A Goose-neck ONE of the handiest tools in working around a house or small shop is a goose-neck, such as shown in the accompanying sketch. It is practically a small crowbar, pointed at one end to form a pinch .bar and. returned at the other end to form a claw which can be used for A goose-neck. pulling nails or small spikes. It is easily made, inexpensive, can be used in many ways and will be found especially useful in moving stones or other heavy objects, prying timbers apart, opening boxes, wrecking small buildings and in a hundred other ways in which a small, easily handled crowbar can be used to advantage. A New Range Finder THE accompanying illustrations convey a very fair idea of the appearance of the Barr and Stroud range finder, at present used in the British army and now undergoing a series of tests by officers of the United States army, stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, with the view of determining what advantages, if any, it possesses over the Weldon instrument as used by our own government. The principal claims of superiority of the Barr-Stroud finder over other instruments of similar nature are its portability, absence of all delicate mechanism, ease of manipulation and the fact that it obviates all necessity of the services of more than one man to establish a measured base. The invention of the range finder was the outcome of a public advertisement, issued by the British War Office in 1888, for an instrument which would fulfill certain specified conditions. In the working out of the design for the finder it was sought to make the accuracy of the instrument, so far as possible, independent of the precision of such mechanical parts as micrometer screws or any delicate mechanism which might become worn or deranged through hard continued service. This has been accomplished by the employment of a translatable deflecting prism to which the scale is directly attached. As originally produced, however, the range finder fell ' far short of fulfilling expectations, due principally to the difficulty of making the optical parts, which are of exceedingly novel design. It was only within the past few years, when the quality of optical glass procurable had reached such a state of perfection, that the instrument was accepted. In construction, the range finder consists of two telescopes of twelve powers each incorporated -in a common tube, something over two inches in diameter, leather covered and dosed at both ends. The light through each telescope is admitted through a square-shaped aperture near each end of the barrel, the lenses contained therein being protected from dust and other injury by a steel sleeve rotating over the aperture. The light admitted through these apertures is directed hy means of - reflectors along the inside of t .he tube to the eye-piece. The whole arrangement is such that the combined telescopes may be simultaneously directed on the same target, the range finder forming the base of the triangle, having at its vertex the object, the range of which is determined by measuring the parallax. The operation is exceedingly simple. To make an observation the observer grasps the handles and directs the instrument toward the object whose distance is to be ascertained, holding the range finder horizontal with the line of object. In the right eye-piece are placed two mirrors separated by an extremely narrow horizontal line. Supposing the object selected is a flag staff, the picture presented to the observer will be that of a broken column the upper part of which has been moved to the left. In the case of looking at a tall building, the picture shown resembles nothing more than one brick overlapping another. This distortion is due to the lack of coincident focus between the two telescopes; that portion of the image shown in the upper half of the field having been formed by the left hand telescope, while the lower portion of the image is formed by the right hand telescope. The next procedure is to bring these broken lines into plumb, which is accomplished hy means of a large screw. having a milled head placed near the tripod head and so situated that it may easily be manipulated by the thumb and forefinger of the right hand while grasping the handle. This screw, when turned to the right, causes the upper half of the image to move to the left and its parts to separate; when the screw is turned to the left the two halves of the image are brought together, so that the perpendicular lines coincide at the dividing horizontal line and all distortion disappears.- When this is done the correct distance may be read through the left eye-piece, where a series of figures in yards appear on the surface of a wide disk, the scale having moved according to the direction in which the operating screw head was turned. It will be seen therefore that the correct range always depends upon bringing the two hal res of the image into exact alignment at the line separating the two mirrors. The advantages claimed for the finder are: First. Only one observer required. Second. The range of moving objects can be continuously observed. Third. It is not essential in the types suitable for infantry and cavalry that the instrument be level when taking observations. Fourth. It can be used at night to take the range of distant lights. Fifth. Rapidity of operation—30 seconds or less being all the time required for determining a range. Sixth. It can be used from cover and from a prone position so that the observer's whereabouts are not disclosed to the enemy. These range finders are made in sizes varying from those having 15 and 12 foot bases, for use on ship board and in sea coast forts, to an instrument with a 4 foot 6 inch base, for field artillery, down to those intended for infantry and cavalry, having bases of only 32 and 26 inches. It is the last and most portable model which may be carried in a case and slung over the shoulders that officers are now experimenting with at Fort Sam Houston. Its length over all is only 30 inches and its weight 774 pounds. The instrument may be used mounted on a light tripod or it may be used while standing erect with the aid of a light steel rod, the base of which rests in a socket carried in a belt and supported by shoulder braces, or by lying in a prone position upon the ground. The claims as to ease of manipulation coupled with accuracy appear to be well founded. Upon one day of the tests a civilian spectator was asked to find the range of a building, distant nearly three miles. Within about In seconds he ;•• nounced a result, which was only 140 feet out of the way, according to the calculations made by Col. Brown himself. Another spectator, measuring the distance across the parade grounds to the barracks, gave the correct reading (392 yards) at the first attempt. A Gasoline Tank and Pump for Automobilists MANY automobile users install gasoline i tanks with pumps, in their yards, adjacent to their private garages. In some places the local fire regulations require that the tanks, when installed, be located a given number of feet from any building. The writer's attention was called to a cover and guard for the pumping devices of such a tank which protects the pump .and prevents any unauthorized person from tampering with it. It consists of a box, open at the bottom and of such size and shape as to fit over the pump. Near the bottom of the box are two opposite slots, A, reinforced by metal plates B and a holt C, with a head at one end: an opening near its other end is passed through the slots A and secured by a padlock. This bolt C passes when the box is fitted over the pump below a bar E which extends between the filling pipe F and the dispensing or pump pipe a of pumps of the Bowser type, and so locks the guard box over the pump. The box, such as shown, has been in actual use for several months and has proven satisfactory in every respect. Notes for Inventors Cloth Pinions.—Cloth pinions are highly successful devices for reducing the noise and increasing the life of power transmission gearing. Metallic gearing, especially steel, is always more or less noisy in operation, the noise becoming >,»> ii-i:i:n\;, troublesome in the case of high speed gear trains. Furthermore, iron or brass gearing has not sufficient elasticity to successfully withstand the shocks or back lash caused by the torque variations incident to the operation of machine tools sueh as punches, shears, planers, etc. In order to overcome various kinds of non-metallic i:i.:;i:i r.-_ such as rawhide and paper, have been used instead of brass and cast iron for one or more mem bers of gear trains. but the results have heen only partially successful. As a rule pinions made of such substances were not sufficiently impervious to moisture or unaffected by exposure to heat, a.nd in the case of rawhide were liable to injury by rats and mice when kept in stock. In the doth pinions developed by a prominent electric company, these defects are entirely eliminated, both by the nature of the material and the method of construction employed. The blanks from which the pinions are cut consist of a filler of cotton or similar material confined, at a pressure of several tons to the square inch, between steel “shrouds” or side plates, the whole structure' being held together by means of rivets, or, in case of very small pinions, by threaded sleeves. After the teeth are cut, the cloth filler is impregnated with oil. Cloth pinions are entirely impervious to moisture, unaffected by changes in atmospheric conditions, and ;,!,-«>!>.i.-',> vermin proof. Cloth pinions have a wide range of application. They are particularly suitable for use on the shafts of back geared motors employed for driving lathes, planers, drill presses, shears, punches, and other machine tools; for loom and spinning frame drive in cotton, silk, worsted, carpet, and textile mills in general; for operating pulp and paper mill machinery; for driving printing presses, and for the valve, ignition and timing gear trains of automobile and other types of internal combustion engine. The Deplorable Fertility of the American Inventor.—At a recent meeting of the National Electric Supply Jobbers, an address was made by one of the members, deploring the fertility of the American inventor, which, it is claimed, makes-material antiquated before it can be disposed of by sale. It is necessary to purchase material in quantities in order to get much of a profit, but before this can be disposed of there are new devices and features on the market which are preferred to earlier patterns. Why not devise a new selling system instead of damning the inventor? Perhaps some thoughtful inventor will help this human back-number out. Another Lamp Filament Patent.—Carl Auer von Welsbach has just secured a patent on the manufacture of electric lamp filaments. The process provides for eliminating the gases occluded in filament containing a metallic oxid and osniium by slowly bringing the filament up to a temperature sufficient to drive off the gases, but below the reduction temperature of the oxid, and finally increasing the temperature to white incandescence, and partially reducing the oxid. Recent Reissues.—On August 15th, 1911, four reissue patents were granted. In all four cases the reissues issued to assignees and the assignee in each case is a corporation, Battle Creek Patent Foods. — Three patents, No. 1,001,044, 1,001,045, 1,001,149, for food compounds, and one patent, No. 1,001,050, for a food product, have been issued to Dr. John H. Kellogg of Battle Creek, Mich. The compound of the first patent includes gluten, legumes and yeast products, while the second substitutes nuts for the legumes, the compound in each case being cooked into a homogeneous mixture of fibrous consistency and meat-like flavor. The compound in patent No. 1,001,149' includes gluten, potato and yeast products, while the patent 1,001,050 combines casein, gluten, oil and a yeast product, the mixture in each case having a meat-like flavor. Another Ozone Patent.—The distribution of ozone is the object of an apparatus patented, No. 1,001,038, to Frederic Georg Janich of Rheydt, Germany, assignor to Otto von Miihlmann of' Brussels. The apparatus comprises an ozonizer with a discharge conduit opening in front of the blades of a fan, with a funnel-shaped screen between the blades and the discharge conduit, a second screen being fitted to and spaced from the first screen and the conduit opening into the space between the screens. Blowing Bad Breath Away From the Dentist.—A dental appliance, providing means whereby a flat blast of air will be delivered between the face of the patient and that of the operator, thereby preventing each from inhaling the other's breath, has been patented, No. 1,001,362, to Charles W. Davidson of Jefferson City, Mo. A Woman Inv entor.—Women frequently invent devices for domestic use. This is.) true in the case of Mary M. Clarke of Des Moines, Iowa, who has secured a patent, No. 1,000,073, for a fish-scaling tool which has a handled scraper with a reticulated or wire screen guara extending in both directions beyond the scraper, ,the latter being shown as formed with a number of serrated scraping blades. Col. Krag in America.—Col. Krag of Norway, inventor of the celebrated Krag rifle, is making an extended visit to this country and called at the Patent Office in Washington and was shown the interesting features of that branch of the government. The great inventor is a man apparently in the sixties, well preserved, and is greatly delighted with the courtesy and the hospitalities which have been extended to him. The Government Advertises a Patent.— It is not often that a government publication exploits and advertises the sale of a patent, but a recent government publication, after describing an invention somewhat in detail, concludes with the following paragraph:"The inventor is on the point of ' selling his French rights in the invention, and application has been made for a United States patent. The experiments were witnessed by the editors of the three Havre daily newspapers, several members of the municipal council, and other authorities who signed a certificate of proof. A sample of the new........ will be loaned to interested firms which apply to the (giving here the name of the government office)." Synchronously Operated Musical Instru- ments.—Samuel S. Waters of Washington, D. C., has patented, No. 1,002,100, means for synchronously operating two musical instruments, in which a movable record for one instrument moves a member at a proportional speed and the record for the other instrument is caused by said member to move at all times at a speed proportional to the speed of the record of the first machine. The patent is assigned to the Aeolian Company of New York city. A Stand for Assembling Automobiles.— A stand for assembling vehicles, such as automobiles, has been patented, No. 1,001,619, to Howard E. Coffin of Detroit, Mich., and includes means for supporting the axles and the main elements of the frame separately and m their normal relative positions and means for lowering the support to disengage it from the assembled vehicle to rest the latter on its wheels so the vehicle, when assembled, can move off on its own wheels. General Electric Company Patents.— Among the patents i: >ued August 29th, 1911, °.ie eleven issued to the General Electric Company, the inventor;; including Elihu Thomson, Conrad Baumgardner, Fred B. Corey, Allen A. Tirrill, Howard R. Sargent and Kennett F. Kingwell. A New Pavement.—We do not always realize that the pavements we walk or ride on may be patented. A patent, No. 1,001,695, to August E. Schutte of Newton, Mass., is for a pavement consisting of a layer composed of stone, coated and cemented together with relatively pure Portland cement, with the spaces between th< coated stones filled with bituminous cement. A Gas-driven Locomotive.—In a locomotive patented, No. 1,001,703, by Arnold Stucki of Allegheny, Penna., is provided a suitable unit frame, carried by the 1oco-motive wheels, and this frame is provided with a continuous gas-producing apparatus and with an internal combustion engine, connected with the producer, adapted to drive, the locomotive wheels. An air pump is also carried by the unit frame and is adapted to start . the engine. A Queer Coffee Pot.—In patent No. 1,002,819, to Franklin V. Brooks of New York city, is shown a coffee-making device in which a coffee pot and a boiler, side by side, are pivoted so they can- swing to bring one or the other over a heating lamp. The boiler is held over the lamp until the water is transferred from the boiler to the coffee pot, when the weight of the water will operate automatically to swing the coffee pot to a position over the lamp. A New Kind of Box Kite.—Patent No. 1,003,062 has been issued to Albert O. Paulson of Los Angeles, Cal., for an air ship characterized by a pair of box kites fore and aft and connected together and mounted with an edge at the top and bottom and having the lower corners cut away to admit air. Horizontal sustaining surfaces are provided on each kite. Making Flour by Steam.—A new process of making flour or meal is presented in the patent, No. 1,002,990, to Charles Herendeen of Chicago, in which steam is injected into a mass of cereal to disrupt the starch cells, after which the mass is dried by passing it through blasts of air, and is then ground into flour or meal of any fineness. A Novel Amusement Device.—William C. Sanford of Ken t, Wash., has patented, No. 1,002,874, an amusement device in-j the form of a transparent barrel having a visible outlet, and an invisible outlet by which the receptacle may be emptied while the visible outlet is closed. The barrel is suspended by a number of lines and one of the lines is hollow and connects at one end with the invisible outlet, while its other end leads to a suction pump, placed out of sight, and which can be operated to pump the contents of the barrel. An Automatic Pile Cleaner.—For protecting piles, Charles N. Hubbard of Anacortes, Wash., provides in a patent, No. 1,002,847, a float, surrounding the pile so it will rise and fall with the tide, and a brush is connected with the float so it will move along and brush the pile as the float moves up and down. A quantity of a suitable preservative is carried by the float and conducted by pipes to the brush so it can be distributed to the surface of the pile. A New Twist Drill.—The Hoefer Manufacturing Company of Freeport, Ill., as assignee of Frederick W. Hoefer, has secured a patent, No. 1,002,846, for a twist drill whose shank is twisted alternately in opposite directions, the shank being so twisted from a flat bar. Legal Notes Conflict Between Commissioner's Decision and Bill in Equity.—The Assistant Commissioner of Patents, Mr. Tennant, has decided in the case of McIntyre v. Perry that where, after a decision on priority by the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, the defeated party files a bill in equity under the provisions of section 4915 Revised Statutes, the filing of such bill does not operate as a supersedeas of the judgment and that the issuance of the patent to the party who succeeded before the Court of Appealt! cannot be suspended pending the final determination of the suit. Invention Completed in a Foreign Country.—In affirming the decision of the Commissioner of Patents in the case of De Kando v. Armstrong, the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia has decided that where a party completed the invention in issue in a foreign country and knowledge of such invention was brought into this country and disclosed to others, the foreign inventor can derive no benefit from the work done in such foreign country and the disclosure of the invention- to others in this country is not equivalent to a reduction to practice of the invention, but is merely evidence of conception thereof. In concluding his decision, Mr. Justice Van Orsdel says: "The right of appellee to a patent cannot be superseded by any act of appellant's short of a reduction to practice prior to appellee's filing date. Had his foreign invention been reduced to practice here prior to that date, appellee's conceded lack of diligence would have been sufficient to have entitled appellant to the award of priority, but, inasmuch as his reduction to practice . abroad cannot be considered, appellee must be regarded as the prior Inventor." RECENTLY PATENTED INVENTIONS. These columns are open to all patentees. The notices are Inserted by special arrangement with the inventors. Terms on application to the Advertising Department of the Scientific American. Pertaining to Apparel. SKIRT MEASURER.—Mrs. Rose N. Firestone, Anthony, Kan. The object of this invention is to provide a skirt measurer and marker, by means of which the wearer may measure and mark the desired length of her own skirt, without assistance, and without the necessity of bending over, or disarranging the hang of the garment. The Illustration shows a side view of the improvement. Means provide for the skirt being brought against the marking material which results in the making of a transverse mark on the skirt. The skirt is brought back to - first position and the wearer then revolves the platform the desired distance, and makes another mark on the skirt. This process continues until the measuring and marking is completed. Of Interest to Farmers. BUTTER AND MILK MIXER.—C. T. Barton, Buffalo, N. Y. In operation a quantity of butter and milk is first placed in the body of the apparatus, the proportions being preferably a pint of milk to a pound of butter, and the dasher is then opera ted for the purpose of cutting up the butter and working them together, so as to merge- them and form practically one substance, or a butter compound which becomes solid the same as butter proper. Of General Interest. FERTILIZING SCALE POISON.—W. R. Kleckner, Bay City, Mich. This poison destroys all kinds of parasitical ' insects infesting various parts of fruit, forest and ornamental trees or shrubs and vines, and, further, operates to discharge food products directly into the sap, supplying an immediate stimulation and fertilization of all tissues and growing parts of trees, quickly correcting the failing activity and low vitality caused by the ravages of parasitical insects or by depleted and unsatisfactory soils. PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.—William G. MacArthur, 428 E. 148th St., New York, N. Y. This invention relates to an improved piano-player, an accompanying illustration of which shows it in a vertical section through a piano with the attachment thereon. An object of the invention is to provide a device which will be inexpensive to manufacture. strong,-durable and both quick and positive in its action. A further object is the provision of a piano playing attachment in which the pneumatic portion of operating mechanism Is attached directly to the keys, whereby a great saving in space and more positive and sensitive movement is obtained. PROCESS OF PICKLING.—A. Baumann. New York, N. Y. This process is for use in making edible and easily digestible salt pickles from green cucumbers, in a simple and economical manner, and reducing the loss of pickles, that usually become hollow and soft, to a minimum. The process subjects green cucumbers to the action of a brine formed of dissolved common salt, chemically pure hydrochloric acid and soda benzoate. PILE PROTECTOR.—C. N. Hubbard, Ana-cortes, Wash. The particular object of this device over that shown in the former patent granted to Mr. Hubbard, Is to provide a pile protector so constructed that the chemical compound used in protecting the pile may be carried to a greater depth than low tide, whereby the extermination of teredo and limnoria and other marine worms Is facilitated. STAMP HANDLING DEVICE.—R. W. Jones, Lincoln, Neb. This improvement has reference more particularly to a device comprising a casing constituting a magazine for the stamps, a guide member associated with the magazine and adapted to have the stamps passed along it manually, from the casing to the point of application of the stamps, and a moistening device for wetting the adhesive of the stamps before they are applied. TRAP.—T. H. taylor, Luzerne, N. Y. The intention here is to provide a trap for trapping animals. Use is made of a fixed toothed jaw constituting a base, a swinging jaw mounted on the toothed jaw, a tripping rod for engagement with the swinging jaw, and a tripping plate on the fixed jaw and adapted to be re-leasably engaged by the tripping rod. COUPLING FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES.—C. H. Wilson, Red Oak, Iowa. An object of this inventor is to provide a means for uniting two pipe sections together in such a manner that there will be a positive and tight . joint between the different sections, and it has for a further object the disposition of this coupling means so that they are not exposed to the weather and are thereby protected from any rusting action. FORM FOR PRODUCING ARTIFICIAL TOOTH CROWNS.—E. R. Stevenson, Oakland, Ore. In this, case the improved tooth form being hollow is adapted to receive a plug or other device adapted for expanding it, and thus, by using different sized plugs or expanding devices, the form may be enlarged cir-cumferentially so that several sizes of crowns may be produced by means O'f one form, and also the shape of the form may be changed to a certain extent, by using plugs differing more or less in contour. BAKER'S OVEN ATTACHMENT.—R. L. GillispiEj, New York, N. Y. In this instance the improvement pertains to an attachment for a baker's oven. in the form of an inlet, whereby access may be had to the interior of the oven in a most convenient and readily accessible manner by means which can be readily controlled, and which will be simple and inexpensive. GUN LICENSE CERTIFICATE HOLDER.— O. R. Duncan, Jefferson, Iowa. The purpose here is to provide a license certificate holding receptacle which is attached to the gun so that the hunter may be certain to have the license certificate with him every time he takes his gun to go hunting. The receptacle is attached to the barrel by a clamp having two arms which are curved and are disposed against the outer side of the barrel or barrels, the clamp arms being held against the gun barrels by a screw member. ATTACHMENT FOR TRIAL FRAMES.—G. A. Griffin, New York, N. Y. The aim here is to furnish an attachment for supporting a smalleo lens substantially parallel to the trial lenses and adjacent the lower portion thereof, so that the eyes may be tested both for long distance and for reading at the same time, and the patient may know the advantages and operation of using a bifocal lens rather than 'having separate pairs of eyeglasses or spectacles for general use and for reading. Hardware and Tools. PICK.—(J. E. Carter, Reno, Nevada. Among the principal objects which the present invention has in view are : To provide a construction and arrangement of a pick to facilitate the replacement of steel points, and to provide a construction and arrangement which renders possible the carriage of a supply of renewing pick points adapted for attachment to the pick body or eye. MITER BOX.—J. g. Wortham, Tullahoma, Tenn. This box consists of a bed, which may be widened or narrowed to conform with the dimensions of the work, a swinging arm supporting and carrying the saw guide, and capable of being lengthened and shortened, to correspond with the positions of the bed sections, and an adjustable back, together with a scale for indicating angles assumed by the .arm. DUST PREVENTER FOR STONEW0RKING TOOL'S.—W. M. Holden and E. M. Tobin Barre, Vt. To avoid several objections' this invention is devised, and consists of a fluid discharge pipe having an extended atomizing outlet, and a liquid supply member arranged to discharge on the said outlet, the above pipe ordinarily leading from the exhaust of the tube, with the extended atomizing outlet of spoon form. PENCIL HOLDER.—A. B. Coffin, Apache, Okla. Among the principal objects which the present invention has in view are : to provide a simple, economical and efficient form of pencil holder for pencils, fountain pens, and articles of a similar character ; and to provide a holder light in construction and adapted for easy attachment to the clothing of the user. LOCK.—Y. Q. Caldwell, Paris, Tenn. Although the form of this device is that of a padlock, it may be utilized in other forms of locks such as trunk locks, or similar devices. An object of the invention is to provide a device strong and durable, because it consists of relatively few parts. Owing to its peculiar construction it is difficult to pick, and the parts may be easily assembled or disassociated. HASP LOCK.—Y. Q. Caldwell, Paris, Tenn. An object of this improvement is the provision of a combined lock and hasp, which does away with the necessity of the use of a padlock pr other means for securing the hasp to the staple. It is in the simplicity of the lock and the elimination of a multiplicity of parts that the merit of this invention lies, as well as in the fact that these few parts are strong and durable and are not liable to get out of order. Heating and Lighting, JOINT AND COUPLING.—B. W. STOUFFER, Pittsburgh, Pa. This improvement provides a joint and coupling, more especially designed for use as a swing joint, socket joint, coupling or other gas fixture, and arranged to permit of conveniently placing the joint or coupling in position on any desired fixture without the aid of tools and without danger of leakage or the parts becoming accidentally disassembled or separated. Household Utilities, DUMB-WAITER.—E. N. Hallett, Canton, Pa. In this case the invention provides a pantry closet on a dumb-waiter so that when food is placed on the shelves of the closet the dumb-waiter may be lowered through an opening in the floor of the kitchen to the cool air of the cellar. A supporting frame is constructed on the waiter so that when it is lowered with the frame, the working parts are disposed below the floor of the kitchen. VENTILATOR.—W. F. Gulnerich, Meri-den, Conn. This invention has for its principal objects to provide a ventilator adapted to be attached to a window, and to permit the ingress of air into the interior of a building without causing a draft, at the same time keeping out all objectionable foreign matters and substances, and to provide such a ventilation with means for regulating the influx of air to the desired extent. Machines and Mechanical Devices, WAVE 'MOTOR,—A. W. Dowe, Camden, N. J. This invention provides means to avoid the destructive operation of the elements incidental to storms; provides a construction which receives and transmits the full dynamic power of the surf or waves at the shore libe; and provides a machine the power or full efficiency of which may be augmented to a large degree by multiplying the motor units indefinitely. HINGE MECHANISM FOR THE COVERS OF LOOSE LEAF BOOKS.—F. L. Impey, 19 Barwick Street, Birmingham, England. This mechanism is for use on leaf books or binders of the type in which the covers are pivotally connected at their rear edges to clamping bars by which the leaves are bound in position, the covers being connected together by leather thongs, which pass through the damping bars and are tightened or released for securing or liberating the leaves by mechanism arranged within one or both of the covers. WEiLL DIGGING APPARATUS.—C. B. Martin, Portland, Ore. The invention refers to apparatus for digging wells, and for forming bores in the earth, and has reference more particularly to apparatus comprising a casing adapted to be advanced to the core as it is formed, a drillJhead associated with the casing and means for conducting fluid pressure to the drill head to cause it to advance into the earth. GREASE CUP.—Frank L. Treese, care of R. S. Hauley, 1808 11th Ave., Altoona, Pa. An object of this invention is to provide a cup for holding hard grease of a semi-fluid nature with means for forcing” the grease through a feed opening. A further object is to provide a| device which may be readily filled and in which grease cup. the cover forms a guide member for the stem of a movable plunger or piston. Again, the aim is to provide a cup of maximum capacity, owing to the fact that part of the mechanism for exerting a pressure on the grease is disposed on the exterior of the cup rather than on the interior. The illustration gives a perspective view of the device in operative position. ADVERTISING DEVICE.—H. R. Kiessig, Sacramento, Cal. The object here is to provide a device for continuously operating that class of advertising devices known as “Chinese puzzles,” or “Jacob's ladders,” and consisting of a plurality of plates or panels, so connected that when the topmost panel is severed, the other panels will be reversed in succession from above downward. VENDING MACHINE.—C. S. Hardy, San Diego, Cal. The purpose of the invention is the provision of a device which will dispense accurately measured quantities of liquid, without the necessity of an attendant, and which will be operated by the liquid, under pressure. A further object is to provide a device wherein the amount dispensed may be varied, by varying the capacity of the pump. DEVICE FOR ELEVATING WATER, MERCURY, OR OTHER LIQUIDS.—James R. Hall, Winnfield, La. This invention relates to means for raising water, mercury or other liquids to a higher level. It is an improvement over that disclosed in a prior application of Mr. Hall. The main object of the present invention is to increase the turning, effect by the use of impact wheels instead of troughs, the motion of the wheels being communicated to the revolving frame so as to increase the rotative movement of the latter. MACHINE FOR EXTRACTING ESSENTIAL OILS FROM CITRUS FRUITS.—Walter A. D. Allport and Thomas J. W. C. Davenport, Roseau, Dominica, British West Indies. This invention provides a machine for extracting essential oils from the outer rind of citrus fruits, such as lemons, oranges, liines, etc., and arranged to insure a continuous operation, thus permitting the handling of a large number of fruits in a given time, and insuring complete extraction and gathering of the oil without injury to the 'fruits. VACUUM STOCK THICKENING AND WASHING MACHINE.—T. E. Warren, Ticon-deroga, N. Y. This invention pertains to paper-making machinery. The aim is to provide a thickening and machine arranged to separate water from fibrous material without the loss of the finer fibers and other minute particles, to produce a stock of uniform consistency and to permit convenient adjustment for producing a stock of a thicker or a thinner consistency, according to the nature of the fibrous material to be treated. STOP VALVE AND TAP.—J. T. Sheldon, “Olgate,” Fernhill Street, Fernhill, New South .Wales, Australia. The purpose of the inventor is to provide a simple and effective means of preventing the escape of water, steam or other fiuid normally controlled by a valve, when the cover thereof is removed, in order that the internal parts and mechanism may be withdrawn for examination, replacement or repair. AIRSHIP PROPELLER.—Homer A. King, P. O. Box 474, Colton, Cal. The invention illustrated by the accompanying engraving has for an object the provision of a novel form of propeller having a double set of blades, one set mounted on a rod and the other set mounted on a sleeve carried by the rod, the propellers being oppositely inclined, and being ' AIRSHIP PROPELLER. arranged to revolve in opposite directions. A further object is to provide an auxiliary propeller, which is designed to give a motion at right angles to the first named propellers. Another object is to provide means for operating the propellers simultaneously, and for throwing the auxiliary propeller out of gear when desired. DRESSER FOR BAND SAWS.—F. P. Smith, Baypoint, Cal. This improvement provides an attachment to the usual grinding machine, the operation of which results in removing the burr at the edge of the face of the teeth, and to reduce the teeth to the same spread; provides means' for dressing the sides of the teeth subsequent to grinding, and to accomplish the same automatically, and to shape the sides of the teeth to conform with the set thereof, and provides means for regulating the pitch and spread of the grinding members. Railways and Their Accessories, NOISELESS RAILROAD CROSSING.—Alfred D. Danziger, 204 Carondelet Street, New Orleans, La. George Guilbault, inventor. Where two railroad tracks cross each other it is necessary to channel the upper bearing portions of the rails in order to permit the car wheel flanges to pass over. The wheels cause noise and shocks or blows on all the parts, which loosens the connections. The invention noiseless railroad crossing. overcomes these objections by providing each rail adjacent the point of intersection with a pivoted lever, there being a pair of intersecting levers at the intersection of two rails. A bell-crank lever is pivoted to each first-mentioned lever as in operative relation with a sliding block adapted to engagement with the other intersecting lever whereby the car wheels pass over the top of this lever and do not engage the channels of the rails. A railroad crossing provided with this invention is shown in the illustration. RAIL FASTENER.—W. Vandercook, Jr., P. O. Box 465, Lake Charles, La. The object of this inventories to provide a means for holding the rail to the tie, and to prevent the so-called “creeping” of the rail, due to the movement of the rolling stock over the rail and to expansion and contraction. The device may be described as consisting of a plurality of rail fastener. pairs of gripping jaws, one member of each pair arranged one on each side of the rail, and operated by the longitudinal movement of the rail. The arrangement of ribs substantially parallel with the length of the tie, and with the grain of the tie, prevents any lateral movement of the anchor plate,. and the spikes at the plate corners assist in this as do the center spikes . The engraving is a plan view of a portion of the rail provided with the improvement. Pertaining to Vehicles, COMBINATION PULLEY, FUNNEL, AND STRIPPING JACK.—Tresham F. Hutchings, Stony Ford, N. Y. The principal object which the present invention has in view is to provide a device constructed to permit being used as an auxiliary pulley, a funnel for filling a water combination pulley. or gasolene tank, and means for stripping a tightened wheel from the axle bearing, The view shown in the accompanying engraving represents a vertical cross section of an automobile wheel and the axle thereof, showing a pulley constructed and arranged in accordance with the present invention as operatively connected therewith. When the pulley is not employed, it is removed from the axle, and carried as a separate tool in the body of the vehicle. It may then be used as a funnel for filling the tanks. Note.—Copies of any of these patents will be furnished by the Scientific American for ten cents each. Please state the name of the patentee, title of the invention, and date of this paper. 'A9A SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 7, 1911 Better Than Nails After fitting the corners of a picture frame or the joints of other light work, have you ever ruined the whole thing by splitting it with a nail ? Then you've had need for For, of course, glue won't split the weakest wood. Yet a square inch of glue makes as strong a joint as three six-penny nails do. And is just as handy as nails or string. Put up in air-tight bottles, it positively cannot dry out. The last bit you scrape from the bottle with the metal spreader is as good as the first. With the metal spr ader you can us glue in places where you couldn't use a brush. and without muss or wase. Get a bottle today and put it with the hammer and saw. Send. too, for our booklet — “Glueism.” Giv s 101 uses for g Iue in our new bottle and patent collapsible pin sealing' tube. RUSSIA CEMENT COMPANY We inanufarture Glues (hard m-liquid) in, hulk fir all industrial ^ur-}xaes. 54 Essex Avenue Gloucester, Mass. Library Slips with every Bottle and Tube. RUBBER Expert Manufacturers Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS&CO., 288-290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. In use by the United States Army Checks the muzzle blast, preventing report noise and recoil. Wonderful aid to marksmanship. Makes rifle practice possible anywhere. Attaches to any rifle. Write make, model and calibre of your rifle (giving dealer's name). We will tell you what Silencer you nee1 price, etc. MAXIM SILENCER, Hartford, Conn. MOP MATERJAfc. CAUTION TO . , PURCHASERS OF TOPS Pantasote is a top material of recognized high and uniform qual ity and a product made only by us. Many unscrupulous dea I e r s misrepresent as PANTASOTE cheap inferior materials to increase their profits—at the purchaser's expense. To the average person these substitutes when new look somewhat like Pantasote. To prevent fraudulent substitution insist upon the label as shown above dealers receive these labels free with every yard of Pantasote, leaving no excuse for not us.ng them. Unlike “Mohairs” and similar products. PANTASOTE can readily be cleaned. It is not affected by benzine. gasoline or other cleaning fluids. In this respect it is absolutely unique and alone. Send postal for booklet on top materials and samples THE PANTASOTE CO. M!.Bmfe GYrt NEW BOOKS, ETC. Handbuch fur Heer und Flotte. En-zyklopadie der Kriegswissenschaften und verwandter Gebiete, herausgege-ben von Georg von Alten, Generalleut-nant z. D., unter Mitwirkung von mehr als 200 der bedeutendsten Fachautori-taten. Vollstandig in 108 Lieferun-gen reichillustrierten Textes mit far-bigen Beilagen, Karten, Planen, Gefechtsskizzen usw. Deutsches Ver-lagshaus Bong&Co. The financial aspects of modern warfare are considered in the present instalments, Nos. 34 and 35, of the Handbuch. Excellent tables are published, which show the rise and fall in military expenditures during the last few decades. It is particularly interesting to study the influence which actual warfare has had upon the expenditures. The whole article is a warning against thoughtless comparisons; inasmuch as all statistics based upon different facts. In the article on the French army, a very complete and accurate description will be found of the geography of France in its relation to French military affairs, French railways and fortresses, French cable and telegraph lines, and the history of the French army. The discussion of the army itself begins with an excellent review of its development from the time of Charles V, and concludes with an exhaustive description of its present status. It enumerates the difficulties that beset the commanding officers, and shows on the basis of numerous bles, the composition of the peace and war footings; the organization of the naval arm of the service ; the military budget and character of the uniforms. French naval and colonial affairs are treated in the same manner. Flying machines also find a place in these two instalments, treated, of course, from a military standpoint. Seeing Europe by Automobile. By Lee Meriwether. New York: The Baker&Taylor Company, 1910. 12mo.; 415 pp. Price, $2 net. The author once wrote a book on how to see Europe on fifty cents a day, but he has evidently been blessed with a change of fortune in the last quarter century, for now he travels in a two-seated, 28 horse- power roadster, but the passion for traveling cheaply has been far from being quenched by comparative The author details with great precision the distances traveled and the things seen. It is an instructive book for all those who are thinking of taking the trip. There is an excellent map in the back. It is well illustrated. Characteristics of Existing Glaciers. By William Herbert Hobbs, Professor of Geology in the University of Michigan. New York : The Macmillan Company, 1911. 8vo.; 301 pp.; illustrated. Price, $3.25 net. Prof. Hobbs discusses his subject under three heads, mountain glaciers, Arctic glaciers. and Antarctic glaciers. It is his contention that a mistake is made in treating of glaciers as if all were governed by the same laws. lie prefers rather to emphasize the fact that the laws governing their nourishment and depletion are far from identical. The division is broadly made between those glaciers which cover completely a large portion of rock surface, having the form of a shield or flat dome, and the remaining types which may be designated as mountain glaciers. Small ice-caps occupy an intermediate and transitional position between these two types. The language and treatment is rather technical, but will well repay the slight study necessary for the layman to understand its terms. Since, as we are reminded by Sir Charles Lyell, “The present the key to the past,” the study of glacial conditions never fails to create enthusiasm and broaden the understanding. The Science of Currency and Centralized Banking. By Herbert D. Miles. New York: Rand-McNally Press, 1911. 16mo. ; 47 pp. The author is an ardent champion of the Aldrich plan, which he designates as a work of genius, profound, far-reaching, yet simple and sincere. He reviews the banking systems of the world, compares and contrasts the European credit instruments and discounts with those of the United States, and proceeds to an examination of American methods, their relation to gold reserves and their efficiency in crises. The treatise exhibits some clear thinking and much ability for condensation. It aims to give the gist of what has recently been issued by the National Monetary Commission through its various published papers. Concrete Monuments, Mausoleums, and Burial Vaults. By A. A. Houghton. New York : The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company, 1911. 65 pp. Price, 50 cents. Among the new industries opened up by concrete, that of monumental work offers a large and profitable field. No. 6 of the “Concrete Worker's” series goes at length into the construction of monuments, mausoleums, and burial vaults, citing their points of advantage and giving the plainest directions for their construction. The Illustrations include a variety of artistic designs. -Notes _____ and Queries^ Kindly keep your Queries on separate sheets of paper about such mat- ters as pa ten rs. subscriptions. bool^ etc. This will greatly facilitate answering your questions, as in many cases they have to be referred to experts. The full name and address should be given on every sheet. No attention will be paid to unsigned queries. Full hints to correspondents are nrinted from time to time and will be mailed on request. (12546) F. B. T. says: A short time ago I bought a barometer, which appears to be a very good instrument, but its action is a little puzzling, and I wonder if you can give me a helpful suggestion. The only time that the barometer has gone up to 30 was during the extremely wet weather we had a few days ago; and in the dry season which we experienced during the summer, it ranged around 29'h or thereabout. It has never gone much below 29 in spite of the fact that we have had some very heavy storms. I notice in the daily paper that the government barometer at the Springfield armory seems to agree fairly well with mine in its reading, but in that case, it would seem to me that the lettering, which I have noted, is very misleading. I had the impression that a low barometer stormy, bad weather and a high barometer fair, dry weather. I would be gilad to have you give me any either through your paper, for which I am a regu lar subscriber, or by mail, as you may prefer. A. The words Stormy, Rain, Change, Fair, Very Dry, have no meaning whatsoever upon a barometer, and it is very strange that they should be still pla ced there, since every maker of instruments knows that they are without meaning. The figures around the circles are inches of mercury. In good weather at the sea level “the barometer will be found to indicate about 30 inches. A barometer tes the approach of a storm, a rising barometer indicates the approach of continuance of good weather. A barometer the of the present state of the weather, good or bad. A rapid rise or fall indicates high winds. If you live about 9OO feet above sea level, the barometer will be one inch lower than it is at the same time at sea level, and at 1,650 feet above sea level the barometer will be two inches lower than at sea level at the same time. If your barometer does not agree quite closely with the government instrument in the same neighborhood, it is probably out of order and should be tested. The high school in your city doubtless has a good barometer, and the teacher of physics there wilt be very willing to give you his assistance and advice in the matter. A barometer may be expected to change two inches or thereabout in extremes of weather. The best test for a barometer is to hang it by the side of a reliable barometer and compare the treading of the two for some weeks. (12547) R. N. M. says: Would you please give me a rule or formula for finding the capacity of a cylindrical tank when lying on its side for each inch of diameer ? I desire to make a gage so it can be read at a giving the number of gallons by each inch. The tank is 24 feet long and 9:l inches in diameter, with rounded ends, but for our purpose these ends can be considered as square with the diameter. A. There is no simple formula for the volume of the successive “layers"' of liquid as the tank is filled. There are tables in the pocketbooks, ted from the. mathematical formulas, which give the area of segments in terms of the.area of the circle. The volume of your tank, 93 inches diameter, 288 inches long, is 93 X 93X 0.7854 X 288 —-------------= 8,470 gallons. 231 Now, to find the depth to which 100 .gallons will fill the tank, we must find the height 100 of a segment - of the area of the whole 8470 93-inch circle, or 0.0118 X area of circle. From a table of circular areas and segments (see Kent's “Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-book") we find that a segment having an area of 0.0118 times the area of the circle, would in a circle of l-inch radius, or 3.14 inches area, have an area of 0.0118 X 3.14, or 0.037 inch, and a height of O.073 inch. In a 93-inch circle the height of the segment would be 0.073 X 93 , {>r 6.78 inches; so that filling your tank to 6.78 inches depth will measure 100 gallons. Similarly, you can calculate (with the ai.d of the table) the heights for 150, 200, and all other numbers : of gallons, and make your scale accordingly. LEGAL NOTICES OVER 65 YEARS' EXPERIENCE rade marks Designs Copyrights £.c. INVE-STORS are invited to communicate with Munn&To.. 361 Broadway, New ' ork, or (i-J3 F Street. Washington, D. C” in regard to securing valid patent, protpction for their In-ve n t ions. Trade-Marks and Copyrights registered. Design Patents and Foreign Patents secured A Free Opinion as to the probable patentability of an invention will be readily given to any inventor furnishing us with a model or sketch and a brief description of the device in question. All communications are strictly confidential. Our Hand-Book on Patents will be sent free on request. Ours is the Oldest agency for securing patents; it was established over sixty-five years ago. MUNN &. CO., 361 Broadway, New York Branch Office. 625 F St.. Washington. D. C. A TrVTC SECURED OR FEE A I E N I C RETURNED D Free report as to Patentability. Illustratt-'d Guide A Book. and What To Invent with Li st of Inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for inventions sent free. VICTOR .T. FlV ANS&CO .. Washington, D.C. Classified Advertisements Advertising- in ibis column ia 7.) cents a line. No less than four nor more than 12 lines accented. Count seven words to the line. All orders must be accom-psmied by a remittance: BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES YOUR FACTORY AT TULSA will command the Middle West. Natural gas power only$2 to #5 H. P. per year. 26.00 population. Ample labor, materials. Great oil and. coal fields. On large river. Four trunk railways. Sixty three thriving factories already. li'or further particulars write Industry, Bureau of Information. Tulsa, Oklahoma. GOOD BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY. - For sale, a well established business, manufacturing and stlhng a spf'cifilty rapidly coming into general use. A nice, clf an, interesting business which can be expanded indefinitely. No special manufacturing experience necessary. since present trained a'"'d reliable help can r d h i e i tu any young ma who can command $15,000. Address “ Pennsylvania,” Box 773 New York. PATENTS FOR SALE n wondbeater.Patent issued Septembers, 191L lor fall particulars, write Frank Koch, patentee. Arndt's Hotel, Saginaw. Michigan. HELP WANTED. WA NTED—A man orwoman to act as our information renorter. All ur spare time. No experiencenecces-sary. $50 to $00 per month Nothing to sell. Smd s amp for particulars. Hales Association, 6\-13 Association Bldg. Indianapolis, Indiana. LOCAL REPRESENT A i'lVE WAN'lED.-Splendid income assured riebt man to act as our reprf-sentative afi er learning” our businei:!ls thoroughly by mail. b ormer experience unnecessary. All we require is honesty, ability, ambition and willingness to learn a lucrative business. No soliciting or traveling. This isan exceptional opportunity for a man in your section to a-et into a big paying business without capital ana become independent for lite. Write a” once fr full parti.. ulars. Adr s e t Real Estate Company.L 378 Marden Build ing, Washington, D. C. WANTED. WANTED—One flrst-clat's marine engine and boiler draftsman, $5.04 per diem. A competitive e*xauiination will be held tor the above position October 1s. For further information address, Commandant, Navy Yard. Charleston S. C. WANTED. $25 00 capital with which to purchase several monoplanes of a well-known French make and st art an aeroplane factory. Have valuable patent covering this type of machine. Also manufacturing rights of a successful type of aeroplane motor. J. S. 125 East 23rd Street, New York. MISCELLANEOUS. INVENTORS. - We want an article of merit o1> royalty. Must be cheaply manufactured, household utility or novelty preferred. Address. with terms and particulars, Hercules Co., 311 Spring St. . Pittston, Pa. MOTORCYOL ES CHE Ap.-Send to- day for free catalog 01 new and used motorcycles. AI ..o motorcycle accessories and attachable nirtor outfits tor converting bicycles into motorcvcles ;;haw Manufacturing Company, Dept 24. Galesburg. Kans. GIN1'lENG Raising is tbe surest way to make Big Money on Little Capital. One acre will yield 5000lbs. Sels at $6 a lb. 1 will buy all y. u raise. Gro<;{s anywhere. R quires your spare time only. 1 f you are not satisfied with your pr sent income, write me today.. T. 1:1. Sutton, 780 Sherwood Ave., Louisville, Ky. MAKE BIG MONEY operating a Daydark Post Card, Machine. Photo postal cards made and delivered on. the spot in ten minutes in the open street. No dark room necess ry-- it does not require an experienced photographer to make first- class pictures. Pays a gross. profit of 500 per cent. rite-today for free sample andi catalogue. Daydark Specialtv Co.. Dept. 2 V, St. Louis. FREE-'TNVESTING FOR PROFIT'' Magazine. Send me your nam and [ will mail you this magazine: absolutely free. Before you invest a dollar anywhere —get this magazine it is worth $lu a copy to any man who intends to invent *5 or more per month. 'tells you how $1,000 can grow to $22.000 —how to judge different classes of investments; the Real Warning Power of your money. This magazine sir months free if you write today. H. L. Barber. Publisher, 42,3. '28 W. Jackson Blvd.. Chicago. I N QUIR Y COLU M N October 7, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 325 The Current Supplement TRUE economy is based, not on a mere policy of doing things cheaply, but on a systematic and scientific plan of controlling value received against price paid. How the Pennsylvania Railroad guards against loss by poor materials is told us in a valuable article in the current issue of the Supplement.— Prof. Turner's article on The Great Star Map reaches its sixth instalment. Bal-loonists have observed that to them the surface of the earth appears bowl-shaped. The cause of tins is explained by Dr. Charles Forbes of Columbia University. —The sewage purification industry is far from having become standardized, A new apparatus which has been found to give much satisfaction is described by our Berlin correspondent.—In a very excellent article Mr. A. J. Jarman gives practical instructions for the amateur, which will enable him to prepare and mount photographs upon watch lids and the like,—. The farmer will find in this number useful information regarding the construe tion of concrete silos. In these days of remarkable technical development and substitution of all sorts of artificial products for the natural, it is 'refreshing to note occasionally that for some particular purpose some simple product of nature is still found indispensable. The use of spiders' threads in optical instru ments is discussed by W. F. Rigge, who tells us how, on a certain occasion, an entire department of Creighton University Observatory was put out of commission for want of a spider's thread.—Many are the attempts made by amateurs to solve certain mathematical problems, such as the trisection of the angle. It is unfortunate that much ingenuity should be wasted upon such efforts, and discussion of this topic by N. P. Dupuis, should prove very beneficial in clearing up an unfortunate misunderstanding. The problems as ordinarily stated are incapable of solution, not because of any intrinsic bar to such solution, but because of the artificial restrictions imposed by the injunction that the problem shall be solved entirely by Euclidian methods. Remove this restriction and the problems can l')e solved without difficulty. Insist on this restriction and it can be proved that the problem is incapable of solution.—The influence of the mercury vapoi lamp upon the eye is discussed in a note by Dr. W. H. Williams.—We think of surgery as a destructive measure, which may remedy an ill by removing a part of the body which nature intended to be retained. Some of the newest uevelopments bear the promise of constructive work, in which a deficient organ is replaced by a healthy one derived from some external organism. This subject is discussed in an article derived from La Nature.— Some interesting new light has recently been shed upon the process of fertilization by' researches on the influence of radium upon the frog embryo. A short account of this work is given in the current issue. —From the fertile mind of Svante Arr-henius we have an article on the Fate of the Planets. The Disposition of Guns in the Dreadnoughts (Concluded from paffe 3181.) The second turret from forward is superposed, as is also the second from the stern, the object in each case being to increase the volume of fire along the line of the keel. The fourth turret from aft is also superposed above the third, but here the saving of length was the object in view, as these guns d'l not bear aft. (Fig. 12.) The only other six-turret “Dreadnoughts” with a 100 per cent broadside are the Argentine ships “Moreno” and “Rivadavia.” These vessels, with twelve 12-inch guns, have- four turrets on the middle line and two echeloned (Fig, 13). There has been, and probably will continue to he, much controversy as to which is the mare effective arrangement; but the fact remains that the “Wyom-ings” can cover an arc of 95 degrees on either beam with all twelve guns, while in the case of the Argentine ships this is 1 0 degrees less. For ten guns the respective figures are 120 degrees and 1 05 degrees, and for eight, 135 degrees and 120 degrees. The Brazilian battleships “Sao Paolo” and “Minas Geraes” have their guns arranged on a similai plan to the Argentine vessels, but the superstructure divides the echeloned turrets, which are therefore. not available on both broadsides. For practical purposes the French battleships “Jean Bart,” “Courbet,” “France,"- and “Paris” are similar to the Brazilian, two turrets being mounted forward and aft (with one superposed in each case), and two abreast amidships. (Fig. 13.) We now come to a striking variation in design. The German battleships “Rheinland,” “Posen,” “Nassau,” and “Westfalen” all have twelve ll-inch guns as their main armament; but they are so disposed in their six turrets that only eight guns bear on the beam. (See Fig. 15.) It was at first thought that this system was due to a misapprehension as to the system of naval tactics which the “Dreadnought” principle involved, but this is hardly borne out by the fact that the arrangement is being strictly adhered to. The, “Thuringen,” “Helgoland,” “Ostfriesland,” and “Oldenburg” are armed with twelve 12.2-inch guns apiece; but the distribution remains the same. Although, therefore, these ships carry as many big guns as the “Wyoming,” the latter is 50 per cent superior on the broadsides. The German vessels, with their twelve guns, are no better as line-ahead broadside fighters than the “Michigan,” the British “In-vincibles,” or even the 15,500-ton Spanish Espanas—leaving questions of speed and protection out of consideration. Curiously enough, the Japanese have also adopted this system, at least for their first two all-big-gun ships, the “Ka-wachi” and “Settsu,” for the distribution of the 12-inch guns in these ships is the same as that of the ll-inch and 12.2-inch in the German vessels. The average student of the naval war between Japan and Russia will be hard put to it to find any justification for this subordination of the broadside; and it is more difficult to understand since it has been reliably stated that all the data gleaned by the Japanese were- placed at the disposal of the British authorities. The same tactical data could hardly justify the “Orion” (Fig. 7) and at the same time excuse the “Kawachi” (Fig. 15.) Summarizing these, details, it will be found that the total number of heavy guns mounted in the 69 ships of the “Dreadnought” era whose details are known is 723, a total that could not have been attained with fewer than 181 ships of the pre-"Dreadnought” era. The ownership of the guns, as well as certain other details, is shown in the following table: . j Guns Mounted (Inches Caliber). | 0 i--;---------------- :n I '14-Inch 13.5-1n. 12-Inch. ll-Inch Countries. °0 ^____ E c5 a)' a.l d PJ 's -= ^ rri' ^ --' ^ —' 13 c^oc- O ^ O ^ o ........ cq s e « Great Britain. 88 27 ....... 104 104 21)2 238 United Stak> 12 10; 8 ) 20 100 100 Germany. .., 21; 9'..... .... 48 3-3 56 40 Italy........ 4 4............ 51 51 Russia........ 4 4 ... 48 48 France ... 4 4...... W 49 Spain....... 3 3.. _ 24 24 . . [ Argentine . 2 2.., I ... 24 24 Brazil . . 3 2.,. , ... 24 20 ..... Japan ____ 7 2.. . ' 24 ]6 ...... Austria..... 4 I 2...... i . . 24 24 . .. Turkey. 2,( ... . ! ' ' Chili..... 2 ' 0...... ; | _ ... Totals........ 100 69 20 104 543 56 Number of guns in three-gun turrets...... .. Ill Number of guns in center-line turrets. 20 104 407 20 _____I_I_ It will be noted that as the caliber increases so does the desire to place all the guns on the middle line. A Political Laboratory APOLITICAL laboratory has been established at Columbia University through the generosity of Patrick F. McGowan, ex-president of the board of aldermen, and will be available at once for the 150 students of politics at the university. Sufficient money has been given by Mr. McGowan to maintain the labora- There is an air of substance that distinguishes wearers of "CORRECT STYLES FOR MEN Absolutely correct styles, splendid workmanship, fine materials and trimmings unite to give these hats a tone that is instantly recognized. Wear guaranteed. Prices, $3, $% and $5. At your dealer's, or if he cannot supply you, write for Fall and Winter Style Book II , and we will fill your order direct from factory if you indicate style wanted and give hat size, your height, weight, and waist measure. Add 25 cents to cover expressage. We Makers of the Factories: Danbury, Conn. Niagara Falls. Ontario, Canada. 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Cheaperthan kerosene lamps, electricity or city gas! Saving will pay for the machine in a few months! Agents wanted everywhere in the United States and abroad! Machine of 25 light capacity, $125.00. Ctandard-GilletTe Light Co., 10 H Michigan St., Chicago, U. S. k LngineJ KEROSENE gasoline, distillate—any fuel oil. Cheapest Safest, Simplest POWER for Electric Lighting, Water System?, Vacuum Cleaner everything. Comnlete plans fur nished. expert advice. Adapted for basempnts-anywhere Women can operate. Comes complete. Ten exclusive revolutionizing features. FREE TRIAL No obli;! o t N sat f 10-yesir giiaruriliw. -It'u-givie ?h l / it .J'lOW. ELLIS ENGINE CO. 52 Mullett St. Detroit, Mich. . 3-12!!: BARKER MOTORS Reliable.-l)£ lo 10 H. P--Economical Their perfect operation and reliability are due tv common sense mechanical ideas and good construe-tion. While low in price, they are made of best materials with careful attention to details. C. L Barker. Norwalk. Conn. $60 GOES LIKE SIXTY SELLS LIKE SIXTY J SELLS FOR SIXTY GILSON GASOLENE ENGINE r Pumping, Cream arators, Churns, Wash Ma'lines, etc. FEES TRIAL ___ _ Askforcatalog-allsizes gilson mfg. co 808 Firi St. Font Washington, Wis. JAGER Marine -4-Cycle Engines Skillfully decerned and well bmlt. Single lever control, combining automatic carburetor with sp"lrk advance. Develops wide .speed ran!.!:e and re iability under most trying conditions Sizes 3to60h. p. Send for catalog. CHAS. J. JAGER CO, Franklin,cor. Batterymarch St. Boston. Mass. 281 AIRCRAFT—The World's Great Flying M agazine contains a complete review of everything taking place throughout the entire world in aeronautics TT contains the most beautiful illustrations from every quarter of the globe. It gives complete Records 1 and Stahstrcs of the movement from its inception. Its construction work is accurate beyond question, h describes minutely the newest types of flyers. It contains articles written by the most famous men connected with the Science of aerial flight. At the present time all progressive men are studying this great Itew art of flying. tj AIRCRAFT is generally recognized by the leading authorities on the subject as being the organ of the movement itself. q I TIS PUBLIS H E D M O NTHL Y Its subscription price is $1.50 per year, or $1.00 for eight months THE LAWSON PUBLISHING CO., 37-39 East 28th St., New York, N. Y. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 7, 1911 About Remembering By ELBERT HUBBARD FOR a long time I have been promising myself to write up my good friend, Mr. Henry Dickson, of Chicago, and I have not forgotten. Mr. Dickson is teaching a Science or System, which I believe is of more importance than the entire curriculum of your modern college. MR. DICKSON teaches HENRY DICKSON memory. America's Foremost And or- Good memory is necessa- ilyonM*movy-Tr»irjingaii4 to a|| achievement Priorip»lDick.oiiScl]ooiof ry to al1 achievement. M",mor?. Auditorium BoiM- I know a man who is a graduate of three colleges. This man is neither bright, interesting nor learned. He's a dunce. And the reason is that he CAN NOT REMEMBER. He can not memorize a date or a line of poetry. His mind is a sieve. Education is only what you remember. Every little while I meet a man who has a memory, a TRAINED MEMORY, and he is a j oy to my soul. The manager of a great corporation never misses a face. If he sees you once the next time he will call you by name. He told me how he did it Hestudied memory training with Prof.Diekson. He said a lot of nice things about Prof. Dickson, that 1 hesitate to write here lest my good friend Dickson object. i i i f wantto enlarge yourarm, youexercise it. The samewith your mind. You mustputyour brain through a few easy exercises to discoVer its capacity. You will be surprised how quickly it responds. Youdo not know when you win be calleduponto tell what you know; andthen a trained memory would help you. To the man orwoman whosememory plays tricks I recommend thatyou write to Prof. Dickson, and ifhis facts do not convince you. you are not to be convinced. Write today for FREE hooi/er and facts. Address. Prof. HENRY DICKSON 700 AUDITORIUM BUILDING CHICAGO RISK 25c It will be the best investment in smoking tobacco you ever made. Royal Flush Mixture It's the tobacco you have been looking for. Carefully blended—Pure, delicious and cool. 17vf-«*AA«*j!M«.«*«r H your dealer will not supply you, send EXiraOrainarY his name and 25c for large can. Send today and ask for FREE booklet: “How to Smoke o Pipe. “ I %: oz. 25c; oz. 50c; M lb. $1; 1 lb. $2 prepaid. E. HOFFMAN COMPANY, Manufacturers 175 Madison Street, CHICAGO lllBRlCATCSVo"? Anything *-:^:tw _ H8-124North Clinton St. B ESlI.Y II CO f.V!f.ioff.l>SA WIN THIS $1200.00 ! Thousands Already Won—Going on Daily TEN PEOPLE GET $40,000 They 7efl You How to Win. I IQTEM I £JtanL>mni]{N[jbrt pbotPE'pli'r) LIOIEl , ,;:.], . .-.I $ I i.'(>fr ,mr- month, S51..ri0 in 15 niiuuu SSOO In II dajat Knrstad i Aliiu-, sniirMtor) •SBl»lu»iF«elui StfvugnG<N. Y. telegrapher > $100 A Liily. Not a fftirvtale, faLo • r Ull::. 11111^. Imtproven absulut&Jy fcmo by Hworn statements,. Govern-meat pati-unaee, statesmen, judges, banfceTS. worlefs famed inattentions, Jocal rL'ieronvos. CuBi^nvtlilnir to in* veaLlerate. “1 I = i-= ai \r niuccj'-m&k-iji,7 = 11. I J'=.&>: controlled by a few—now opun to anj han :-1, induatri-ouanun or woman, JJig money made by mechanics* clerLaf farmer:** teachers, doctor*, latere, pflopl* troto. all walks of I . 1 a Es[M-rlcin'c, capHti I. h<::-ineas training unne^^Afiary* If on o»n own, operate and control same private enterprise thar, l>iYiuKhtWilH<m4l>a[.l(eir) In 73 days* Ot'Latt (minister) Roeera Uurvpyor) »28<r0[ J “til (tUerk }\ fcflSOOf J3<mrd (doctor) $2£O0) Hart) <fiiTjiic-r> &5.GQ0, Wfhlpit:Lt:r (minis- ' terl Itrsl 13 bourn. Hundreds ' sharing Bimilar prosperity— hanking money, hnvlng tames, ftutowmljilfls, flfl. JueJi Don't wonder, Sams appointment shouid nu»at&game money for yon—e&me power, prominence, dimilty, reeoept, influence, J$ise to big earninHH, wage freedom,, ownership anil private jooa-OpoJy. K'iitJuinH the rcanon UIap«]s all doubt. Wonderful, but true. Strange Invention given every home- a bath room for only - t- - = -= others cofltinjrS2fJ0, Abolishes tut^s, bowls, buckets, v>r*ttn ra^s, Hpon^eg. Turns any room into a. bath room wilii hut or cold running water. Think of ltl so energizes water, one RrtlJon ample; ck-nnseti almost automatical J.v; no p-Jumhf nir; no water-^ <"'fc*J eett-hr-ji'inj.. Gives cleansing, friction, mfiLinage and -*> ** shower baths. So Himpla child can operate. Truly mai-vcJouB* A modem hamB-huthinij withpnt drudifpry, inconvonienoe, musfl ot luggingwat*r, nlliiigtnbs, emptying, clpan- ing,7pu'ttinff away, ^fcould” anything be more popular f u'hink ofmHUons who want liath-rooniijl At aijjht peopJe ejnelaim: “There, there, tiiafawhat I've been lougiitu for.” Little wonder “Wilson I OS In 14 dajs; Hart, 1G in 3 hours. Think what tou uuuid do. Come— fall in. ]--—make a fortune. Don't Jet another get there first. Tour chance now to seen rft eielueive *n!e. Devoto all or BV'ire time* Means phenomcufll earnings: no competition fascinating, high-sraJ&bu&ineaa-&rdquo; edit given aetlve ulstrlbutQrtfi Send no nsuu-ey — inTeFtl-ate flrAt« ENERGIZE” ^<Jr^Tn Send to-dor far remarkable offer—It's valuable butfree. Address ALLEN MFG. CO,, 3391 Allen Building, TOLEDO, OHIO tory” for two years. Its purpose is to bring the students in contact with the documentary sources of information, and in addition to place the collection of materials at the disposal of the debating teams of the university. The laboratory will consist of a select library covering the field of American government and politics. Newspapers from all parts of the country will be kept on file for a certain period and afterward clipped and indexed. A large number of weekly and monthly magazines will be kept on file. Then there will be such books of reference as the American Year Book, the Cyclopaedia of American Government, Beard's Digest of Short Ballot Charters, a.nd the like. The laboratory will also contain a large number of federal, state, and municipal publications, which will include the Congressional Directory, Congressional Record, Labor bulletins, consular reports, reports of civil service commissions, the constitutions of all states, legislative manuals, sample ballots, election laws, and, in fact, everything that the student in politics needs. Special subjects will also be cared for as well and extensive collections 'in the field of politics will be made. A New Opportunity in Industrial Education THE first requisite of education should b e that it helps the b oy to make a livelihood. Whatever else it may do it should at least train him properly for some occupation. Education which thus ministers to self-support is attracting wide attention, and the need for the development of trade schools in all important industrial centers has become everywhere recognized. In this matter of trade schools, Boston merits particular attention as it is especially in advance in this direction. The most recent accession to the list of existing educational institutions is the New Wentworth Institute. This most important addition to the present educational facilities of the Commonwealth, which are so amply provided and so excellent in many other directions, furnishes new and very much needed opportunities in the industrial field where at present there are none. The new Trade School was founded by the late Arioch Wentworth, a citizen of Boston, who left over three and a half million dollars for the purpose of “Furnishing Education in Mechanical Art." The aim of the new school is to give young men practical instruction which will enable them to enter industrial life prepared to do and earn from the moment of graduation. These courses are for those who wish to become skilled and intelligent artisans and industrial workers, and also for those who wish to prepare themselves for more responsible positions in mechanical and manufacturing plants. "T'o furnish education in mechanical arts'' is the statement of purpose made by Mr. Wentworth tn his bequest. This phrase defines both the general field of education which the new school occupies, and it also defines with equal defi-niteness many of its essential characteristics. It is a school to furnish -i-tion in mechanical arts; in other words, a school to train young men for a higher degree of efficiency in mechanical trades requiring both skill and intelligence than they may attain through any opportunl-ties which are now open to them. The End of the British Naval Airship THE first naval airship built for the British government by Vickers, Sons&Maxim, at a cost said to be $400,000, was wrecked in Barrow in Furness on September 24th. It seems to have been ruined from the same-cause that brought about the destruction of so many Zeppelin craft, namely, the impossibility. of preventing the airship from being battered against its own shed when ' half drawn out. The new dirigible, which has been fully described in these columns, never really flew. It was taken out on May 22nd, but failed to ascend. The builders thereupon undertook to lighten it, and the Admiralty finally accepted it on September 22nd, Electricity Queen Mary's Fan. —An electric fan has recently been made by the General Electric Company for Queen Mary of England. It has been designed to harmonize with the royal toilet articles. It is mounted in gold, and is provided with an ebony switch. The fan will be used to dry the Queen's hair, after a shampoo. Electric Lamps Here and Abroad.— There are in Boston, says the Electrical Review and Western Electrician, the equivalent of 1,232 sixteen-candle power electric lamps per .thousand of population, in New York 859, in Chicago 730, and in San Francisco 660. European cities show much smaller figures, St. Petersburg having 440, Vienna 246, Paris 185, and London only 4. Electrocuting the Codling Moth.—The owner of an apple orchard in Spokane has constructed an apparatus with which he hopes to rid his orchard of the codling moth. He uses electric incandescent lamps, surrounded by a metal netting, which is charged with electricity. The moths attracted by the light strike the wire and are instantly killed. 'The cost of the storage battery and lamps is comparatively small. Electricity from Peat in Canada.—The Canadian government, wishing to arouse interest in the utilization of peat, has built a plant at Ottawa. and secured a peat b og of th ree hundred acres near Alfred, Ontario. The plant is equipped to make producer gas from tho> peat, which will be used in a 60-horse-power four-cycle gas engine, directly connected to a 50-kiIowatt dynamo. It is estimated that there are 36,000 square miles of peat in Canada, which would yield 28,000,000,000 tons 'of air-dried peat, which would be equivalent to 14,000,000,000 tons of coal. To demonstrate the commercial practicability of utilizing peat for power purposes a building adjoining the Ottawa plant will be fitted up as an ore-dressing laboratory and will be operated by the electricity generated from the peat. Wireless Telegraphy in the Congo.—A recent consular report states that within five years there will probably be 200 wireless telegraph stations in operation in the Congo. A Telefunken station is in operation at Boma, the capital of Belgian Congo, and a station of the French Ferrier type at Banana, the principal seaport. Each of these is of 1% kilowatts, but the latter will shortly be increased to 5 kilowatts. The Telefunken engineers expected to erect in September a 5-kilowatt station at St. Paul de Loanda, in the adjoining Portuguese territory at Angola, after which a station was to be established at Leo-poldville, on the Congo River. If these stations prove successful, an extensive series of stations will be erected all along the Congo and Kasai rivers. The French company expects in the near future to erect a station at Loango, French Congo, and later stations in all the French West African colonies. Electrical Fires in Chicago.—Some interesting facts gathered from the annual report of the city electrician of Chicago are quoted by the Electrical World. These relate to the electrical inspectors' reports on electrical fires in that city during the year 1910. A table is given to show that there were eighty such fires, with a total loss of $37,550, a small amount compared with the total Are loss. Of this amount, one fire caused a loss of $30,000, the' cause in this case being the breaking of a lighted portable incandescent lamp, the sparks from which fell into gasoline and oil on the floor. The next largest loss was caused by a fire due to sparks from a defective socket falling on chemicals. This defective socket was suspended over the chemicals by lamp cord extended through a metal hood. The loss was estimated by the inspector at $5,000. In all other cases the loss was comparatively slight. Of the eighty electrical fires, fifteen were due to low-tension wires short-circuited, nine to motor. burn-outs, seven to sparks from motors, five to overheated flatirons, five to wires grounded In conduits, four to low-tension wires grounded, four to defective rheostats, four to lightning, four to short-circuits at fixture outlets, four to breaking of incandescent lamps and the rest to a variety of causes. i;Cf /id” fmtrm"« ,11 ,-1iv Screw Cutting Automatic I ITHrC Cr™ F»d LillllLd For Fine, AccuraSe \f oris Send for Catalogue B SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 695 Water Street Seneca Falls, N. Y., U. S. A. SEBASTIAN LATHES 9 to 15 Inch Swing HigA Quality Low Prices Co/olog Free THE SEBASTIAN LATHE CO., 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati, O. The “BARNES” Positive Feed Upright Drills 10 to 50-inch Swing Send far Drib Catalogue W. F.&Jno. Barnes Co. \ (Established 1872) 1999 Ruby Street Rockford, Illinois THE MOST USEFUL PLYER MADE Drcp i'"r£ml F,t«H : Itaml ta tiruck till trOTH hftrtVV etorfc tru-fl unusual atreugLb. Jtfrt inkv w ]W In. Grip* TfflUlid or tftp*i:*d <j}.]e<:t*. EffecH™ piim wench. Hf>Jrt orini-n send jvt j-a$« aalahn, jfy, is-B. STAlCliETT CO.. AthoIt V.^s., U.S.A. THE BEST EQUIPPED SHOP For Mechanical and Electrical Manufacturing Special Machinery, Jigs, Tools, Repairs, Experimental Devices IH'.lenLuK and Cuiiiinvrt'lullziiifr n Sprcliitty THE UNIVERSAL TELEGRAPHIC COMPANY *Mttsai>« 1,1 Th. Itoirlniol Trlrcrniflilr Co. TUI/riflOrtP, 111*. Mannfartiinn« of Special Machinery, Metal lUcUlUldllUrillg Specialties, patented Devices, Dies and Tools, Stampings, Screw Machine Work. Model and Experimental Work. M. P. SCHELL MFG. CO. 509-511 Howard St. .... San Francisco, Cal. WAWTCTl To manufacture METAL SPECIALTIES, 20 year, experience in making Dies, Tools and Special Machinery. Expert work. Complete equipment. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS D.ut, 2, 412 So. Clinton Street, - Chicago. Ill. Patented Articles and Metal Specialties MANUFACTURED BY CONTRACT Stamping Dies, Metal Stampings and Screw Machine Work H. CARSTENS MFG. CO., 567cScr.tGo St. NOVELTIES 8r PATENTED ARTICLES By CONTRACT PUNCHINS DIES. SPECIAL MACHINERY. E.KONIGSLOW STAMPING & lOOL WORKS. CLEvE land. O. Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY .. . E.V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St.,N. Y. MECHANICAL-^ SUPPLIES in* MATERIAL Qf -il “In Hp. ;:.nrrn m tntm. and m::,f-i r mjwh sil WORK la ori*t. 132 MILK STH££T BOSTfiH Manufacturers of Metal Specialties, Stampings, Dies and Tools. Thirty Power Presses at your service. Hoeft&Company, inc. CHuIc;.Al°' 141-143-145 West Michigan Street, corner La Salle Avenue Corliss Engines, Brewers VILTER MFG. CO. 899 Clinton Street, Milwaukee, Wis. DURYEA BUGGYAUT u may simplicity with many. but for id (_[unjiil_i!y-you will use a Buggyaut. experiment lilicity and (liinUluv: _________________... "ITS THE ULTIMATE THING c:s ST DURYEA AUTO CO., SAGINAW, MICH. Your PATENTS and BUSINESS in ARIZONA Incorporate Laws the most liberal. Expense the least. Ho Id meetings. transact business anywhere. Blanks. By-Laws and forms for making stock fuil-oaid for cash. property or services. free. President Stoddard. FORMER SECRETARY OF ARIZONA, resident agent for many thousand companies. Reference: Any bank in Arizona. STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Box8000 PHOENIX, ARIZONA BIG MONEY FOR YOU Felling our metallic letlers for office windows, store fronts, and glass sig'us. Any one, nn put them on. Nice, pleasant business. Big demand everywhere. Write toby for fnje sample and full particulars. BIETAIJJC SIGN IF.TTEU to., 438 North Clark Street, Chicago BAKELITE (REG. U.S. PAT. OFF.) the new synthlitic substance of many applieations. Write for booklet.,. GENERAL BAKELITE COMPANY, 100 William St., New York, N. Y i and Bottlers' Macblnery October 7, 1911 "Red Devil” No. 024 Far Famed as a GLASS CUTTER MzY/zons ha'Ue heen sold It will cleanly cut a maximum number of feet of glass with a minimum effort — and the tool will prove it. “It's all in the wheel.” At all dealers. 10c. It's one of the “Red De'Uil” Tool Family. Smith&Hemenway Co. 150 Chambers Street New York City r-DON'T PAY TWO PRICES^ Save $18.00 to $22.00 on HOOSIER HEATERS&RANGES Why not buy the best when you can buy them at such low. unheard-of Factory Prices? THIRTY DAYt'l FREE TRIAL BEFORE YOU BI'Y. Our new improvements absolutely surpass anything ever produced. POSTAL TODA Y FOR OUR FREE CATALOG AND PRICES Hoosier Stove Factory 357 State St.. Marion. Ind. WELL DRILLING MACHINES Over 70 sizes and styles, for drilling either .deep or shallow weU in any kind of soil or rock. Mounted on wheels or on sills. With engines or horse powers. Strong, simple and durable. Any m echanic can operate them easIly. Send f\ir catalog. WILLIAMS BROS., Ithaca, N. Y. A Home-Made 100-Mile Wireless Telegraph Outfit Read Scientific Am^- ° lean Supplement 1605 for a thorough clear description, by A. Fred'k Collins. Numerous adequate diagrams accompany the text. Price 10 cents by mail. Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN&CO., Inc. 361 Broadway, Nevr York -n Z3- ,_,_ L Enormous saving of VhRtA^OXOgrapn time in makingtrac-ings from mechanical drawings. Circular free. THE LOXOGRAPH INSTRUMENT CO., Wilmington, Delaware , Solders and Soldering f1l If you want a complete text book on Solders and the art of Soldering, giving practical, working recipes and formulae which can be used by metallurgist, the goldsmith, the silversmith, the jeweler, and the metal-worker in general, read the following Scientific A merican Supplements: I I 12, 1384, 148 I , 1610, 1622, 1434, 1533, price 70 cents by mail. f1l Order from your newsdealer or from ( MUNN&COMPANY, Inc. 'Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York LEARN A TRADE BEYOUR OWN BOSS ly, 'big (WivinK work if you learn Elec. il Work, i'iumlmig', Bricklaying, Paint-ins and Decorating, by our praeticitl, personal nstniction. Act-.ial wort takes place ot books. We help graduates to good positions. Easy payments. Low Jiving expenses. Tools and lniiterials furnished free. Write to-day ior free cfit:ilncn« (101 M MIIOMI IIUI> ^ IIOCII x 60 V. Illinois Street thieago, 111. > 11 il te Wizard Repeating LIQUID PISTOL Mill stop the most vicious do man) without permanent injury. Per-tectlv safe to carry without danger uf kikage. Fires and recharges by pulling the trigger. I.uiuls ^fijn;. ~3 fromanv Liquid. No cartridges required. u™ Bii^h..t>iu one loading. All defers, or by mail, ;)Oc. Rubber' covered Holster, 10c. With Pistol, 55c. Money- order or U. S. stamps. No coins. 1'AllKEU, 9TEAUN9 4b 'CO., 298 Slii'ilielcl Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. r If you want to go somewhere—do something—be somebody—here's the chance. i Our complete, practical, easy-to-learn Ihome study course by mail, quickly solves the problem—if you will merely apply yourself during spare moments. We are one of the largest instruction-by-correspondence insti tutions in the world—enrolling thousands of students yearly. in all branches of Engineering and Business. TUITION PAYABLE ONLY OUT OF INCREASED SALARY, after you learn. Write for illustrated booklet: “GETTING A UNE C11* THE CIVIL ENGINEER.” It will tell you how. AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE Dept. 320 Chicago. Ill. Engineering A Sewer System for Tokyo. —A consular report from Japan states that the city of Tokyo will install a complete system of modern sanitary sewerage before the opening of the world's exposition, which is to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the crowning of the Mikado. Tokyo has a very large area in proportion to its population, viz., about 100 square miles; hence the installation of sewers will be an immense undertaking. The cost is estimated at from $17,000,000 to $20,000,000. The Dreadnought “New York.” —Fol. lowing the “Connecticut” and the “Florida,” the keel of the largest of our battleships, the “New York” has been laid at the New York Navy Yard on the same ways on which the two first-named ships were built, and excellent progress is being made upon the ship's floor. A touch of sentiment was lent to the occasion by the fact that the first bolt was put in place by the young grandson of the late Rear Admiral Sampson. The “New York” will be 573 feet long, 95 feet, 2 inches broad, will displace 27,000 tons, and will carry ten of the new and very powerful 14-inch rifles. Heat of Exhaust. —Experiments were recently made by one of the leading Swiss firms as to utilizing the waste heat of exhaust gases from internal combustion motors. In the present case the Sulzer-Diesel motor was used. Water is heated by the exhaust, and the exhaust gases are sent through a set of tubes placed inside a water tank. Air for various purposes can be readily heated, for drying ovens or other purposes. One of the main difficulties was to make the tubes of a suitable material so that the exhaust gases would not attack it. However it was found that certain special kinds of cast iron will serve the purpose very well. "Spotting” by Camera.—At present the ' fall of the shots in target practice is observed from the tops of the cage masts of our battleships and cruisers; the “spotter” noting through his glasses whether the shot falls short or over, or has a deflection to right or left. Lieut. Com. Cleland Davis, whose torpedo has been illustrated in this journal, has invented a method of spotting by the aid of the camera. The splash is photographed and in a few seconds the negative is developed. The necessary corrections in the range and deflection are then made, and it is stated that the operations are so speedy that there is practically no delay as compared with the present methods of spotting. Lubricating Oil Tests. —From the fact that it is a common practice to use lubricating oil again after filtering it, Messrs. Sabatie and Pellet found it of interest to see whether such used and filtered oil showed any great difference from fresh oil. Analyses showed tha following results. The density of the oil is somewhat increased, this being no doubt due to the evaporation of volatile portions of the oil. The flash point and combustion are a few degrees higher. About the same viscosity was observed in both cases. The acidity of oils is not changed, but the percentage of vegetable or animal oil ! in mixed oils is. considerably lessened. From a practical standpoint the used and filtered oil keeps all its lubricating qualities, provided that care is taken to secure a good filtering so as to remove all the solid particles. Double-decking a City Street. —Chief Engineer Goodrich of the Bureau of Encumbrances, of the Department of Highways, New York, has proposed a plan for the double-decking of 42nd Street, New York, between 5th and Lexington Avenues. The street is one of the most congested in the city, there being probably no place in the world where so many systems of transportation center as here. The double-decking of the street will give an opportunity for separating the. traffic, to say nothing of at once doubling the capacity of the street. Here is a problem which will have to be met and successfully solved as the modern office. building twenty to thirty stories in height gradually replaces the older building. Some of the down town streets of New York are already congested almost to a standstill. Science An Anthropological Expedition to New Guinea.—The Geographical Journal announces that the Committee for Anthropology at Oxford is about to send an expedition for anthropological research to the little known D'Entrecasteaux group, off the eastern end of New Guinea. It will be under the leadership of Mr. D. Jenness, of Balliol, who won distinction at the University of New Zealand before proceeding to Oxford, and who has had practical experience of life in the bush. Ostia.—Director Marino Vaglieri of the •National Museum at Rome has opened several Republican tombs in the course of his researches at Ostia, once the chief port of Rome at the mouth of the Tiber. A fountain statue of Aphrodite came to light in the Roman theater. It is recalled that the Townley Venus in London was found at Ostia. The new one resembles another statue of equally Praxitelean style which the late Professor Furtwaengler coupled with the London figure, namely, the Venus of Arles. Horace's Villa. —The exploration of Horace's villa in the valley of the Li-cenza near Mandela has been resumed by A. Pasqui. Two sites claim the honor of this name and have divided the pilgrims to the Latin poet's home into ('amps. Both offer scanty remains of Roman country houses. Whether Pasqui will find any relics as old as the reign of Augustus is very doubtful. But his villa ruin will serve a purpose if it only entices more tourists out of the hot streets of Rome to the outdoor charm of the Sabine Hills. Distribution of the Elements in the Earth's Crust.—The solid crust of the earth, with a specific gravity of only about 2.5, as against 5.7 for the entire globe (crust and liquid or semi-liquid interior) is said by Rosenbusch to consist of the various elements in the following proportions by weight: Oxygen, 47.29 per cent; silicon, 27.21; aluminium, 7.81; iron, 5.46; calcium, 3.77; magnesium, 2.68; sodium, 2.36; potassium, 2.40; hydrogen, 0.21; titanium, 0.33; carbon, 0.22; chlorine, 0.01; phosphorus, 0.10; manganese, 0.08; sulphur, 0.03; barium, 0.03; chromium, 0.01. To Remove Tattoo Marks.——Once tattooed, always tattooed, was formerly the rule; but a French army surgeon, Dr. Tranchant, has discovered a method of removing tattoo marks, whether made with India ink or lampblack. According to La Nature, the process consists of first rubbing the skin until a thin layer of the surface is worn away, then applying a mixture of lime, slaked just before use, and powdered phosphorus. The tattooed part having been coated with this paste, a piece of gauze is laid over it, covered with a bandage. The dressing is removed after forty-eight hours. The scab is allowed to dry in the air, and comes away in about a fortnight, without leaving a scar. If any trace of the tattooing then remains, the treatment is repeated. Dr. Tranchant claims to have applied this treatment in a great many cases, with perfect success. A Cold Winter in the Levant. —According to a report from the American consul at Aleppo, last winter in that vicinity was one of almost unprecedented severity. The snow was from two to four feet deep on the level, and covered the plains of the entire country around Aleppo, as far south as Bagdad, and north and east to Diarbekir and Mosoul, while the mountainous districts and the railway from Aleppo to Beirut were entirely blocked for a period of about two months, not even the mails arriving for some lour weeks. If, as we infer from this statement, snow fell in Beirut, it was the first since meteorological observations were begun there upward of thirty-five years ago. It is stated that drivers and travelers were frozen to death on the roads, many flocks of sheep perished together with the herders, and numerous families of Bedouins were found frozen in their tents. It is estimated that between 50 and 60 per cent of the sheep were frozen or starved to death, so that there will be a great reduction in the export of skins, wools and stock for meat purposes during the next year or two. The olive orchards were also badly damaged. 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That is why the New Torrey Strop keeps your razor in so much better condition than any other strop. If your dealer cannot show you the New Torrey Honing Strop—write us for full information. Booklet, all about shaving, sent free on request. . Prices 50c, 75c, $1.00, J $1.25, $1.50, $2.00 and $2.50 Get a Torrey Razor - the Best Made. Every dealer who is not )low selling the New Torrey Honing Strop should write at once for our special proposition. J. R. TORREY CO.. Dept. G • Worcester, Mass. 328 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 7, J 911 The letters that have sold the most goods, collected the most money, settled the hardest complaints, won the best j obs, had the strongest influence—analyzed and dissected for you to learn from, to adapt to your needs, or to develop an original style of your own—with the best examples actually reproduced as they were used and graphically explained point by point. Here in these three volumes—672 pages—are packed the success-secrets back of the letters that are actually winning the biggest results today, that are bringing orders from you and me, and making other men' s fortunes. Two years of investigation by a staff of experts employed by SYSTEM, the Magazine of Business, were spent collecting the letters of firms and individuals ; investigating the actual results; analyzing the comparisons of costs and profits; studying the difference in results obtained by differences in arrangement, wording, enclosures, etc. Every striking idea found in use by mail order house, wholesaler, manufacturer, retailer, real estate or insurance man, bank, collector, individual salesman or complaint clerk was followed out and its returns studied. This mass of information, this wealth of ideas, this gold mine of absolute fact was then charted and diagrammed—and developed into one complete, yet concise, library so clear and simple that from it any busy man can pick out for any sort of proposition, an idea or suggestion that he can know in advance to be successful; or can turn to for original inspiration. It is a work that will show any man how to write or dictate the kind of letter that arouses attention, tingles with convincing strength, and carries its point; how to conduct a follow-up campaign, how to key results, how to compile and index names, how fit schemes and plans to any proposition. Would Yoi j Like tt ) See Actual E xamples of How Othe r Succes: sful iMen Havt : Written- DOWN SYSTEM, the Magazine of Business, conducted this exhaustive investigation only for its subscribers. It was not to be given to the general public until But the subscribers' edition has caused a public knowledge of the tremendous value of the contents, and an extra advance edition has been made imperative. 2640 special sets have been hastily printed. To make its distribution fair and equitable to all business men, SYSTEM has made the terms as simple as writing your name and as easy as buying your cigars. $1 with this coupon brings to you the complete “Business Correspondence Library “—3 volumes— 672 pages, transportation prepaid. $2 per month for 4 months thereafter —less than 7 cents a day—pays for them complete and in addition brings you SYSTEM, the Maga- zie of Business, every month for two full years—24 numbers of this remarkable business magazine, inc: uding a copy of —Letters to Follow-Up Inquiries see Vol. I, pp. 138, 139; Vol. III. pp. 75, 84. —Nine Main Angles for Follow-Up Letters see Vol. I II, pp. 63, 64, 78. —Letters to Accompany Catalog see Vol. II, p. 35. —Opening Paragraphs to Get Attention see Vol. I, pp. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 84, 85. —Interest-Holding Paragraphs see Vol. III, pp. 149, 150. —Arguments to Clinch the Sale see Vol. I, p. 47; Vol II, pp. 47, 136. —Schemes to Get New Customers see Vol. II, pp. 169. 214, 224, 225, 227; Vol. III, pp. 29, 31, 137. —Money-Getting Collection Letters see Vol. I, p. 135. —Clever Answer to Complaints see Vol. III, pp. 189, 198. —Arguments to Advance Prices see Vol. III, pp. 159, 161, 174. —Paragraphs to Prompt Action see Vol II, pp. 16, 17, 71, 72. 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79; Vol. III, pp. 92, 93. —Letters to Dealers' Clerks see Vol. III, p. 32. —Educational Letters to Dealers' Customers see Vol. III. pp. 8, 9, 12, 13, 138. —Sales Letters to Dealers' Customers see Vol. III, pp. 18,19, 21, 22. —Letters to Follow-Up Real Estate Sales see Vol. III, pp, 77, 86, 87, 88. —Letters to Illustrate Demonstration Offers see Vol. III, p. 157. —Effective Descriptions in Letters see Vol. 1, pp. 44, 45. —Salesmen's'Letters to Dealers s{-e Vol. III, pp. 41, 42, 43, 44. — Unusual Sales Letters see Vol II, p. 12. —Letters to Answer Specific Inquiries see Vol. II, pp. 37, 38. —Clever Schemes to Get Replies see Vol. II, pp. 22, 26, 27, 28; Vol. III, pp. 167, 168. -Paragraphs to Increase Effectiveness of Enclosures see Vol. III, p. 148. —Business -Getting Postals see Vol. II. p. 63, —Schemes to Get Line on Prospects' Needs see Vol. III, p. 136. —Plans for Offering Premiums see Vol. III, pp. 100, 175. —Effective Summaries see Vol. I, p. 46. —Their Best-Pulling Letters see Vol. II, pp. 108, 109. —Letters Emphasizing the “ You “ Element see Vol. II, pp. 133, 134. —Special Inducements to Retailer see Vol. II, pp. 128/129, 141, 178. —Letters Emphasizing Special Prices see Vol. I, p. 149; Vol. III, p. 158. —Dealer's Trade-Getting Letter see Vol. II, pp. 186, 187,. 188, 189, 190, 191, 197, 198, 205, 206, 207, 208, 211, 214, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 226, 228; Vol. III, p. 25. —Trade-Getting Letters to Consumers see Vol. II. p. 147. —Letters Asking-Credit Information see Vol. I, pp. 185, 186, 187. —Letters to Poor Credit Risks see Vol. I, p. 185. —Letters Taking Reader Into Confidence see Vol. III, p. 181. —"Last Resort* * Collection Letters see Vol. I, pp. 160, 164. —"True Note” Collection Letters see Vol. I, pp. 190, 193, 194. —Retailers' Collection Letters see Vol. I, pp. 147, 148. —Instalment Collection Letters see Vol. I, pp. 154, 155. - Ol Uglier Letter Offering Inducement see Vol. I, pp. 156, 157. —Tactful Collection Letters see Vol. I, pp. 140, 141. 161, 162, 163, 164. —Collection Letters Quoting from Delinquent's Letter see Vol. I, p. 176. —Letters to Bring Cash With Order see Vol. 1, pp. 189, 191. —Collection Letters Containing Salesmanship see Vol. I, p. 188. —Letters for Collection Agencies see Vol. 1, pp. 158, 159. —Letters Based on Current Events see Vol. I, pp. 91, 92, 147, 173. —LettersIllustrating"Man-to-Man' ' Attitude see Vol. I, pp. 86, 89, 90. —Letters Backed With Proof see Vol. II, p. 15. —Letters Backed With Inducement see Vol. I, p. 47; Vol. II, pp. 49, 136. —Letters Appealing to Women see Vol. 11, pp. 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97. —Letters Appealing to Merchants see Vol. 1, p. 149. —Letters to Revive Old Customers see Vol. 111, p. 182. —Letters Offering Investments see Vol. TI, pp. 102, 107, 110, 111. —Letters Appealing to Farmers see Vol. II, pp. 118, 119, 120. —Letters With Appeals That Get Attention see Vol. II, p. 26. —Letters With Effective and Clever Appeal see Vol. I, pp. 101, 103, 104; Vol. II, pp. 101, 102, 103; Vol. Ill, pp. 172, 178, 179. I5c a Copy ISc a Copy AVIATION The October Magazine Number of the Scientific American Issue of October 14th, 1911 The next mid-month number of the Scientific American will bear the date, October 14th, 191 I. (j[ A large part of the number will be devoted to the more practical aspects of flying. (j[ Besides these articles on aviation, the mid-month number for October will contain the usual Scientific American material. abstracts from current periodicals, the inventor's department, and articles on recent achievements in science and industry. (j[ The whole number will be enclosed in a beautiful colored cover by Mr. Wm. H. Foster. Please note the change 0/ price of Magazine Numbers—now fifteen cents on all news stands MUNN&CO., Inc., 'Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York JUST PUBLISHED .J/ :J\[ew andA uthor/taf/ve :Book MONOPLANES and BIPLANES THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION&OPERATION The Application of Aerodynamic Theory, with a Complete Description and Comparison of the Notable Types By GROVER CLEVELAND LOENING, BJSc., A.M.. C. E. CRITICISMS "The first treatise upon aviation which we have seen whicl- may De styled really complete.....Actual aeroplane designing is the central themeof the volume..... The prominent types are exhaustively compared..... The illustrations are a notable feature." —Rochester, N. Y., Chronicle. "A very complete account of the theory of heavier than air flying machines with a technical description of nearly all the present types of aeroplanes.....Presents in compact shape the substance of aerodynamic theory..... Easily comprehensible to the reader who can concentrate his attention.....It is the most scientific popular book on the aeroplane that we have come 'across so far." —New York Sun. ” Many writers have failed to realize the demand which exists for aero literature in which mathematical deductions are a necessary but not predominant part of a comprehensive exposition of the entire subject. For a writer to steer a straight course between the mazes of trigonometry on the one hand, and the superficialities of mere discussion in a popular vein on the other is to accomplish what can be done only by one who is himself a thorough student in the finer details, but who can sufficiently divorce himself from the mathematical atmosphere as to present the whole subject from a broad standpoint, making it readily intelligible and informative to the less erudite seeker after knowledge." —Phila. Inquirer. ” Students learned in aerodynamics and laymen ordinarily interested in aviation will find equal delight in reading ' Monoplanes and Biplanes.' The book is a welcome addition to the libraries of those who have realized the future of aerial navigation, and desire a work treating solely of the heavier than air machines written by an acknowledged expert and with no hobbies hidden in the discussion." —Boston Journal. ” While enthusiastic in his interest as becomes one who has written so superb a volume, Mr. Loening is also rigidly accurate as the most exacting scientist could demand. Here is a work which is at once a history and textbook which may be depended upon for ^verythinjf that is within the range of actual know ledjsc. To say that ' Monoplanes and Biplanes* is at once new and authoritative with reference to the entire subject and that it is practical in the highest degree is the just praise due to this volume ;Buffalo News. ; Mr. Loening has written, in fact. for the man who wishes to apply practically the experience that has already been gained." —New York Times. 12mo. (6x8%; inches ) 340 Pages, 278 Illustration*. Attractively bound in cloth. Price $2.50 net, postpaid A n illustrated descriptive circular will be sent free on application. MUNN&CO., Inc., Publishers 361 Broadway New York