instrument. Also, a 25-inch planer, of a very simple construction, and, in every respect, praiseworthy. The shafting which drives” these machines is supplied with oil from Wickersham's American Oil Feeders, manufactured and exhibited by J. B. Wickersham, 143 Front st., Philadelphia, Pa., which have not only received the indorsement of Sellers&Co., but many other prominent mechanical engineers throughout the country. Wood, Light&Co., of New York, exhibit a bolt cutter which has some novel and valuable features. This machine is so constructed that the dies close accurately to a certain point, so as to form, in effect, a single solid die. When the cutting is done, these dies open automatically, and the bolt is shot out. It cuts threads of any length, always true to the body of the bolt,and all the bolts made by the same dies will be exactly alike. All the movements of the machine are automatic, the attendant's duty being merely to keep the machine in order and supply the blanks as wanted. The same firm exhibit a shafting la^he which attracts much attention and elicits much favorable comment. This lathe employs three cutting tools, and finishes a shaft at a single operation. A longitudinal trough is made in the bed of the lathe, and in which a solution of soda is placed, this fluid being pumped up and poured constantly upon the shaft at the point of cutting. This lathe, and the bolt cutting machine exhibited by this firm, and the lathe exhibited by Wm. Sellers&Co., combine more novel features than anything else among the machinists' tools displayed.' Outside of these inclosures are scattered about a variety of machines and implements, some of which we shall notice in the present article. There are on exhibition a considerable variety of drop PRESSES, blanking PrESSES, PUNCHES, drop HAMMERS, ETC. Charles Merrill&Sons, of New York, exhibit an Air-spring Forge Hammer, and a Drop Hammer. The air-spring hammer runs with little noise, and, by a peculiar arrangement of the cylinder and piston, the hammer is driven by air springs, which saves the machine from jar,other than the blow on the anvil or work . The cylinder and hammer moving, in vertical slides, each blow is square, exactly in the same place, and some kinds of die work can be forged as exact as under a drop, with greater rapidity. It is under the perfect control of the operator, and can strike light or heavy, slow or fast, as desired. T.ue drop hammer is so constructed that the operator can raise and drop the weight from any hight in the slides, can stop the weight after it begins to fall,or can let it settle down slowly. Parker Brothers, of West Meriden, Conn., exhibit one of their highly finished and excellent power presses, which are favorably known to the manufacturing public as the Fowler Presses—an excellent tool, as we know from experience. Mays&Bliss, of Brooklyn, N.Y.,exhibit a beautiful Double- action Power Press, very strong and compact, of easy adjustment, with the feed rollers so'constructed as to carry off all scrap metal. It is claimed that this machine will cut and bur 60,000 blanks in ten hours. The Farrell Foundery and Machine Co., of Waterbury and Ansonia, Conn., also exhibit a Double-acting Press, of very compact form, which cuts and draws sheet metals into cup- shape at one operation. This is an excellent machine and deserves special notice. Post and Goddard, of New York, exhibit an improved Erne- ery Grinder. This machine was described and illustrated on page 324, last volume, of the Scientific American, to which the reader is referred. It may be bolted to a bench, the frame stand consisting of a single casting, containing bronze boxes for the spindle. It has nsts, which can be readily set on the side or face of the wheels, and removed when not wanted, the whole forming a neat and convenient arrangement. This firm also exhibit various sizes of their Tanite Emery Wheels in connection with the above machine. The New York Tap and Die Co. exhibit a fine collection of taps and dies,and the American Standard Tool Co. show a case of beautiful Twist Drills, arranged on a revolving platform. These drills are so well and favorably known that they need no praise from us. Any mechanic, who examines them, will pronounce them excellent. Nathan&Dreyfus, of New York, exhibit their patent Self- Oilers and Engi ne Cups, composed of a transparent glass cup, mounted in Britannia and brass, provided with a hollow tube, inside of which is placed a loose-acting solid wire, which acts as a feeder and regulator. The wire rests constantly upon the journal, thereby acting with the bearing in its motion. The wire is so regulated inside the tube as to feed according to the demand only. There is no flow of oil whatever while the machinery is not in motion. Charles Parker, of New York, exhibits an extensive line of his patent Parallel Vises with recent improvements, amrng which we notice an adjustable collar/which causes the jaws to open or shut, upon the slightest movement of the handle. There is thus no lost motion ; and again, if the shoulder on the screw should -wear, the collar can be so adjusted in a few moments that it will operate as readily as when new. Another improvement, is an adjustable spring so arranged as to hold the handle of the vise in any position or angle at which the hand leaves it,thus avoiding the pinching of fingers,which is of frequent occuirence,when the ordinary handle is in use ; and, again, if the workman wishes to hold any article, however slightly, he can do so, when, with the ordinary vise, the weight of the handle would either grasp the article too hard or release it entirely. There is, perhaps, no finer display in this department than the exhibition of SAWS, by B,. Hoe&Co., of New York, and the American Saw Co., also of New York. It would be impossible fortis to enumerate heie all the varieties of saws displayed. They are of all sizes, and of all shapes known to the saw tradefinished and mounted in superb style. Our readers are already aware of the distinguishing features of the saws made in each of these establishments as they have long been extensive advertisers in these columns. Their wares have earned a very high reputation. These' firms, undoubtedly, lead the saw trade in this country. Fine taste has been shown in the arrangement of their collections at the Exhibition, and they are greatly admired by all visiters to the department. The punching of the saw plates shown by the American Saw Co., is performed, we are told, by Ivens&Brooks' combined punch and shears, a model of which was shown us. It 1s to be regretted, that this fine tool was not shown in operation at the Fair, as it is certain that it would have made a most favorable impression. We take this occasion to say a word upon the electric ORGAN exhibited by Hall, Labagh&Co., of New York. The strains of this instrument attracted our attention as we were about to leave the building after taking the notes we have condensed into the present article. This organ was described on page 347, last volume^ of the Scientific American. It is the invention of H. L.Roosevelt, of this city. The inventor has furnished us with the following particulars in regard to it: “ The keyboard is detached from the organ at a distance of about twenty-five feet, though it might as well be- removed to the distance of twenty-five miles, excepting for the necessity of the organist hearing his own performance, since we know from from recent scientific investigations that the electric current will travel a mile almost instantaneously. The only connection between the key-board and the body of the organ is a bundle or rope of flexible, insulated copper wires, which may be carried in any direction without injury, and there is no pull or strain on these wires, as they are merely the passive means of conducting the electric current. ” The source of the electric current is an ordinary ' single fluid ' battery, placed in any convenient position, composed of a series of jars containing a mixture of sulphuric acid and water, and in each jar is suspended a plate of carbon, in company with two plates of zinc, connected in the usual way by copper wires. From one end of this series of jars, a copper' wire proceeds to the keyboard; and, if we take the case of a single key, for example,when it is pressed down by the finger of the player,we shall find this wire so connected that it forms an unbroken circuit and proceeds from the keyboard onward to the body of the organ, where it is coiled around a soft piece of iron shaped like a horseshoe,and thence returns from the organ to the other end of the battery. 'When a wire is connected with both poles or ends of a battery the current passes and the piece of soft iron becomes a powerful magnet; but the moment the current is broken, by disconnecting the copper wire, there is an instant loss of power. When the key of the organ is not touched the wire is not connected and the curren't passes ; but on pressing down the key a metallic contact is formed, the electricity darts along the circuit and the electro-magnet, becoming at once excited, pulls down the pallet or opens the valve in the wind chest, admitting air to the organ pipes, and, with lightning speed causes them to speak. The couplers are applied and the stops drawn upon the same principle." We also noticed, in passing, some specimens of artificial stone, manufactured and exhibited by the New York Stone Works, Bandman&Hollman, 75 William st., New York. This stone is a conglomerate sandstone, artificially produced, and is molded into large blocks for hydraulic structures, and also into floor tiles and ornamental architectural work of all kinds. The exhibitors claim, that this stone is superior in strength to any natural sandstone found in th.e United States, and that it will not scale like the brown sandstone now largely in use for ornamental building. It can be given any color or shape desired, and is twenty-five to seventy-five per cent cheaper than natural stone, cut into the requisite form. It can also be molded into statuesque forms. American Manufacture of Machine Twist.—An error crept into our report on the Silk Department il: our issue of October 9. It was there stated that the machine twist made annually in the United States amounted to a quarter of a million dollars. It should have been a quarter of a million pounds, the value of which would be fully three millions of dollars.
This article was originally published with the title "The Exhibition of the American Institute" in Scientific American 21, 17, 265-266 (October 1869)