AeronauticInventions, Curious and Useful

AERIAL and marine navigation, while in most respects totally unlike, are yet in certain particulars closely analogous, and this is perhaps most clearly observed in considering the smaller auxiliary devices relating to these arts. Although aerial navigation, so far as heavier than air machines is concerned, has only recently been accomplished, the art in a broad sense has been, nevertheless, the subject of patent applications for many years, and a consideration of these patents indicates that not only has inventive genius been active along broad lines of development, but that it has been busily engaged in the perfection of details of construction which now that so great interest has been aroused in the practical side of the art, may be found of great value. While the first marine anchors were probably crude affairs, consisting of a rock or crooked branch, the art of aerial navigation did not arise until long after marine anchors had reached a fairly high state of development, and aeronautical inventors were thus able to confine their attention largely to the adaptation of these marine anchors to aerial • use. Among the first patents granted in this country for an aeronautical device is that to one Bell, dated March 26th, 1850, which among other details shows a water anchor or drag, clearly adapted from marine use, and which, as illustrated in Fig. 1, consists of an umbrella-like structure 2, 3, 4, supported upon a rod 1, the rod being provided with ropes 6 and 8 at its opposite ends. It is evident from the construction shown, that, if the device be immersed in water and attached to the flying machine by the rope 8, the rope 6 being slack, the umbrella structure will remain closed and offer little resistance to travel through the water, while if the rope 6 be pulled taut and rope 8 be slackened, the pressure of the water will open out the umbrella device, thus presenting a large surface to the water and acting as a very effective drag or water anchor. Similar in type, but adapted for land use, is the device shown in the British patent to Alexander of 1893, in which a supporting rod similar to that of Bells device is provided, but instead of the umbrella structure of the latter, the rod carries a series of backwardly projecting prongs or claws, which, when the rod is towed by one or the other of its ropes, respectively, slide easily over the surface of the ground, or engage with the same and act as a positive anchoring means. In the year 1854, the Earl of Aldborough, one of the most enthusiastic promotors of aviation of his time, patented in Great Britian a flying machine embodying a multitude of ideas more or less practical, and among his many suggestions, describes an aeronautical anchor of peculiar form, evidently the result of an investigation of the anatomy of a birds foot, and which he describes in the following terms: I prefer forming the grapnels with flukes, attached to the stem by joints, and pressed downward by springs in such manner that the flukes shall strike downward when liberated, in a manner bearing a certain resemblance to the talons of a bird, separate cords being attached to each of the flukes, and • all these being collected in a small sheath, and so arranged that the flukes can be raised, or permitted to spring downward by either fixing these cords in any convenient way, or letting them go when it is desired that the flukes shall act so as to enter the ground or seize any object.” Apparently not satisfied with this device, he further perfected it in a patent of somewhat later date, wherein he describes a steel-sheathed cable for supporting the anchor, the cable being provided with a device for lessening the effect of sudden shocks, this latter feature being of very common use in marine navigation, being known in that art under the name of shock-absorbers More clearly illustrative of this last feature is a patent to Fiesse, granted May 19th, 1908, which, as seen in Fig. 2, discloses a highly developed form of shock absorber interposed in the anchor rope of a flying machine, wherein the two portions 1 and 2 of the anchor rope are connected with the piston rods 3 and 4, respectively, extending from the pistons 5 and 6, the latter sliding in the cylinder 7, and normally forced toward each other by the compression springs 8 and 9. It is evident from the construction shown, that if the anchor rope be subjected to sudden shock, as by a heavy gust of wind striking the anchored machine, the two pistons will be drawn apart against the action of the springs, thus relieving the rope of the sudden strain. In the patent to Mackenzie, granted in 1880, is shown an interesting development, wherein the shank of the anchor is provided with a snap-hook, for use, as the inventor states, in place of the anchors when stopping at regular landings, where rings will be provided for their reception. This leads to a brief consideration of aeronautical landing places or stations, and as in many other things aeronautical, the Earl of Aldborough, above quoted, appears to have been the first to make suggestions along this line. Among other things he suggested that such stations be provided with lights and signals for the • proper guidance of the aeronaut, which suggestion appears recently to have been carried into effect in European countries. Along this line various patents have been granted, the proper protection of the anchored air ship being in general the main object,, the patent to Fechtig, granted in 1910, being, perhaps, characteristic. This patent discloses what in effect is a modified locomotive round-house, having a turntable and radiating sheds, the turntable being inclosed, except at its ends. One of the great difficulties encountered in housing air ships, especially the great dirigibles of the Zeppelin type, has been due to the effect of side winds upon the great expanse of surface, and this the device of Fechtig is intended to obviate, by providing the inclosed turntable which may be presented to any point of the compass' for the easy entry of the air ship, and which will protect the same while permitting it to be placed in juxtaposition to its permanent quarters. A curious device for attaining the same result is that shown in the patent to Gothan, granted in 1910, and which is illustrated in Fig. 3, comprising a balloon shed 1, and a circular platform 2 in front thereof, the platform being provided with a series of vertical openings or jets 3, connected to a supply of compressed air. When these jets are all opened, a circular, vertical wall of air is created, thus effectually shutting out side winds. When it is desired to house a flying machine, the jets are cut off on the side from which the machine approaches, but as soon as the ship has passed through the opening thus formed in the air wall, the jets are again turned on, thus serving to fully protect the ship while being placed in its shed. While the marine anchor is adapted more particularly for use in wet and relatively soft material, the aeronautical anchor must oftentimes encounter hard, dry ground, and, owing to its necessarily light weight, some modification of the marine anchor must obviously be made if the device is to prove successful. One of the simplest forms of anchor is shown. in the patent to Myers, May 26th, 1885, con-(Continued on 'Page 84*.) October 14, 1911SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN347 BUYING a motor truck is like hiring a man. You are not interested in the color of his eyes, the tilt of his nose, or his height and weight. You want to know what this man has done and what he can do. J ust so with the motor truck. It's what a truck will do that interests you. Price alone sells few trucks, It's what you “get for the money” that sells them. In other words value. Four things determine value in a truck. One of them is good design. The only sure way to tell good design is by results. I f a truck is not well designed the owner soon knows. I f it is well designed, and if he can use more trucks in his business, he buys more of the same make— naturally. Thus you may judge a truck by the number of repeat orders or re-orders. I n the case of the Alco Truck 62 per cent. were purchased on repeat orders. Nine-tenths of this number are in the service of firms and corporations listed in Bradstreet's at over $1,000,000. Before purchasing, many of these large firms carried on extensive experiments to determine which motor truck was best. If only one Alco had been purchased by each of these concerns, its place among motor trucks would be clear. But each of these bought more than one. The American Express Company has 40 ; the Gulf Refining Company 16; Gimbel Brothers 13;'the Long Island Express Company 10; and so on. Among many the Alco has been accepted lis the standard—all future purchases will be Alcos. The second point on which value depends is the experience of the manufacturer. Good design means little unless experience in building is back of it. The thing to know is “how. long has the manufacturer been building trucks}” “What does the manufacturer know about the problems of transportation?" For the American Locomotive Company, builders of the Alco Truck, the experience began in 1905. The Alco Truck was marketed in 1908. The experience of the American Locomotive Company in problems of transportation dates back to 1835 as movers of the world's goods. The problems of the locomotive and the problems of the motor truck are parallel. One is a power driven vehicle running on rails. The other a power driven vehicle running without rails. The experience of the American Locomotive Company, as builders of the Alco Truck, is rare. Value is again determined in the way the truck is built. Little does it matter how well a truck is designed if it is not well built. It becomes a consideration of factory and factory equipment. The Alco factory represents an investment in equipment of over $4,-000,000. In it are built 95 per cent. of the parts of the Alco Truck. It has the most complete heat treating plant of any motor truck factory in the world. It has large chemical and physical laboratories to analyze and test the metals that go into the Alco Truck. In special and automatic machinery the investment is immense—in jigs and tools alone the investment is over $2,OCO,000. Many of these tools are not tools in the ordinary sense of the word, but are fine instruments—like those of a surgeon—and are kept in flannel when not in use. In this factory is the largest drop hammer in the world. It weighs 250,000 pounds. The fourth consideration in determining value—and one that is most decisive — is the responsibility of the manufacturer. The safest thing in the world to buy is reputation. Buying a truck from a manufacturer without reputation or reponsibility is like making a loan without security. The American Locomotive Company is capitalized at $50,000,000. It dates back to 1835 as movers of the world's goods. It has built 50,000 locomotives. I t builds 60 per cent. of all the locomotives in the world. Its reputation is indelible. These four considerations— Good Design, the Experience of the Manufacturer, Good Building and the Responsibility of the Manufacturer—provide an “acid test” for judging a motor truck. There are a few trucks that can stand this test. Of these the Alco Truck is one. You should investigate the Alco for one vital reason, if for no other :—latent experience—of its builders in manufacturing power driven vehicles. Write for the new catalog. AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY, 1888 Broadway, New York Builders also of the Alco 6-Cylinder and 4-Cylinder Motor Cars Movers of the World's Goods since 1835 Capital, $50,000,000 Your Three Greatest Tire Troubles Ended No -Rim - Cut Tres 10 Per Cent Oversize W/h Double-Skid 7reads They end rim-cutting forever. They avoid the blowouts due to overloading. They prevent skidding and do away with chains. These No-Rim-Cut tires, in the past two years, have increased our tire sales by 500 per cent. Over 700,000 have been sold. These tires now dominate the field. With tens of thousands of motorists they have cut tire bills in two. Now they come with this ideal Non-Skid tread. The Final Tire After 12 years spent in tire making—after ceaseless improvements —we believe that the Goodyear N o-Rim-Cut tire is now pretty close to finality. Our greatestinven tion-controlled by our patents—has ended rim-cutting forever. That was, perhaps, your chief worry and expense. By making these tires 10 per cent oversize—without extra charge—we added 25 per cent to the average tire mileage. By 12 years of tests' on tire-testing machines we have brought our formulas and fabrics close to utter perfection. And now we have added a Non-Skid tread worthy of all the rest. We never hope to see a much better tire than the Goodyear No-Rim-Cut today. The Winter Tread Most of you know the No-Rim-Cut tire—the oversize tire—which has come to such immense popularity. The control of this tire has thrice trebled our tire sales within two years. Its sales to date exceed 700,000 tires. And, to meet the demand, we are increasing our capacity to 3,800 per day . Since 1908 our experts have worked to create for this tire a perfect N on - Skid tread . Now we have it. We offer you now, for winter use, your highest ideal of a tire. An Extra Tread The Non-Skid feature is an extra tread, vulcanized onto our regular t ire. Thus the tread is made double-thick. This extra tread is exceedingly tough, as impervious to wear as a rubber tread ever can be. It remains effective over enormous mileage. When it does wear off there's our regular tread below it. The tread is made up of deep-cut blocks, which grasp the road surf ace wit h coun tless edges and angles. The blocks widen at the base, so the load is spread over as wide a surface as it is with the smooth-tread tire. The grooves can't fill up. This double-thick tread, because of its thickness, reduces danger of punctures by 30 per cent. Chains, as you know, are ruinous to tires. Metal projections, too. Rubber and metal never combine, and their friction soon wrecks a tread. Short, soft projections are temporary. Here is a tread that's immensely efficient, and a tread that endures. And it comes on the tire you are bound to demand when you know the facts about it. Please look it up. This tire is made for your safety and economy. Learn what it means to you. Our Tire Book, based on 12 years of tire making, is filled with facts you should know. Ask us to mail it to you. The Goodyear Tire&Rubber Co. . First Street, - Akron, Ohio Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires. Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits Main Canadian Office, Toronto, Ont. Canadian Factory, Bowmanville, Ont. (401) Aeronautic Inventions, Curious and Useful (Concluded from page 348.) sisting merely of a circle of sharp pegs projecting downwardly from the bottom of the car and converging toward the center, thus when forced into the ground by the weight of the aeronaut, clutching a large section of earth and acting as a powerful anchor. Mr. Barnes, in a patent granted in 1892, has improved upon the above device to the extent of substituting long, corkscrew-like rods for the straight pegs and providing means for revolving these by power from his motor, thus obtaining a tremendous grip upon the ground. Another form of earth anchor as illustrated in the German patent to Boinet, consists of a hollow shell having a pointed end and adapted to be forced into the ground, the shell being provided near its lower end with openings through which may be projected curved arms which enter the adjacent soil and thus obtain a powerful grip thereon. Similar, but with some modifications in structure, is the device shown in the patent to Thomas, dated July 24th, 1906, and illustrated in Fig. 4, the manner of operation of which is so obvious as to require no explanation. The acme of inventive ingenuity along this line must, however, be conceded to an Englishman, Mr. Jackson, who proposes to attach a cannon to the car of his machine and shoot dart-shaped anchors therefrom into the ground. Among other interesting devices might be mentioned that shown in a patent to Lake, granted in 1908, in which is shown the car mounted upon three wheels, the two rear wheels being free to swivel in the manner of furniture castors, while the front wheel is provided with long spikes upon its periphery and may be held stationary when desired. When thus held, the spikee project into the ground, thus forming a pivotal point about which the whole structure is free to turn, and thus the machine will always head into the wind after the manner of a weather vane. A device in which the anchor is put to a seemingly anomalous use is shown in a patent granted to Mueller, in 1909. Here the anchor is not used for the purpose of retaining the machine in a fixed location, but as a means for causing its proper ascent. In this case the anchor is held by an endless cable passing over pulleys on the machine. When about to start, the anchor is firmly embedded in the ground. Upon starting the motor, the machine endeavors to rise, but being restrained by the anchor, describes the arc of a circle about the anchor as a center until the cable becomes so nearly vertical as to release the anchor, when the machine is free to take flight, by this means permitting the machine to rise from its restricted quarters, and to pass over obstructions in its immediate vicinity. As every well equipped marine vessel is provided with life-preservers and life-boats for use in emergency, so will the flying machine of the future be provided with means for assuring the safety of the aeronaut in case of accident to his machine, and in the provision of such means the inventor has not been idle. The majority of such devices are modifications of the well known parachute, but it is interesting to note the variations in and methods of adapting this simple device for use in connection with other aerial craft. It is well known that if the gas be suddenly allowed to escape from a balloon when at a great elevation, the balloon envelope will, in many cases, assume of itself, a parachute form within its netting, and fall slowly to the ground. This fact has not been overlooked by the inventor who has endeavored to assure this action by giving the balloon a special form or construction, a typical example of which is seen in the patent to Chance, granted in 1908 (see Fig. 5), in which the balloon is of lenticular form, comprising a meml rim 3 to which the car is attached and provided with a set of rigid ribs 6 converging to a central collar 5. The upper and lower sheets of oiled silk forming the gas bag are attached to the rim 3. It is clear that if either the upper or lower sheet be acci-dently ruptured and the gas escapes, the material of the bag will be forced by the air pressure against the ribs 6 which will support it ill parachute form and thus prevent a precipitous descent. In a like manner, by taking advantage of a special form of aeroplane, the inventor has converted this type of machine into a more or less effective parachute, as for example in the French patent to Wold (Fig. 6), wherein an end view of the plane is shown. Here the main plane 1 is in the form of a half cylinder, open downwardly and at its ends. The ends of the plane are, however, provided with curtains 3, normally folded, but which may be extended to close the ends of the machine, thus forming a sort of parachute. Of course only a type of aero- nautical vehicle lends itself to the above construction, and so independent para-chutic devices have been produced. Although the ordinary aeroplane has proved capable under skillful management, of descending safely from great heights without motive power, yet the inventor has made assurance doubly sure by providing the aeroplane with a folding parachute adapted to be spread in case of accident by the air itself, one of the most recent of these devices being that of G. F. Myers, in which the aeroplane consists of a series of super-posed ring-like or annular planes. Upon the upper of these planes lies a normally folded parachute attached by a series of restraining cords to the plane, and being also provided with a controlling cord. By pulling the latter, the parachute is drawn beyond the edge of the plane, permitting entry of air between the plane and parachute, the latter thus being expanded and rising to the full extent of the restraining cords. The helicopter and flapping wing types of machine, however, seem to offer little chance of safe landing in case of failure of the motor, and as the inventors of this form of machine evidently expect them to go up, so they have. with great unanimity, provided them with parachutes to prevent them from coming down too suddenly, and of these devices, one of the earliest, patented to Quinby, in 1861 (see Fig. 7), is typical. Here the machine, which is of a composite type, having valved, beating wings 1, and helicopter wheels 2, is provided above the latter with a normally folded parachute 3, adapted to spread itself if the machine begins to fall and thus prevent too rapid descent. While all the above devices have for their object the saving of the entire machine from the effects of a fall, attention has also been given to the provision of parachutes for saving the person of the aviator alone, and typical of such devices is that patented to Griepe in 1907, covering an air ship embodying among other features a trap door in the bottom of the car communicating with a compartment containing a parachute provided with a releasing device, whereby in case of emergency the operator may suspend himself from the parachute and abandon the air ship to its fate. It is well known that parachutes cannot always be depended upon to open auto-matioally when required, and to ensure their proper opening, M. Pichou has taken out a patent in France covering the device shown in Fig. 8, wherein 1, 2, indicates the frame of the flying machine, 3, 4, a circular connecting member, 5, a circular box resting on 3, 4, the box being provided with a central opening in its bottom, 6 is a receptacle filled with explosive and resting on the bottom of the box 5 and covering the opening, and 7 is a trigger operated by a cord 8 for detonating the explosive contained in the receptacle. Attached to the bottom of the receptacle by cords 9 is the seat 10 for the aeronaut, and attached by cords to the top of the receptacle and normally nested in the box 5 is a parachute provided with cover 12 to prevent the wind from disturbing it. In case of accident, the operator merely pulls the cord 8, thus exploding the charge in the receptacle, which ejects the parachute from the box, when it immediately becomes effective and pulls the aeronaut, seat and all, up through the ring 3, 4, and free of the falling machine. Possesses features that no other pen can boast of, that lift it high above the rest toward the acme of pen perfection. The “Swan Safety” cannot leak. The Gold which shows on the upper face of the nib in the illustration k e e p s the pen moistened with ink at all times and insures instant writing. The “Screw do w n Cap'' is a device that screws down air tight over the nib, forming a vacuum and making it impossible for the pen to leak. The “Ladder Feed" on the under face of the nib, as the cut illustrates, supplies the ink steadily without skips, blots or overflow of ink. Can be carried in your pocket, suit case or handbag in any position, horizontally or upside down.The “Swan Safety" will never leak. For s a 1 e a tall stationers and jewelers. Prices .50, $3.50, $4.00, $5.00 and up. We willsend illustrated price list on request. MABIE, TODD&CO. 17 Maiden Lane NEW YORK 209 S. State St. CHICAGO London. Eng., 79-80 High Holborn Toronto, Paris, Brussels and Sydney Of course most of the above devices require some preliminary action on the part of the aeronaut in order that the para-chutic device may become effective, and in order to avoid this a still further arrangement has been devised wherein the parachute forms a part of the clothing of, or is attached directly to the person of the aeronaut. The Earl of Aldborough, before referred to, appears to have been the originator of this idea, and describes a parachute to be worn about the neck and reminding one by its general appearance of the old fashioned neck ruff, bu t of exaggerated proportions, and provided with stays leading to a belt at the waist. Of a very similar character are the devices patented to Wilke, in Germany, and to Mayer, in Great Britian, illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10, respectively, wherein the former shows a sort of vest embodying the parachute and having stays leading to the wearer's belt, while the latter shows a parachute attached to the aviator's coat and adapted to be folded over- the head and shoulders when not in use, thus serving as an additional protection against the weather. A further modification is seen in the patent to Ulmer, January 31st, 1911. which consists of a hat for the aviator. provided with a pocket in which is folded a parachute the cap and parachute being attached by a cord to the aviator's belt. In the event of an accident to the machine, the aviator will immediately remove his hat, when the air current, caused by the descent, will inflate the parachute and the aviator will be saved all further cause for anxiety. In passing, might be mentioned the device patented to Mr. Oppenheimer in 1879, and illustrated in.Fig. 11. Although designated a fire escape, it would appear equally advantageous for aeronautical use, the padded shoes 3 being without doubt a highly desirable feature, especially in the estimation of the luckless pedestrian upon whose head the wanderer from space might chance to descend. As in the operation of the submarine boat. it is of primary importance that the depth below the surface be always known, so in aeronautics it is of interest to know the height above the earth. Although many devices have been devised for registering the height or the vertical movement of flying machines, some of which have been noted in a recent number of this paper, the records of the Patent Office appear to be singularly devoid of such devices. Among the few patents relating to this subject is that to Chaubassargnes, granted in France, which shows (see Fig. 12), a device for indicating ascent or descent, comprising a vertical tube 1, having flaring open ends, a paddle wheel 2, projecting into the tube, and an indicator wheel 3, having graduations upon its periphery and driven by the paddle wheel. When the machine is ascending the air enters the tube at the top, rotating the wheel 3 clockwise and moving the indicator wheel to indicate upward travel, while in descending, the reverse takes place. A second device for the same purpose but of different construction is shown in another French patent, that to Briaccon, wherein a series of balls are allowed to fall upon a resilient support carrying an arm provided with a pencil, which last rests upon a constantly rotating. paper-covered drum. It is stated that so long as the machine remains at a given level, the trace of the pencil upon the drum, caused by the impacts of the falling' balls will lie in a straight line, but if the machine commences to rise the falling balls will strike the support sooner than when the machine is stationary, thus causing the pencil trace on the drum to vary from the normal straight line, the new pencil trace being above the normal, while if the machine should descend, the reverse operation will take place. Along somewhat the same line may be noted the device patented to Pennington in Great Britian in 1896, wherein a mercury barometer controls, through an electrical circuit, the direction of thrust of a screw propeller, and by this means serves to keep the machine at the same level, and Let's Stop Wasteful Deliveries jjERHAPS you think your delivery isn . wasteful. Unless you use motor trucks _ all the facts and figures are against you. By motor truck we mean a real truck —one designed and built to endure—one with a requisite strength in every part to last. The heat killed twelve thousand horses in two weeks of July in New York City alone, and no one knows how many horses are permanently maimed, spavined or shot because of broken legs on account of the slippery, icy pavements each winter. The finer your equipment of horses and wagons the bigger the toll you pay in bad weather, whether it is from heat or ice; and these are but a few of the drawbacks to a system which the motor truck is rapidly making obsolete. Let's Try White-Truck Economy FIE economy of the good motor truck is found in its greater capacity—its better speed—its ability to keep agoing. A motor truck is no more tired on the last trip than on the first—it is just as efficient. In any other department of your business you know what efficiency means, but in your delivery plant, that vital link between your factory or your business and the customer, you have not demanded efficiency. White motor trucks will make it efficient. We know it, because they are doing it—not for a few firms—but for scores in every kind of business under every possible condition — for the largest, shrewdest and most capable firms in the country. They are not deceived—you simply have not been shown. The White line has every size you want— 1500-lb. delivery wagons, 172-ton, 3-ton and 5-ton trucks—all with a standard type of engine, thereby reducing the mechanical problem to its lowest terms. The engine is so simple that any teamster can drive it and, knowing how to drive one White engine, he knows how to drive all White engines. Let us give you some facts and figures about modern delivery plants—a catalogue, too, for the asking. The White Company 838 East 79th Street, Cleveland Consider the luxury of this $1 100 enclosed More Hupmobile Coupes were sold last year than any other enclosed car of its type. The reason is obvious. The Hupmobile Coupe ceased to be an interesting e xpe riment and became a pleasant ce rtainty two seasons ago. Consider the coziness and comfort of this enclosed car on sharp, chilly mornings, to and from the office; and back again to the house on wet or wintry e venings. Consider its convenience for about-town business trips — for the journeys to and from the depot; for shopping purposes; for the theatre trips and afternoon calls. There is not.a member of the family from the baby upward, that does not partake of its luxury. And all this at such blessedly small expense. There is no doubt at all but that the limoine is the height of motor car l uxu ry — and the Hupmobile Coupe attains limousine luxury at an infinitely lower cost of upkeep. Your first investment in the Hupmobile Cou pe is l ess than the annual deterioration of the costlier limousine—or any large and high-priced car. Ten dol la rs a month ought to cover your cost of operation of your H u pmobile Coupe—according to the experience of scores of owners. Ask your Hupmobile dealer to take you for a spin some day in Autumn or early Winter, when conditions overhead and underfoot are unpleasant — and see how completely you escape the discomforts of those who go on foot or by trolley or in an open motor car. Then figure how little this really great con-ve nie nce and comfort cost you —and act accordingly. Ifyou wish, your Hupmobile can be convertible into a Hupmobile Runaboutfor $50. HUPP MOTOR CAR COMPANY. 1233 Jefferson Avenue. Detroit. Michigan Save Winter Sto rage on Your Car ORDER NO W a Pruden System Garage Use next winter's storage bills to pay half the cost of a Pruden Garage and have your car always handy and safe. Many owners use their autos all winter long, keeping them iIi a Pruden, without heat. Pruden System Construction is entirely original with us and utterly unlike anything else. It gives you fire-proof protection in a building as handsome and substantial as masonry, at one-third the cost. Here's the only portable garage that is wholly fire-pioof. No wood in a Pruden. Entirely built of handsomely embossed galvanized steel units. You erect it in a few hours with screw driver and wrench, and as easily take it down. Pruden buildings last a lifetime, never need repairs, do not depreciate in value and are rigidly guaranteed. You simply can't realize how different and how perfect the Pruden is in every detail until you get all the facts. Mail Coupon for Catalog Today — Unit-Built Portable Handsome Durable as Masonry Low Cost The Metal Shelter Company 5-52 West Water Street, St. Paul, Minn. Send me your illustrated catalog. Name Street Address TownState Nameof ycuir carModel N0: Learn about the Pruden interlocking. galvanized steel units which produce a “strong as stone” building without frame work or foundation. Learn what a few of the hundreds ot Pruden owners say. Investigate at once so as to get your Pruden in time to save winter storage. You'll be sure of prompt shipment despite the heavy fall demand. if you order early. Other ideal buildings built by the Pruden System, are hunting lodges, warehouses. boat houses and work shops. Write today, giving us name and model number of your car or siz of building in which you're interested. The Metal Shelter Company 5-52 West Water Street ST. PAUL. MINN. the somewhat similar mechanism patented by M. Phiilippeau in France. This embodies a suitable case containing a spring-driven winding drum upon which the valve cord of the balloon wound, the rotation of the drum being normally prevented by a friction brake. Mounted also within the case is an aneroid barometer, the indi cator arm of which serves to make and break an electric circuit in which is included a magnet, the armature of which forms the aforesaid brake for the spring drum. When the balloon reaches a predetermined height, the barometer arm rises and completes the circuit thus withdrawing the brake from the drum and allowing the latter to revolve, thus opening the valve and permitting the gas to escape. The purpose of this device is to prevent accident due to the failure, or inability of the aviator to open the valve at the proper time. The self-registering aneroid barometer, in its ordinary form, appears to be capable of registering the ultimate height attained, provided this height is maintained for an appreciable time, and so far as the writer has been able to ascertain, none of these devices having any special modifications of structure for aeronautical use has been made the su b]ect of a patent. It would appear, however, that devices of this character might be devised especially for aeronautical use, embodying great rapidity and sensitiveness of operation, together with freedom from the effects of motor vibration, and at the same time having indicators and scales of such size as to be readily discernable from the operator's seat, and doubtless as the art becomes more highly developed the demand for such instruments will be fully met by the active mind of the inventor. An Inventor as a Congressman IT is of considerable interest to inventors to know that the House Committee on Patents includes in its membership a man of such experience in patent matters, as an inventor and patent lawyer, as William H. Wilder, in view of the flood of bills that are being presented to the Committee with all kinds of changes proposed to our present patent system. Mr. Wilder was born May 14th, 1855, in Belfast, Me. His inventive ability was probably derived from his father and grandfather, who .were mill men, his mother being a school teacher. A t eleven years of age he removed to Massachusetts, worked on a farm ; went to school in the winter, and was, in turn, a wood chopper, worked in a card mill, prepared chair stock for the chair factories of Gardner, and when but a little over sixteen, went into business for himself as a painter, and has been an employer ever since. While in the painting business he climbed most of the meeting-house spires in and around Gardner. He entered the oil stove business in a small way, and in the first years of his experience he made the patterns and all the other parts, and directed personally' the making of tools and dies and the like, for a period of twen ty years. He has taken out more than fifty patents covering his own inventions. Mr. Wilder is a member of the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. His inventions have revolutionized the oil stove industry; for he is the inventor of the modern oil stove. He has taken great in terest in denatured alcohol, having visited German:;- to investigate this business. During a period of thirty-eight years as an employer of labor he has never had a strike, lockout, or disagreement with his employees. Notes for Inventors A Folding Step for Street Cars.—The Public Service Commission for the district in which New York is included, has been considering tbe betterment of the equipment of surface cars. The Metropolitan system is now experimenting with a folding step for the pay-as-you-enter type of cars. The present step is too high, and there have been some accidents. United Shoe Machinery Patents.—How huge is the part played by patents in the remarkable industrial development which All patents secured through us are described without cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. MUNN&COMPANY 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Branch Office, 625 F Street, Washington, D. C. A T E NT S SECURED °? FEE P~ T E N M. »J RETURNED Free report as to Patentability. Illustrated Guide Book. and What To Invent witti List of Inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for mventlOns sent free. VJCTOIi J. F.V ANS&CO. . Washington. D.C. Classified Advertisements Advertising in this .column i;:J 75 cents a line. No less tban four nor more than 12 lines accepted. Count seven words to tbe line. All orders must be accompanied by a remittance. FOR SALE. FOR SALE —Twenty acres of a deposit of very fine tire clay on tbe line of the Railroad. l< or lurtber information and terms apply to Wyatt &; Company. New Decatur, Alabama. FOR SALE—A Patent Curtain HaDser or Holder where no pins. hooks or rings are needed. Full particulars and terms on request. J. Krajkowski, 4558 East Thompson Street, Bridesburg, Philadelphia, Pa CLEARANCE SALE—Reroinetons, Densmorea, Manhattans, Jewetts. $11.50 ea.. Franklins, Hammonds, $9ea. Bargains in Underwoods, Smiths, ot hers; a)J guaranteed. Standard Typewriter Exchange, 23 Park Row. N. Y. HELP WANTED. LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE WANTED.-Splendid income assured rigbt man to act as our representative after learning our business thorougbly by mail. Former experience unnecessary. All we require is honesty. abi I-ity, ambition and willingne:ls to Jearn a lucrative business. No soliciting or Traveling. This isan exceptional opportunity tor a man in your section to get into a big paying bus mess without capital and become independent for lire. Write atonce for full particulars. Ad-et Keal Estate Company.L 378 Marden Building.Waabing-ton, D. C.___ POSITION WANTED. SUPERINTENDENT AND MANAGER, connected with one firm 19 years, desires position with manufacturing concern. Licensed Engineerand draughtsman. Age 44. For furtber information and particulars address, H. Leitgeb, Flusbing, N. Y. WANTED. WANTED—One first-class marine engine and boiler draftsman. $5.04 per diem. A competitive examination will be held tor the above position October lR For lurtber information address, Commandant, Navy Yard. Charleston. S. C. MUNN&CO. — Desires to secure tbe services of a competent patent attorney, skilled in tbe preparation of patent flpftclQCatlcms. Address Munn&Co., Patent Attorneys, jtil Broadway. New York City. MISCELLANEOUS. FULLY QUALIFIED ENGLISH ENGINEER (A. M. I. C. E.), situate in London, already acting as representative tor a few good firms, is prepared to undertake EngJisb Agency tor one or two good specialties. Ex- ce n e r British Patents for successful finished inventions. Address, Engineer, Box 773, New York. THE LOXOGRAPH TRIANGULAR RU LER.-Saves time tracing mechanical drawings. ('an be moved over fresh ink lines witbout blotting. Send for circular. The Loxograpb Instrument Co., Wilmington, DeJ. IF YOUR PATENT is of value I can develop itand put it on the market. For full particulars address, S. S. Scott, 1680 Marquette Building.Chicago, Ul. JUST INVENTED a bottle or cork that cannot be refilled after emptying useful for alJ liquids. Write for particulars. Address, J. Soula, FJat 10, 125 West 28tb Street, New York City, MOTORCYCLES CHEAP.—Send today for free catalog of new and used motorcycles. Also motorcycle accessories and attacbable motor outfits tor converting bicycles into motorcycles. Sbaw Manufacturing Company, Dept. 24. Galesburg, Kans. GINSENG Raising is tbe surest way to make Big Money on Little Capital. One acre will yield 5000 lbs. Sells at $6 a lb. I will buy all yuu raise. Grows any-wbere. Requires your spare time only. I f you arenot satisfied with your present income, write me today. T. H. Sutton, 780 Sherwood Ave., Louisville, Ky. KOETH'S KOMBINATION KIT is botb unique and novel. Comprising six pair ofjaws. Operated by one pair bandies. Prooerly adjusted makes fifteen distinct and useful tools. Manufactured of tempered tool steel. by our own expert mechanics. Guaranteed. Liberal t erms. exclusive territory. Write for catalogue. Currier-Koeth Manufacturing Co. . 63 West St, Coudersport, Pa. MAKE BIG MONEY operating a Daydarfe Post Card Machine. Pboto postal cards made and delivered on the spot in ten minutes in the open street. No dark room necessary—it does not require an experienced photographer to make first-class pictures. Pays a gross profit of 500 per cent. Write today for free sample and catalogue. Daydark Specialty Co.. Dept. 2 V. St. Louis. FRER—MNVESTING FOR PROFIT” Magazine. Send n an ill a b a absolutely free. Before you invest a dollar anywhere—get this magazine — it is wortb $10 a copy to any man who intends to invest $5 or more per montb. Tells you how $1.000 can grow to $22,000 —how to judge different classes of investments; the Real Earning Power of your money. This magazine six montbs free if you write to-day. H. L. Barber. Pub-lisber. 423, 28 YV. Jacksun Blvd.. Chicago. BEST DOUBLE POWER PLANT AEROPLANE. One of tbe five entrants to the (JouJd Prize Contest. Has also automatics, stability and dangerous dive preventer; otber new features unequalled. First macbine. half prize and two patent rigbts as “insurance or collateral tor capital to build and sbip—or in view of other pressing interests and duties, will sell or deal witb manufacturing firm. Edward J. Elsas, Jnventor, 228 W. 16th St., Kansas City. Mo. UNI V ERSAL ATTACHMENT and drive for boring tools. AU drills and bits instantly adjusted in all driving sockets, etc., without screw or movable part. Many advantages. Cannot be equalled. Royalty. or party to tc ple—see patent No. 1,001,376. E, 1. Elsas.KansasCity, Mo. THE MOST WONDERFUL BOOK on buman Ian- si fettera.meaning. Spelling vindicated.. Many.mysteries cleared. Investor, publisher or printer wanted—Share. E. J. Elsaa, author, Kansas City, Mo. October 14, 1911 351 this country has undergone in the last half century is shown by the prosecution of the United Shoe Machinery Company. This “trust” owns at least a thousand and possibly fifteen hundred United States patents. A mere list of them alone covers 54 pages of legal cap. In some instances many patents have been granted to one inventor. John B. Hadaway has received about 76 patents, and Thomas G. Plant also a large number. The “trust” also owns hundreds of foreign patents. A New Hose-supporter Wanted.—A man of our acquaintance says he does not like a hose-supporter which encircles or grips his leg or one that is connected with and drags down on his undergarments, both such forms being on the market. Cannot someone invent a supporter that will hold the top of a sock up and avoid both of the above described objectionable features'? A Machine for Making Imitation Stitches.—John B. Hadaway of Brockton, Mass., assignor to United Shoe Machinery Company. has secured three patents, No. 1.003.450 to No. 1,003,452, for machines for making impression or imitation stitches. The patent. No. 1.003,450, has an indenting wheel which is rolled back and forth over the work and is also caused to feed the work during its rolling movement. The patents, Nos. 1,003,450 to 1,003.452. were issued September 19th, 1911, on applications filed, respectively, July 18th, 1904. September 16th, 1904, and March 22nd, 1905, so that the applications were pending in the Patent Office from six to seven years. This inven tor, John B. Hadaway, is one of the most prolific inventors in the shoe machine art and was the pateotee of a patent, No. 521.978, for a machine for the same general purpose as the three above specified. The patent. No. 5521.978, was granted June 26th, 1894, and consequently expired last June. The application on which this expired patent issued was filed in the Patent Office March 28th, 1894, and as the patent issued June 26th, 1894. the application was pending less than three months, in striking contrast to the'three patents just issued. Protecting from Electrolysis. — Albert B. Herrick. in a patent, No. 1,003,604, describes a method of preventing an earth conductor adjacent a grounded return by alternately connecting the earth conductor to the grounded return and to a source of negative electromotive force. Sterilizing Earth Around P osts.—Patent post holes have long been humorously referred to in connection with machines for grinding smoke, left-hand wheel barrows, and other imaginary inventions. It has remained, however, for a Budapest inventor to make what is probably an important improvement relating particularly to post holes. seeking to tbus preserve the wood of the posts. Instead of applying preservatives to the wooden posts, railroad ties, sleepers or other wood exposed to the action of the earth, he treats the earth which surrounds the wooden post io such manner as to destroy all insect. germ and fungus life by soaking the earth with a suitable sterilizing liquid. The process is termed “Peristerilization.” and is claimed to be especially useful in rural and other remote districts in which it is inconvenient to obtain wood which has been treated with creosote or similar preservative. . Cork Plugs for a Novel Purpose.—Cork plugs are utilized in a cotton gin roller, patent No. 1.002.842. to William H. Har-riss of Pawtucket. R. I., assignor to Empire Duplex Gin Company of New York city. The roller has a number of radial recesses. and the plugs of cork are fitted in the recesses and project beyond the surface of the roller. The cork plugs are described in the patent as constituting the operation friction surface of the roller, and the construction is inexpensive to manufacture and is otherwise advantageous, since the . cork plugs being fitted to the recesses, may be readily renewed when worn or damaged. A Novel Motor-controlling Improvement. —The operation of an electric motor as a series motor, and then as a cumulative compound generator when the motor is overhauled by the load, is the purpose of . patent No. 1.003,431, to Alexander Church-1 ward of New York city, assig'lor to General Electric Company. II). securing the desired result. Mr. Churchward provides the motor with a series and a shunt field winding. and means for connecting the motor as a series motor for running and for connecting the shunt field winding in circuit and for reversing and shunting the series field winding when the motor is regenerating. A Coaster Bar for Roller Skaters.— What is termed a roller-pole toy has been patented, No. 1,003,537, to Thomas S. Spivey of Cincinnati, Ohio. It consists of a pole, having a roller at one end and a handle at the other end, the rider sitting astride the pole on a seat. In front of the rider there is provided on the pole a cross bar between the seat and the handle, the knees of the rider bearing below the brace bar. so that when the rider is sitting, much of the weight is taken off the handle. A Fireworks Auxiliary.—In patent, No. 1,003,411, to Haden Herbert Bales of Ash-croft, British Columbia, we find an airship frame with a battery of pyrotechnical rocket cylinders. adapted to operate as an auxiliary to the main propelling mechanism. Means are provided for adjusting the position of the rockets to regulate the direction of the discharge, and also a selective mechanism for firing any particular one or all of the rockets, as occasion may require. An Illusion Apparatus.—A patent, No 1,003.905. with Roy McHill of Somerville. Mass., as inventor, is for an apparatus for producing an illusory effect, in which a vessel is supplied with water from a pipe discharging from above and an exhaust pipe leads upward from the vessel into the first pipe so it is hidden by the water discharged into the vessel, a pump, out of sight, being suitably connected with both pipes to properly circulate the water. Three Patents to Charles Francis Jenkins.—Charles Francis Jenkins of Washington, D. C.. has secured patents, No. 1.003.750, for a gas engine starter; No. 1.003.751, for a railway tie of metal and concrete with a special rail gripping device, and No. 1,003,752, for a gas motor starter. Legal Notes A Void Patent. —The Regnier patents, No. 678,514. for a vegetable or fruit slicer and method of making the same, and No. 744,107, for a slicer to produce such slices, Held void for prior public use. Handy Things Company v. Tucker&Dorsey Manufacturing Company (C. C. A.), 188 Fed. Rep. 68. Substantive Patent Law and Procedure. —In a hearing last year before the Patent Committee of the House of Representatives, one of the most distinguished patent lawyers of the country said, in commenting on the substance of the patent law and the practice thereunder, as follows: "The patent law, the substance of the law, in this country I think is admirable. I do not think there is any branch of law where the substance is in better shape than in the patent law to-day. When you come to procedure, that is, the way in which cases are tried, nothing could be worse." Warning to American Trade-mark Proprietors.—In a note. published by the Bureau of Manufactures, American Minister John B. Jackson, Habana, Cuba, gives a warning and extends some good advice to owners of trade-marks, as follows: "Under the provisions of the existing Cuban law with respect to trade-rna rks any person whatsoever can legally register well-known foreign trade-marks and deprive the foreign owners of such trade devices of the benehts arising from thei r possession. This has happened recently in several instances involving patent or proprietary medicines. When the third party has once registered the trademarks in due form under the law the only redress possible for the rightful owner or originator is to bring action for fraud, and proof of fraud is naturally very difficult under such conditions, even in the most obvious cases. "The registration of trade-marks is a simple and inexpensive matter in Cuba, and rightful owners may easily prevent difficulty by having their trade-marks registered at once whenever there is any likelihood of entering the Cuban market. It is urged that American manufacturers take note of this matter and by fore-stalling the registration of their trade designations by strangers in the island avoid future trouble." $1800 Self-starting Chalmers” Thirty-six” Leads Our “Thirty-six” was the first medium-priced car to have these features: Self-starting device Does away with cranking, Simple air pressure type. Nothing complicated—just press a button on the dash and away goes your motor. Genuine long stroke motor—4J4"x 5%:" Means better pulling, longer service, greater quietness, freedom from vibration. Five speed transmission—four forward speeds and one reverse Gives utmost flexibility of control and enables you to climb the steepest grades with speed. Dash adjustment for the carburetor You can get the proper mixture to suit the varying weather conditions without getting out of car and lifting the hood. 36” x 4” tires and Continental Demountable rims These big tires do away with tire trouble and insure ease of riding. Demountable rims rob punctures of their terrors. Genuine honey-comb radiator, cellular type Same radiator found on highest priced cars. Means perfect cooling, longer life, good looks. Bosch dual ignition Simplest system yet devised. Nothing equals a magneto for furnishing perfect ignition. {Read that over again. It is hard to realize at one reading that all these hig features are really present in one car selling for $1800) The famous Chalmers “30” is continued for 1912, representing even greater value than ever before. The price, $1500, includes magneto, gas and oil lamps, Prest-O-Lite tank, top and windshield. The Chalmers “Forty” at $2750 is continued forthose wishing a 7-passengercar. LSee these cars at our dealers. Catalog on request. Chalmers Motor Company. Detroit, Mich. ____________.___<^ "Mack” Superiority F it were possible for us to take every prospective truck buyer through our immense plant at Allentown, and show him how conscientiously and substantially “Mack” trucks are built; have him see every process, from the selection of the raw materials to the final coat of paint to the finished product, and last but not least, to see for himself the rigid “third degree” test over hill and valley which every “Mack” truck must undergo, before delivery to the buyer, then he would realize—as thousands of representative business firms do —that the” Mack” is truly The Leading Gasoline Truck of America The ease and economy cf operation, the power to extend your commercial area, the manner in which a “Mack” outstrips competiti on is left to be told in a highly illustrated catalogue which will be cheerfully mailed upon request. Mack Bros. Motor Car Company Sales Offices and Show Room Main Office and Shops 30 Church St., New York Allentown, Pa. Leading Gasoline Truck of America 596600?? 852 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Model 21 Haynes. 40 h. p.. 5-passenger touring. 120 in. wheel base. 4ix51 motor. $2100. The Haynes for 1912 has received a royal welcome IF ANY further evidence of the place which the Haynes . car holds in the minds of the discriminating public were needed, it was furnished by the overwhelming response to our announcement of the 1912 Haynes. By reason of the fire which completely destroyed our old factory last February. the Haynes car virtually had been out of the market for seven months. During those same months, other manufacturers were going to the public day after day, month in and month out, with their advertising, with their salesmen, and with their announcements of newmodels while we were at a standstill. Last month, when our magnificent new factory had risen from the ashes of our old one. when its wonderful modern equipment had been installed and our"first 1912 model had been built and tested and proven to be tha. best of all the splendid Haynes mode1s ever built, then we dank; back into the market. It was a glorioUS return and the welcomc has been beyond all expectation. We hadn't realized it but tjie public was waiting for the .new Haynes. The 1912 IIay.a^^f||jJaasses, Model 21 and Model Y, 50-60 h. p., eight ty^s;<;tf:lbotly4lrtcqiysw.:;:^ rb, high-power car, and bujlt*into''r%«i§^ of I lny*«eY.£iSB|gfiefrce “and-skill. Rices. S2l06WjSSd^"'W^ al-o coniimw-.^plng, our,y00*r MocTcl-20 in four: bodies, .prices. $1650 te^lc^f^^^^ir^laynes dealer nowj'dr write for catalogire'at ^^^^^S^ HAYNES^A'U^i^Sti^DMPANY Dept. E KOfifflKx INDIANA New York: 1715 Broadway Chicago: 1702 Michigan Avenue Detroit Aeroplane Model 1912 Price $300, including Bosch Magneto, Schebler Carburetor, and Propeller. Ready to Run and Guaranteed to Fly. Bleriot XI, Demoiselle, Nieuport. Morane, Grade Monoplanes, and Curtiss and “ Baby” Wright Biplanes. Catalog Free DETROIT AEROPLANE COMPANY Detroit, Mich. AIRCRAFT—The World's Great Flying M agazine contains a complete review of everything taking place throughout the entire world in aeronautics At the present time all progressive men are studying this great new art of flying. (j[ AIRCRAFT is generally recognized by the leading authorities on the subject as being the organ of the movement itself. It is Published Monthly. Its subscription price is $1.50 per year, or $1.00 for eight months THE LAWSON PUBLISHING CO. - - 37-39 East 28th St., New York, N. Y. Hy-Ril:. isa Money Saver Concrete costs are greatly reduced by using Hy-Rib Steel sheathing because it does away with centering, wood forms. and special equipment. Merely set up the Hy-Rib, apply the cemeqt and the work is complete. A strong, permanent; fireproof construction— more economical than wood. stone or brick. Hy -Rib for all Buildings In Walls and Sidings, Hy-Rib makes a thin, monolithic wall at half the cost ofbrick. In Roofs. Hy-Rib reduces the dead weight and does away with centering. In Partitions, Hy-Rib saves all steel studs. and lowers cost of labor. In Ceilings, Furring, Tanks. Silos. Culverts, etc., Hi-Rib is a money-saver. If you write us about your proposed FREE buildings (1) Hy-Rib H andbook, full of details, illustrations, applications, and specifications; (2) Hib-Rib and concrete on the Farm—complete designs of »!<», barns, house*, fences, tanks* etc, TRUSSED CONCRETE STEEL COMPANY -602 Trussed Concrete Bide., DETROIT. MICH. October 14-, 391] [The editors are not responsible for statements made in the correspohdenCe column. Anonymous communications cannot be considered, but the names' of correspondents will be withheld when so-desired.] Whirling Rain Drops on the Car Window To the Editor of Scientific American: On a rainy day the observing traveler will doubtless be surprised to find that every rain drop on the car window by his side becomes a miniature whirling vortex as long as the car is in motion at speeds above ten or fifteen miles per hour. The effect is most easily noticed when the rain drops have collected enough fine particles of soot to make their motion apparent. While the largest drops show the greatest movement, the rotation can be detected even in droplets down to one-eighth inch in diameter when the train is running at high speed. The direction of rotation for each individual drop is the same as that of the car-wheels, the cause of the motion doubtless being due to wind friction against the lower rounded side of the water drop. The pear-shape form of the drops, especially the larger ones, where the attraction of gravity for the mass gets the better of the surface tension, which tends to hold the spherical form, results in a greater rotational moment at the rounded bottom than at the thin, wedge-like top, so that the wind friction at this lower surface produces movement in the same direction as the car wheels below. O. H. C. Chicago, Ill. Metric Wire Gage To the Editor of Scientific American: From a very reliable source I learn that the Committee on Weights and Measures of the next Congress will report a bill doing away with our old-fogy system of having different-size measures for different articles. For instance, we have a large quart for berries, beans, peas, etc., and a smaller quart for liquids. In the matter of weight we have avoirdupois, apothecary, and troy, no two of which are alike. Equally absurd as the above is the great number of non-standard wire gages, none of which has a base that is get-atable as a starting point, and no two that agree thereafter. To overcome this “conglomeration” in gages, the writer some time ago designed one (for both metal and wire), that is standard throughout. It takes for its base the same angle (of one degree) upon which the metric system of measure- ments is founded. It starts at the apex of this angle for Its first member, and gives it as No. 0, which it really Is, for no substance, however small, can enter there. To locate No, 1, we measure along either side of the angle one millimeter; for No. 2, measure two millimeters from No. 1; for No. 3, go three' millimeters from No. 2, and so on ad1 infinitum. It will be noticed that each gage number indicates the number of millimeters intervening between that number and the next smaller one below, ' and that every number is of good commercial size. To illustrate its practicability, suppose a party in some isolated place had a piece of wire and wished to order more like it, but had no gage. All he would have to do would be to lay out an angle of one degree, insert his wire and measure the number of millimeters from its point of contact to the apex of the angle, then point off the gage numbers as above, and he has the exact size—a thing that cannot be done with any other gage made. The accompanying drawing plainly shows for itself. The engraved angle in the center is exaggerated for purposes of illustration, but it represents an angle of one degree, on one arm of which are millimeters, and on the other the gage numbers, engraved simply to show the principle of the system, while on its outer margin are the usual slots cut out for the different sizes, with the gage numbers at each separate slot, all of which is as simple as “rolling off a log." Merritt W. Gkiswold. Highwood, N. J. Twenty - seven - knot Armored Cruisers Urgently Needed for the United States Navy To the Editor of Scientific American: Having just read in your issue of July 22nd your most . interesting comparison of the United States and German navies, I would like to have your explanation of the policy of the United States navy, which omits the dreadnought armored cruiser type as found in the British and German navies, and of which type Japan is now said to be building more than the battleship type. With even one ship of the British “Lion” type, an admiral in charge of our ten dreadnoughts of the “Texas,” “Wyoming,” “Utah,” “Delaware,” and “Michigan” classes, could send his one 30-knot dreadnought to locate the enemy. Our light 24 to 26-knot scouts of the “Chester” class, and our 22-knot armored cruisers of the “Washington” classes, would obviously be completely at the mercy of British, German, or Japanese dreadnought cruisers of 28 to 30 knots speed, and it would be murder to send our good fighting men out in such ships. Would not these navies possess a great advantage on this account? How could our admiral “find the enemy,” and destroy' him when the enemy, by means of their dreadnought cruisers, would be able to keep in touch with the movements of our fleet, while our admiral would be in-the. dark? Ought not our next two ships to be of the “Lion” type, or at least one of them? A. B. Irvine. St. Marc, Haiti. [Our correspondent has placed his hand on a weak spot in the make-up of our fleet. For some years to come our annual naval programme should call for two battleships and _ two armored cruisers of the “Von der. Tann” type. Our “Chesters” (25 iinots) . and “Washing-tons” (21 knots) would be helpless In the presence of the 26 to 28-knot 12-inch gun armored cruisers of foreign navies. —Ed.] Foreign-built Dredgers Built to the Order of the United States To the Editor of Scientific American: There is announcement made that a Glasgow firm has just launched the United States dredger “Corozal,” built to the order of the United States government. The order was placed last August, and caused considerable dissatisfaction to United States builders. Only one Ameri* Building Character in a Writing Machine L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter (BALL-BEARING, LONG-WEARING) Every part of this typewriter is made as if it were the one product on which the factory's reputation must finally depend. Every part is designed to produce, bv itself and in conjunction with every other part (not only for the expert typist under favorable conditions, but for the ordinary operator under all sorts of conditions), the perfect work by which the L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter must be judged. Character is built into the L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter. It makes this typewriter the always dependable writing machine you want in your office. Write today for free i/lus/ra/ed booklets Branches in all large cities L. C. SMITH&BROS. TYPEWRITER CO. Head Office for Domestic and Foreign Business, Syracuse. N. Y.. U. S. A. *^=^^ PI AINFIFL1 ' * W&DiVlO&EY PLAINFIELD. N. J. ROTARY PUMPS AND ENGINES Their Origin and Development An important series ot papers giving a historical resume of the rotary pump and engine from I 588 and illustrated with clear drawings showing the construction of various forms of pumps and engines. 38 illustrations. Contained in Supplements 1109. I I 10, I I I I. Price 10 cents each. For sale by Munn&Co., Inc., and all newsdealers. Veeder Counters to register reciprocating I movements or revolutions. Cut full size. Booklet Free. VEEDER MFG. CO. 18 Sargeant St., Hartford, Conn. Cyclometers, Odometers, Tachometers. Counters and Fine Castings. Represented in Great Britain by Markt & Co., Limited, “ City Roaii, t'instuirj Square, London, E.C.;' France, by Markt&Co., Limited, 107 Avenue Parmentier, Paris; Germany, Austria-Hungary Lu and Scandinavian Loewk&Co. Huttew Strasse 17.20, Berlin. Countries by Caution to Purchasers of TOPS 8 a top mate ial of recognized high and unitorm quai.ty ana l:t product made onlyby us. Many unscrupulous dealers misrepresent as PANTASOTE cheap inferior materials to increase their profits at the purchaser's expense. To the average person these substitutes when new look somewhat like PANTASOTE. Dealers received these labels FREE with every yard, leav-ini ei ij enema for not using thera Unlike “Mohairs” and similar products PANTASOTE can readily be cleaned. it is not affected by benzine, gasoline or other cleaning fluids. 1” ibil respect it is absolutely unique and alone. Send postal for booklet on top materials and sample* j.THE PANTASOTE Cp: can builder made tender, and it was so much higher than the foreign builders offered to build for, that President Taft felt justified in vetoing the resolution of Congress prohibiting work for the United States to be done in foreign yards. The difference between the foreign bid and the one bid tendered by the American company that bid, amounted to almost $100,000. In other cases the government exercises its power and avails of foreign tonnage, rather than pay the American “scale” of freight charges. Annually several thousand tons of coal for the account of the government are transported from Virginia to San Francisco and Portland, Ore., foreign tonnage can be had to move it for sixty per cent of what the American-built tonnage charge. The government contracts with the foreign tonnage, and the coal is moved on the low rate. If an American company has coal to move from an Atlantic American port to an American Pacific port, it is compelled to use American tonnage and to pay the American freight scale. The government of the United States refuses to obey its own laws. The United States government shows that the navigation laws tend to extortion. The United States government compels the people of the United States to obey the navigation laws and to pay extortionate freight rates. Is it not time to consider the revision of these navigation laws, that have been in effect for over one hundred years, and which have practically driven us out of the foreign shipping trade and been the means of extortion and monopoly in the domestic? If the government of the United States refuses to obey its navigation laws, why should the citizens of the United States be compelled to? There is a remedy for this state of things; allow American registration for foreign-built American-owned tonnage, limited if necessary to foreign trade, and put all iron and steel and shipbuilding material on the free list. We will then be able to compete in building with foreign yards. As long as Iron and steel are highly protected, and as long as iron and steel made in this country is sold from $8 to $11 per ton cheaper to foreigners than to our home builders, we will be unable to meet the competition of foreign builders of tonnage. There is depression in United States trade. Many of our yards are on short time. We want a revival of our American merchant marine. The surest way to bring it about _ is to reform the navigation laws, and allow Americans the privilege of “free ships” the same as Great Britain and Germany allow to their people. Also we should break the monopoly that exists in the iron and steel trades by taking off all duties. Chicago, III. Charles Depesee. General Factory and Machine Shop Lubrication IT is a matter of common knowledge among well informed factory managers that the power loss due to the friction developed in the moving parts of machinery, is considerable. In the endeavor to reduce. this absorption of power experiments have 'been and are being made with types of roller and ball bearings. Lubrication, however, is a question just as important. As a consequence of the failure to appreciate the necessity for the investigation of lubricating problems and choice of lubricants, the possible saving in this direction is frequently very large. A considerable reduction in power can usually be effected by simply changing the oil. These reductions will in many cases be approximately the same as the substitution of roller or ball bearings for the ordinary type of bearing. This being the case, it seems advisable to consider the elements bearing upon efficient lubrication in a practical way and the necessities for the right quality of oil in the right place. When reductions h “ower to the extent of ten or fifteen per Cl in the driving of workshop machinery arlshafting are easily brought about by the '-e-establish-ment of oils or the use of more suitable lubricants, and when this reduction of power can in many cases be brought to The Warner Is the Official Road Map Speed Indicator THE WARNER was used in compiling the routes in the Automobile Blue Book, King's Official Road Guide and the dozens of Official Guides put out by Automobile Clubs and map makers. Note how this affects you— You tour unknown territory occasionally. You must depend on some reliable map or ask your way at frequent intervals with unsatisfactory results. Some people delight in directing Automobilists to take the worst roads or the wrong road. With the Warner Auto-Meter on your car the road map directions are easy to follow. It is impossible to go wrong. Where the route book says: “21.6 miles— four corners. Turn right at country schoolhouse; bridge over creek J4 mile away"—you will find the four corners and the schoolhouse just when the route book says—at 21.6 miles, no more and no less. Note this little human interest story which bears on this point-Early in June a car drove up to our Beloit factory. It bore an Ohio license number. The owner was driving. With him were his wife and two daughters. One of the first things he said, after introductions and greetings were over, was: “I had only had my car a week when we decided to drive from Columbus to Madison, my old home, in the auto. And do you know we haven't yet asked a direction from a single human being, relying entirely on our route book.” The directions came out right because the routes were surveyed—and interpreted—by Warner Auto-Meter. This case is only one of many which have come to our notice. There are conditions when touring becomes a nightmare instead of a pleasure. The different route book and map makers have themselves advertised the fact that the Warner was adopted by them as their “Official Speed Indicator,” because after testing all makes they found the Warner in every sense the sensitive, accurate, dependable and reliable instrument of precision we have claimed it to be. When an inaccurate and unreliable speed indicator is used to interpret an accurately surveyed map or route, disaster results. In .such cases where the route book says: “49.8—forks in road with big elm in angle. Take the left branch.” You are likely to find nothing in sight but open prairie or you may be approaching a four corners or small town. So you are lost unless you stop to ask questions, and this is what a route book is intended to prevent. The route book maker's principal tribulation is explaining to owners of unreliable speed indicators that their routes, compiled at a cost of thousands of dollars, are right and that no one using a Warner speed indicator to interpret them has cause to complain. A little Warner device which adds still further to the joys of Touring. All Warner instruments of the dial type (see illustration) have two resetting buttons for the trip mileage figures. One resets the figures to 000.0 with a single turn. The other works on the tenths of a mile only, making it possible to turn up any desired mileage on the trip scale. This makes it possible to drive around the boulevards or through the parks at any point and then in a few seconds set the mileage back to correspond with the route book readings. Those who tour regularly will appreciate this refinement. The Warner costs more than inferior speed indicators for a very good reason. Those who look for satisfaction on the bargain counter are certain to be disappointed. We have all had our lesson. Supreme quality is worth its cost. And— as in other things—the Warner is also the cheapest speed indicator obtainable if you base its price on years of service or miles of travel. It is a permanent investment because it remains as sensitive, accurate and reliable as when new for many years— or many hundred thousand miles. ^^T^HE Warner can be secured through reputable Automobile Dealers in any city or town in the United States. Warner branches are maintained in all the principal cities for the convenience of these dealers and their customers. Inquiry to Beloit or at our branches is invited for Warner literature. I; Free to Automobilists A yest -pock^ “ Automcjtuit: - Expense Record” tab in - dexed for conveniently keeping account of tires. gasoline, oil, repairs, etc. Sent FREE for name and model of your car. Address S. C. ANDREWS, Booklet' Dept., Warner Instrument Co., Beloit, Wis. Warner Instrument Company Main Offices and Factory 1208 Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis. Branch Houses Maintained at Atlanta Boston Buffalo Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland Denver Detroit Indianapolis Kansas City Los Angeles New York Philadelphia Indianapolis Pimaaelpiiitt ji. u Canadian Branch, 559 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ont, Pittsburgh Portland, Ore. San Francisco Seattle St. Louis Model M2, Price $ 1 25 Other Models from $50 to $145 See Catalogue 854 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 14, 1911 Cruises by Air and Sea D a i 1 y Passenger-Trips by Zeppelin-Airship “ Schwaben,” from Baden-Baden. Around the World. Cruises by the S. S. Cleveland (17000 Tons). First cruise leaves New York Oct. 21, 1911, the second from San Francisco Feb. 6, 1912. Duration 110 Days Each. $650 up (including all necessary expenses aboard and ashore). Orient Cruise by S. S. Victoria Luise(16500 Tons) leaving New York Jan. 30, 1912. Duration 78 Days. Cost $325 and up. Cruise to South America by S. S. BWcher (12500 Tons) leaving New York Jan. 20, 1912. Duration 80 Days. Cost $350 and up. F:«,«. S- S Moltke (12500 Tons) leaving New York ) 28 Days Five Jan. 23, Feb. 24, 1912. f $150 and up. to f he S. S. Hamburg (11000 Tons) leaving New York ) 21 Days W me > Feb. 10, March 7, 1912. f $125 and up. Tnjf” by S. S. Moltke (12500 Tons) leaving New York } 16 Days lndles March 16,1912. [$85 and up. To Italy and Egypt. Special cruise by S. S. Kaiserin Auguste Victoria (25000 Tons) leaving New York Feb. 14, 1912. Leaving New York weekly by Prinz Steamers (5000 Tons) Connecting with Peru, Chili, to and from Panama II to 25 Days. $70 to $125. To the Panama Canal Cuba, Jamaica. Hayti, Colombia, Costa Rica Send for Illustrated Pamph/et of All Cruises HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 41-45 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Prnladelphia, Boston, Pittsburg, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco PARIS GARTERS NoMetal Can Touch You Are the universal firs/ choice. They are the handsomest and most durable Garters made and afford the maximum of comfort. There's a printed guarantee of satisfaction with every paii. Look for the name PJlRIS on every garter. A. STEIN&CO., Makers CHICAGO : : : : U. S. A. D Just listen to this. There is a little plaster which holds a bit of soft wax—a wondrous invention called B&B wax. This little plaster is applied in a jiffy, and the pain of the corn stops instantly. But that isn't all. That bit of soft B&B wax gently loosens the corn. In two days the corn comes out. No pain, no soreness, 110 inconvenience — no feeling whatever. The callous simply separates itself from the toe, and the trouble ends. Five million corns annually are removed in this way — removed by Blue-jay plasters. Get a package — end yours, too. Don't temporize with corns. A in the picture Is the soft B&B wax. It loosens the com. B protects the corn, stopping the pain at once. C wraps around the toe. It is narrowed to be comfortable. D is rubber adhesive to fasten the plaster on. I5cand25c per package Blue=j ay Corn PI ast ers (8) Also Blue-jay Bunion Plasters. All Druggists Sell and Guarantee Them. Sample mailed lree. Bauer&Black, Chicago and New York, Makers of Surgical Dressings, etc. as high as thirty or forty per cent, it is very evident that the investigation of this subject is worth considerable time and trouble. Because a good quality of oil is bought by the purchasing agent of a company it is not always true that this oil is used to the best advantage in the works. As an example: If an oil similar to a high class dynamo oil is bought by the pur chasing agent in large quantities for a general machine shop and, aa frequently happens, a considerable portion of this oil is mixed with either cylinder or black oil—to suit the operator's idea of what he imagines is the proper compound for general lubrication of machinery—the mixture is not at all adapted to the work which it is made to perform; and (if the original oil is being mixed with cylinder oil, as is sometimes the case) the cost is greatly in excess of what it should be, and the efficiency of the oil as a general lubricant is considerably impaired, even though the cost has been increased. It is impossible here to make any statement as to the use of different classes of lubricants for certain purposes, as the conditions of speed, pressure, class and arrangement of machinery, the devices employed for the lubricating, etc., have considerable effect, not only upon the oil which can be used but upon the character of oil which is most efficient for the work. It may be stated, however, that the use of light oils is possible only where special mechanical devices are arranged for the purpose of lubrication or where the shafting has the proper ring oiling bearings, etc. It is also true, as a rule, that floor machinery cannot be lubricated satisfactorily with the same oil that is used for modern shafting. Floor machinery itself can very well be divided into three classes, each class being lubricated with a different oil. In the lubricating of plants of a general character it is customary to use grease or solid lubricants for some purposes. In some cases greases can be used with economy, but an excess of grease will act against the actual economy of operation on account of the increase in power required to overcome friction of the parts where the grease is used. It is invariably the case that grease will require the development of more power than necessary where oil is being used, and the only features that commend grease as a lubricant are its greater cleanliness and the fact that less attention is required in the lubrication of the various units. Where bearings have some mechanical fault of construction or alignment, or are roughly fitted, or where it is not worth while to produce a proper fit, they absolutely require grease as a lubricant; but even under these conditions such bearings can be lubricated in some cases more cheaply by the application of heavy cylinder oil. In considering the efficiency of lubricants for general purposes, the fact that grease will reduce the bearing temperature of an improperly constructed or mechanically imperfect bearing should - not be taken as indication that the same results will obtain from the use of grease through the entire plant, where probably almost every other bearing is in good condition. It is very frequently the case, however, that grease is placed in a shop for general lubrication on account of just such a misconception from its work upon an imperfect bearing, the imperfections in the bearing not being taken into consideration. The fact of the matter is that the reduction of the temperature in this case which follows the use of grease in the bearing is the result of a special con- . dition and does not illustrate the general applicability of the material. The amount of oil required to provide proper lubrication in order to reduce the friction loss as nearly as possible to a minimum is so small that if it were possible thus to reduce the amount used the oil accounts of every company would be cut in half and in a number of cases possibly a large reduction would be undertaken. The high oil accounts as a rule are due to the waste of oil. In order to reduce this waste and bring it down to a proper proportion of the amount of oil necessary for the lubrication of the machinery, etc., it is absolutely necessary that appliances should be installed which will enable the "STAR" ^ For Foot w or Power Large Line of Attachments F°” LATHES Sllftiiblo for flim iternrate work in lh<> repair slid p. iiarji^e, tool room and machine slio)). Send lor Catalogue 11 SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 695 Water Street Seneca Falls. N. Y., U.S.A. SEBASTIAN LATHES 9 to 1S Inch Swing High Quality Low Prices Catalog Free THE SEBASTIAN J.ATHE CO., 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati, O. WORKSHOPS of Wood and Metal Workers, without steam power, equipped with BARNES' Foot Power MACHINERY allow lower bids on jobs and give greater profit on the work. Machines sent on trial if desired. Catalog free. W. F.&JNO. BARNES CO. 1999 Ruby Street Established 1872. Rockford, Illinois Improved Combination Lathe for mechanics, model makers, experimenters and amateurs. Hollow steel spindle. The foot motion is of the improved grasshopper type. Circular saw has iron saw table perfectly adjusted. Guide and slide move to and fro readily, and are always true to the saw. Slide may be set at any angle. $45, $50, '$55 and 1)60. A. J. WILKINSON&CO. Machinery, etc. 184.188 Washington St. BOSTON, MASS. MODELS immmsTGHKmiiL. Makes repairs neatH and quick. Mends harness, shoesT canvas. Myers' Sewing Awl makes” Lock Stitch. $1 prepaid. Big money for agents. C. A. MYERS CO., 6374 Lexington Ave.,Chicago, III. 1ES, FINE TOOLS ^ftERY 1ETAL SPECIALTIES ^en^ONS 00RE&C0., K&htt PERFECTED, METAL SPECIALTIES Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY ... E. V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St.,N. Y. ^yS=f°WANTIFn To manufacture METAL j^g- “ t\.i\ 1 CU SPECIALTIES. 20 year, experience in making Dies. Tools and Special Machinery. Expert work. Complete equipment. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS Dept. 2, 412 So. Clinton Street, - Chicago. IIl. | Magical Apparatus. Grand Book Catalogue. Over 700 engravings 25c. Parlor Tricks Catalogue. free. MART1NKA&CO.. Mfrs., 493 Sixth Ave., New York LEA RN TELEGRAPHY MORSE and WIRELESS at home with OMHIGKAPII AUTOMATIC TEACHER iu half usual time—trifling cost. Sends you messages without limit auto-s$ Catalogfree. OMNIGRAPH MFG. CO. Dept. 16. 39 Cortlandt Street, New York. MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOISTS save expense and liability incident to Elevators. Adopted by principal storehouses in New V ork&Bost on Manid. by VOLNEY W. MASON&CO., Jnc. Providence. ]{. I.. U. S. A. Experimental&Model Work Circular and Advice Free Wm. Gardam&Son, 82-86 Park Place, N THE SCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. »STEEL STAMPS LETTERS&FIGURES. BRIDGEPORT CONN. IIIBRICATISVo"? Anything _ 118-134 Norlli Clinton &U CH.BES lYa CQ fttSS^f £USA ?Su USE GRINDSTONES P If so we can supply you. All sizes mounted and unmounted, always kept in stock. Remember, we make a specialtyof selecting st ones for allspe-cial purposes. .send Jor catalogue “I." Tbe CIjEVELAND ISTONE ()O. 6th Floor. Hickox Bldg., Cleveland. O. STILL ANOTHER OF THE "RED DEVILS" (Same make as famous “Red Devil “ glass cutters) This Self-Feeding Chain Drill, No. 2012, will drill Iron, Steel, Slate or Marble eajzly with a common bit brace. If your dealer hasn't it, send us $2.00 and his name. We prepay delivery, one only, at this price. smith&HEMENWAY CO. 150 Chambers Street New York City More' Than a Million Men' I Will Read this Advertisement Many thousands of whom will be interested enough to write for our new Catalog No. 10 of Men's High-grade Furnishings in colors. Ready Nov. 1st A work of art—the most beautiful catalog of men's wear ever published. Every article shown in natural colors—Neckwear, Gloves, Hosiery, Shirts, Reefers, Mufflers, Handkerchiefs, An absolutely matchless selection—all in colors —newest sty 1 e s — newest effects — at prices that must prove a revelation to the purchaser. A ny article ordered that does not prove even more than satisfactory may be returned and money will be refunded at once. No. 120—This beautiful Four-in-Hand Scarf, made from excellent quality soft silkin every conceivable color, sent prepaid to any address in United States or Canada for $ 1.00. Add 5c to your remittance for insurance. SlctTvit, Mich- Sleep Out-Doors In Your Own Room This FREE Book Tells You How —you may receive the benefits of out* of-door sleeping at all seasons— lha face only coming in contact with the crisp, on t-door ai r— the hody enjoy tajjp all the comforts of a warm room. Walsh Window Tent Provided with awning and screen to protect sleeper from drafts. storms. cold or insects. Instantly adjusted to any window without nails or screws to mar woodwork. Every oe with one. If not at your dealers,! write for free book—What Fresb Air Will Do. Recommended By Eminent Physicians Satisfaction Guaranteed CABINET MFG. CO. ,^£R-'i_ 305 MaioSt.,Quincy,Ill. '-J^-LJHC The Second Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes By FRANCIS A. COLLINS Author of “ The Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes." A HELPFUL AND FASCINATING BOOK FOR EVERY BOY. Over 100 illustrations from photographs and working drawings. Price, $1.20 net : postage 11 cents. Published by THE CENTURY CO., New York Outdoor Sleeping If you want full benefit from fresh-air sleeping you must have a Jaeger Patented Camel - Hair Sleeping Bag. Also use a Jaeger Sleeping Hood, Jaeger Nightshirt, Jaeger Bed Socks, and fresh-air sleeping becomes a luxury as well as an invigoration. Please call or rite for particulars. Dr. Jaeger's S. W. S. Co.'s Own Stores New York : 306 Fifth Avenue, 22 Maiden Lane. Brooklyn: 504 Fulton St. Boston: 228 Boylston St. Philadelphia : 1516 Chestnut St. Chicago: 126 N. State St. Asenfs in a// I'r^u-.ipalCities. proper care to be exercised in the use of lubricants. The installation of the gravity feed system, of appliances for catching the waste oil as it comes from the bearings, etc., so that this oil can be cleaned and re-used, the use of ring oiling bearings, pad lubricators, sight feed pressure pumps and pressure lubricators are all necessary for the elimination of the waste of oil and the consequent reduction in the amount paid out on account of lubrication. If the gravity feed system be employed, the oil can be used indefinitely, and, besides the economy secured from the reuse of the oil, additional power economy is obtained from the fact that a large amount of oil can be used by flooding the bearing and consequently securing a good free film of oil between the su rfaces which assist in the efficient lubrication and reduction of temperatures. All devices which are installed for the purpose of saving otherwise waste oil require that the oil used for lubrication shall be excellent in quality. A poor quality of oil will not stand continuous use without entirely breaking down and consequently defeating the very purpose for which it is to be used—that is, the reduction of loss by frition. A great many shops, while they are heated during the working hours in winter, are apt to become cold during the night, and in order to provide efficient lubrication- under these conditions the oil should be of such a character that it will remain fluid during cold temperatures. Under these conditions it is necessary that the oil shall have a (low) cold test, of at least 25 degrees above zero, in order that the lubrication be effective. The science of lubrication is a very intricate one and the problems .to be handled are so many and varied, involving as they do the mechanical conditions of the plant, the physical and chemical characteristics of the oil and the partly physical and partly chemical action arising from the conditions under which they work, that it is impossible to do more than state these one or two general points in an article of this kind. In fact it is necesary for effective lubrication that this matter should be handled by a man who is expert in both the theory and practice of the science, otherwise even the most effective devices employed for the purpose of saving the waste oil and allowing efficient lubrication will be of little avail in the actual reduction of lost power by friction. Practically the only people who have had a large and varied experience in the science of lubrication are the experts employed by the large oil manufacturing companies who have had the opportunity of gathering data regarding the condl-tions presented in practically all the variations poss-ible, and are therefore constantly accumulating information showing that the systematic and careful study of lubrication has resulted in a reduction of the lost power and consequent expense in the operation of machinery, and in further reductions in the amount of oil used; to the benefit of users of power of all kinds ; and in addition to this fact such a study has resulted in the production of oils better suited for the purpose of lubrication from a manufacturer's standpoint, so that the continual tendency is to provide possibilities of further reduction of the loss due to friction in moving parts of the machinery and other apparatus. The Business Side of Aviation (OonclMded from page a novelty and are rapidly becoming a necessity. Even special clothing for< aviators is now being made, leather being a t:avorite material. Numerous kinds of map cases, portable buffets, helmets, searchlights, and horns are offered specially for aeroplaning. There is also much done in France in the manu “acture of instruments for aeronautical work, speedometers, recording barographs, altiscopes, sketching cases and specially mounted compasses. Coincident with the large trade in aeroplane supplies and in aeroplanes themselves, there has arisen a large number of firms in France, acting as aeroplane brokers, receiving orders and transmitting them to the manufacturers. Dealers in second-hand machines arid supplies arE) also, springing up, but their field is Oswego Serge is a staple year-round fabric for men's wear, a Serge-at-its-best, which — owing to its dependability — has been produced year after year in increasing quantity by the AmencanWoolen Company Wm.N.Wood. President. Oswego Serge grows in popular favor, possessing those characteristics which appeal to well dressed men, and stamp serge as the fabric of universal wear. You seek style, fit and finish. Let us speak for Oswego Serge — a masterpiece of the loom, possessing wear, feel, hang and finish. Made of finest wool, and — quality considered — priced low. In order to be sure of the cloth when ordering a custom suit from your tailor, or a ready-to-wear suit from your clothier, insist on Oswego Serge. If unable to obtain Oswego Serge, send us the name of your tailor or clothier, accompanied by money order or check for quantity desired at $3.00 per yard, and we will see that you are supplied. AMERICAN WOOLEN COMPANY OF NEW YORK J. Clifford Woodhull, Selling Agent AMERICAN WOOLEN BUILDING 18th to 19th St. on 4th Ave., New York 356 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 14, 191 1 Pierce Boilers and Radiators There is a Pierce Boiler exactly suited to your needs. (This is the “Spence"one of 200 styles <v; Can You Put Your Finger on Any One of a / \ Hundred Thousand Records in a Minute? sectional cabinet, holds 10,000 letters, 15,000 cards, 14,000 vouchers. (S.HELP For the For the Forthe For the For the For the For the For the General Manager Sales Manager Advertising Manager Credit Man Superintendent Purchasing Agent Bookkeeper General Filing Dept. Wrt(e 'lit,; tells 'Us your 11119 problems; we «hW help you. (Return this Coupon) REALLY, now, can you? A filing system is eithera money-saver or a money-loser, a time-saver or a time-waster. Your system is one or the other. If your files go wrong every few days—look out. Do they enable you to get classified information —cross footings, monthly totals, annual compari sons, percentage comparisons, and that sort of thing, as well as all the every-day facts of your business? You need this information about your business. Y and E” service goes with all equipment we sell. This service is hased on principles oj efciency. It tends to decrease operat i n g expenses, means better cultivated prospects, quicker turn-o v e r s, greater output, better informed decisions. "Y and E” ' filing cabinets afford the widest variety of arrangement for filing correspondence, orders, bills, stock records, purchase records, pro s p e c t s, quotations, credit data, etc. We have systematized over 480 lines of bus i-ness, and are thoroughly familiar with the very best in modern filing practice. Send for “Y and E' ' helps for your business. Mail the coupop Vawmanand FrbeM fg.Qx 448 St. Paul Street, ROCHESTER. N. Y. £ron^ne” (look us up) New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago Los Angeles, San Francisco. A few dema b/e territories are open for enferprtsiwo .ealers. still very limited—a second-hand aeroplane is a dangerous investment at best. Even the profession of the law is called into the aeroplane field to a great extent the number of flourishing patent attorneys giving an indication of the amazing number of patents applied for. The model aeroplane also plays its part in the industry and many model manufacturers sell several hundred of these toys at prices ranging from $1.50 to $20, Gliders. motorless aeroplanes, are also manufactured and sold, especially in England, where “gliding” is becoming a hobby. The number of corporations applying for certificates in various States, although only a few survive, gives a further indication of how active the field of aviation is becoming from the business side. The Art. It is not only in the trade and manufacturing of aeroplanes that a large volume of business is found. Activity of another kind, but of equally great importance exists in the cultivation and practice of the art of flying. A large number of men are employed by private individuals to fly their machines for them, and many manufacturers have a regular. staff of expert birdmen to test, exhibit and instruct others on their machines. Few persons appreciate the actual cost of flying and what it means to keep as delicate a machine as an aeroplane in perfect order. Atwood in his great St. Louis-New York trip, is said to have made over $6,000 in prize money. It is understood on good authority that this failed by a large margin to pay his expenses. To keep an aeroplane in perfect trim two or three trained mechanics are required. The wages of these men are $30 to $35 a week each. and often more. A Burgess-Wright aeroplane of the kind used by Atwood requires four gallons of gasoline an hour in flight, the gasoline costing about 20 cents a gallon. Oil. motor accessories, spare spark plugs, etc., also cost a considerable amount. The aeroplane, itself, practically used up in this grueling campaign, cost $5,000. In addition Atwood has large expenses for rents of fields and hangars, as well as damages to property, and in his own traveling expenses, his manager's salary, etc., are found other sources of expend- i iture. The grand total amounts to well over $8,000—a rather expensive way to travel. At the recent aviation meets many of the contestants suffered heavy financial losses. In most cases. however, the losses fall on the manufacturer who supplies the machine and who employs an expert to handle it. The earnings of some of the aviators at the recent Boston meet are: Oving-ton, $11,782; Milling, $6,200; Sopwith. $6,022; Grahame-White, $5,224, etc., down to Ely, $150; and others with no winnings at all. At Nassau, Sopwith won $4,850, while Atwood and Lieut. Arnold won only a few hundred dollars. There are other sources of revenue, however, in the actual flying of aeroplanes. Passenger carrying at $25 to $50 a bead is becoming customary in this country. In England- and France, regulation booking offices have been opened where reservation can be made. The price is from $10 upward. ! Manufacturers and aviators also make a considerable charge for instruction of pupils. In France, $150 is the usual price for a full course. If breakages are to be' included, the Voisin Company charges $500. At many aerodromes in En gland. where their location seems to be definite. hangars and the privileges of the field may be rented at $500 a year. The rent of the hangars in. France is about the same. The business of aviation is thus growing apace and the possibilities that are offered in the flying fleld for the development of industrial enterprises can probably be as little conceived of at present, as could the future of railroading one hundred years ago. A Landsman's Log (Concluded trom page ) row, 'in til, in the case of vesse Is such as the “Michigan,” which carries a lofty Carry This Gun DECIDEDLY unique Watch Fob. Metal gun inserted in stitched leather holster — exact miniature of the weapon of the “gun-fighter” of the West. A Striking Novelty Be among the first to show this new idea in Watch Fobs. Make-friends on sight. For sale by all up-to-date tobacconists, newsdealers, druggists and novelty stores. Mail us twenty-five cents (coin) and we will send you one 01 these unique fobs by return mail. Floe for $1. cha rges paid. Alamo Leather&Novelty Company Dept. S. A. 425 Avenue D • S AN ANTONIO, TEXAS BilMJUQ A brilliant, steady light, cheaper than kerosene, brighter than electricity or acetylene. No grease, dirt nor odor. Makes and burns its own gas. Over 200 styles. Lights instantly. Every lamp guaranteed. Used in every civilized country on earth. Agents wanted. Write for catalogue and prices to-day. THE BEST LIGHT CO. 87 E. 5th Street, Canton, wimwnmm > O. SPLENDID CHANCE Prominent German Specialty Machinery Manufacturing firm with established New York connections. desires to either handle, manufacture or sell for European markets, few additional American Patent Articles, Devices or Clever Practical Inventions (irrespective of any particular branch) on royalty basis or against outright purchase of patent rights. First class connections. best manufacturing facilities and a articularly strong Selling Organ-ce Italy and Russia.withan established successful ten years record of similar operations, offer any meritorious invention widest scope and quick profitable returns. European New York representative will consider propositions and enter negotiations Only after detailed written particulars by thoroughly reliable and responsible parties are given under. Apes. Box 7.73, New York City. Your PATENTS and BUSINESS in ARIZONA Incorporate Laws the most liberal. Expense the least. Hold meetings, transact businessanynhere. Blanks. By-Laws and foiois for makingstocic full-paid for cash. property or services, free. President Stoddard, FORMER SECRETARY OF ARIZONA, resident agent for many thousand companies. Reference: Any bank in Arizona. STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Box 8000 PHOEN^ ARIZONA The University of Chicago UA.._ Gorres{>ondence-Study Dept.. HOM E STUDY 19th Year Uof C.(Div 9 )Chicajo.HI. offers 350 clasa-room courses to non-resident students. One may thus do part work for a Bachelor's degree. Elementary courses in many subjects,others for Teachers,Writers, Accountants .Bankers. Business Men, Ministers. Social Workers. Ltc. Begin any time. % STUDY LAW High-Grade Instruction by Correspondence Prepares for the bar. . Three Courses: College, Post-Graduate and Business Law. Nineteenth year. Classes begin each month'. Send foi catalog giving ru}.s for admission' to the . bar of the severa 1 states. Chicago Correspondence School ofLaw , 506 Ueaper Block, Chicago as 'Tabloid First-Aid /t\—L=^rt f^s Ready-for-Accidents outfits for motorists, aviators, travellers, home, farm, workshop, camp, etc. Complete, reliable and portable. Of a// Druggists, or write: BURROUGHS WELLCOME &: Co., 85, West SSrd St., N.Y, SALESMEN WANTED Trained Salesmen earn from $1,200.00 to $10,000 a year and expenses, Hundreds of good positions now open. No experience needed to get one of them. We will assist you to secure a position where you can earn good wages while you are learning Practical Salesmanship. Write today for full particulars, list of good openings, and testimonials from over a thousand men we have recently placed In good positions. Address Nearest Office, Dept. 221 National Salesmen's Training Association Chicago New York KaniasCity Seattle NewOrleans PHILADELPHIA Walnut and 13th SII. Ideally located in tbe center of business and social life 335 Rooms — 275 Baths Rooms $2.00 per dav up Room and Bath, $2.50 per day up Suites of 2 to 6 Rooms Famow Jor its cuisipe Eugene G Miller, ^ Mgc. October 14, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 3.57 For the safety of the individual and the nation SMITH&WESSON Superior Revolvers 4 4 I Stockbridge St. SPRINGFIELD MASS. BRIGHTEN UP Your Stationery in the OFFICE, BANK, SCHOOL or HOME iy using WASHBURNE'S PATENT PAPER FASTENERS. 75,000,000 SOLD the east YEAR should convince YOU o/| itheirSUPERIORITY. Trade 0. K.Malk IMade of brass, 3 sizes. In brass boxesof IOO. Handsome.Compact.5troiig.No Slipping .NEVER! flHB All stationers. Send 10c for sample box of 50. ^^^A ssorted sizes. Illustrated booklet free. f (k^^V The O. K. Mfg. Co- Syracuse. N. Y. ^ N9 I bJ Keep your house at the temperature you want it — without any work or worry in doing it. The Je wellHeat Controller guards your coalbjo —and your health a t the same time. It saves you many tiring and needless steps down to the heater to close or open the drafts. This clock assures a warm house in the (TRi; morni no — yel keeps it coo! over-niflftt. ..IfVfELL i~"§K HEAT CONTROLLER runs tbe heater automatically. Just place the Indicator at the temperature desired. The Jewell automatically opens and closes the drafts whenever necessary to assure an even ternperature. Guaranteed mechanically perfect for 25 years Applied to any system of heating—steam. hot water. or hot air heater. Get your Jewe// dealer to install it in your home on 30 days' free trial. and you'll be convinced you will want it always. Write for the name of tbe JEWELL dealer 10 your town. We'll send it, togetber witn .a. copy of our valo able aod interesting booBlet,"Tbe House Comfortable." JEWELL MFG. CO., 128 M^Tr*' superstructure, the effect is that of a many-storied hotel. Ship beyond ship. over miles of water. stretches this floating city of twelve thousand souls. The thousands of incandescent lights become millions as they are reflected from the ever-restless water of the Chesapeake. emulating in numbers and beauty the flashing myriads in the over-arching dome of the autumnal night. The “stern realities of war” seem very far' removed, as I drink • in the quiet beauty of the scene and catch the . strains of well-remembered music faintly heard from a band on some distant ship. The mood was deepened when a message came to the captain and the ward-room mess that night. inviting the officers to a moving-picture show—of all things in the world! But there it was; the screen hung between a 12-inch turret and the whaleboat davits; the machine at the taffrail; the crew crowded picturesquely on one side of the screen, the officers seated forward on the opposite side. It was an audience that in size would have comfortably filled an average theater; for decorum it would have matched any house on Broadway. The pictures were largely reminisc ent of those western plains and mountains from which so many of these fine young sailormen had come. Certainly there was nothing to conjure up in that quiet hour the sights or sounds of war—and yet—once—the glint of the lantern light flashed along a pair of 12-inch rifles that stretched their black forty-five feet of length ominously above the screen. “Yes.” 1 thought, “these a re perfectly consistent with the restful scene that flickers on the canvas below. Guardians of the pea?e they are—pledges that 90 millions of people, peace-loving and prosperous. are determined that their peace and prosperity shall endure through the years to come, unbroken and unassailed! An Opportunity for the Farmer in the United States THE profitable cultivation of basket willow in the United States is an opportunity that should not be overlooked by farmers who are anxious to add to their income by the cultivation of a crop on land that is now lying idle. Basket willow, like a number of other farm crops, is one Qf the smaller opportunities so often lost sight of in the general desire to grow crops on a large scale with the thought that there will be corresponding large returns. American farmers are apt to overlook the combined results from many small crops that can be handled with comparatively small expense. European farmers keep a strict account of these, and in the aggregate often reap a rich reward for their thrift. The demand for basket willow as an article for manufacturing basket ware and furniture is constantly growing. In this connection it is interesting to know that the United States is a very large purchaser of basket willow rods from France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and Austria, while there are millions of acres of waste or undeveloped lands in this country capable of producing enough basket willows to supply the world. There is an annual importation of approximately one million pounds of basket willow rods ready for the basket-makers' use. Approximately four times this amount is imported in the form of manufactured basket ware and willow furniture. The total value of this material is about $300,000. which might as well be paid to the American farmers if they knew how to grow the crop successful! y. That the growing of basket willows is a profitable farm crop may be seen from the figures of yield contained in a United States Forest Service circular entitled “Practical Results in Basket Willow Culture.” An acre of well-managed basket willows, calculating the yield at 3,000 pounds of dry sap-peeled rods at 5 to 7 cents a pound, will give a net profit of from $75 to $135 per acre. Th'1 cost of cultivating and harvesting basket willows is variously estimated. at from $50 to $75 an acre. Of course. the above figure of yield is above the average for the United States, but even if the crop should be only two-thirds of that ob -talned on the experimental farm at Ark-ington, Virginia, the net profit would still be far better than that of most other farm crops. What Would it be Worth to You If, by a series of swift key-strokes, you could verify your postings in a lew minutes each day ; And by the same means extend and check all incoming and outgoing bills in a small part of the time it takes to do it mentally ; Figure inventories with fractions, single and chain discounts, two or three times as fast; extend piece-work payrolls, prorate costs—all accurately with one machine ? YOU CAN DO ALL THIS AND MORE WITH THE Easy to learn. rapid, durable, accurate: invaluable as an assistant in every department of accounting. FELT&TARRANT ADDS if^rmi DIVIDES MVLTIPLIE3 T"|»Nyi SVBTRACT5 One firm alone uses 181 Com plo • meters. Try one in your office at our expense. MFG. CO. Write for booklet “Rapid 1708 N. Pau/ina Street. C/V/CAGO, ILL I Mechanical Calculation “ bt* guud to your skin and wear WRIGHT'S Spring-Needle Ribbed UNDERWEAR Fits any figure perfectly, y et always springs back to shape. Very springy and elastic. Holds its shape indefinite!y and outwears ordinary underwear. Can't shrink. The best-fitting, best-wearing and best-looking underwear made. “The Spring is the Thing.” The Non-Stretching Neck (pa tent applied for) always hugs snug. ^ AH weights for all seasons. Made"' in wool. fine Egyptian cotton. or cotton- and-wool. m variouscolors. Htgbest quality at moderate' prices—ffil.OO. iJ.l.50. S2 00 for Sbirts and Drawers: S1.S0 to S4.00 for Union Suits. If not at dealer's. send bis name and we'll see you are supplied. Write for booklet showing samples offabrics WRIGHT'S HEALTH UNDERWEAR CO. ff WRIGHT'S MARK *mtQ UNDERWEAR n t ii iO n I e w unl?;.Vt. lit. I 74 Franklin Street New York GIVE HIM 15 MINUTES A DAY And He Will Teach You “ How to Address Meetings— Make After-Dinner Speeches— Propose Toasts— Tell Entertaining Stories— and all, without fear and trembling. Every professional and business man is frequently called upon to speak in public. Political meetings, fraternal gatherings. dinners, etc.. make insistent demands upon him, and afford endless opportunities and requests for appropriate speech. Are you able to appear to advantage upon such occasions ? Can you “say youi say “ in earnest, concise, and convincing language ? Grenville Kleiser's Personal Mail Course in Public Speaking Actually Teaches You How Simple ? You can carry a lesson in your pocket until you get it into your head I The Cost ? There's a special class being formed now which will save you /our-fi/fAs of the regular cost. A postal brings full particulars. Be sure and mention this publication and address FUNK&WAGNALLS COMPANY, Dept. 278, NEW YORK f] An Easily Made High Frequency Apparatus CAN BE USED TO OBTAIN EITHER D'ARSONVALOR OUDIN CURRENTS. A plunse battery of six cells. a two-inch spatk induction coil, a pair of one-pint Leyden jars. and an inductance coil. and all the apparatus required. most ol which can bemadeathome . Supplement No. 1618. Order from your newsdealer or from Munn <S Co., /nc.. 361 Broadway, N. Y.. You Get the Correspondence You Want Without Delay From a MULTOPLEX CAhNet Quicker than it takes to tell it. your clerk can locate the folder containing the correspondence you want. and get it to your desk. This greater efficiency in correspondence fi l i n g is due to OUR patented adjustable METAL DRAWER PARTITIONS Which Keep Contents Upright and Easily Accessible — Prevent folders sagging and crowding together, — Permit more rapid filing. —Save file clerk's time. — Make locating correspondence easier. — Prevent misfiled and lost, crumpled and lorn lettets. — Permit you to fill drawers full without iheir becoming crowded — Make a big saving: in cost of inside equipment. Noeuide cards are needed and.lighter weight folders can be used. Write For Our Book, “Faultless Filing" In 80 many wavs will the Multopiex Cabinet save you money and give you greater tiling efficiency tbat it demands your in vestiii!'atiOD. It bas tbe most important improvements made la filing cabinets for maoy years. We buve merely outlined Its good poiDte. Get our book and know all about it and our pateotea ebeck Hie system—tbe Oe:<t everdevised. W rite today tnentioniDg the name of your rirm aDd you r capacity, CANTON MFG. CO. 1382 E. Second Street. Canton, Ohio 358 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 14, 1911 The Most Famous Train in the World 20thCentury Limited Saves a day either way between New York or Boston and Chicago Lv. NewYwk 4.00 p.m. Lt. Boiton 1.30 p.m. Ar. Chicago A.55a.m. MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES Their Design, Construction and Operation THE APPLICATION OF AERODYNAMIC THEORY WITH A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION AND COMPARISON OF THE NOTABLE TYPES By CROVER CLEVELAND LOENINC. B. Sc., A. M., C. E. A new and authoritative work, covering the whole subject of the Aeroplane, its design, and the theory on which it is based, and containing a detailed description and discussion of thirty-eight of the more highly successful types. It is a thoroughly practical work and invaluable to anyone interested in aviation. l2mo. (1)x8l4 inches), 340 Pages. 278 Illustrations. Attractively bound in cloth Price $2.50 net, postpaid An illustrated descriptive circular will be sent free on application MUNN&COInc., Publishers /. 361 Broadway. New York Fire Chief CROKER says g. r9heDAHLSTROM PRODUCTS - At the international Municipal Congress and Exposition, (fhicago, September 29th, Edward F. Croker, Ex-Chief of New York City's Fire Dept. who spent 27 years in the service, 12 years as chief, said: F we ate to better conditions, we must realize that 'fireproof' is not 'fireproof' as it is understood today. The literal definition remains, but many crimes have been committed in its name, . • There is but one principle to fireproof construction irrespective of the kind of structure. To have fireproof buildings, architects and owners must throw aside precedence and eliminate the use ot combustible and semi-combustible materials in their construction. ” .... If there were still an absolute necessity lor its use, if it could not be replaced with steel, as it has been in many modern constructions, it would then be well to attempt to conceive ot something better. I am opposed to the use of wood in any form in fireproof buildings and the law ought not to permit its use. ” . . . . Tome there is a fascination about steel interiors. It constantly emphasizes the absurdity of fire-fighting, for how can fires rage if they have nothing to feed upon ?” _ Interviewed, Ex-Fire Chief Croker said: “ You are at perfect liberty to use my talk partially or entirely and apply it to your products. I have watched your development since you first originated cold drawn steel interiors with great interest. I have nothing more to say. My address and the fact that my private residence will be equipped throughout with The Dahlshom . Products is as strong a recommendation as I can make." DAHLSTROM METALLIC DOOR COMPANY Executive Offices and Factories : 27 Blackstone Avenue - JAMESTOWN. N. Y. Principal Cities g-r-Pire Cro*er'( address has lJeen dl'me Coynes*ma; b e Aad ” ftutftttmgff A 6 TAeg Siou/d Be' * (fte etiminatwn iJ a t t comfewWie'fe mac'.rials *” tmitdtngn. A CVTy may fie/ad yoi 1;)t:(/e, 6 cents. ikiM fitr it. Branch O//ices fn> a// Copyright. 1911, by the Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co. Notes . and Queries. Kindly keep your queries on separate sheets of paper when corresponding about sucb matters as paten ts. subscriptions, books. etc. This will greatly facilitate answering your questions, as 1n many cases tbey ha ve to be referred to experts. The full name and address should be given on every sheet. No attention will be paid to unsigned queries. Full hints to correspondents are printed from time to time and will be mailed on request. (12548) C. A. E. H. says: I have seen it stated that the mouths of some rivers are higher than their sources. I can see that this may be true of rivers such as the Mississippi, which flow toward the equator through a number ot degrees of latitude. If the water is actually farther from the center of the earth at the moutli, will you kindly explain the force or forces acting upon it to raise It'.' A. All rivers which flow south In tile northern hemisphere, or north in the southern hemisphere, are farther from the center of the earth at their mouths than at their sources. The earth's diameter Is 26 miles longer through the equator than it Is from pole to pole. The theory is that the earth was once soft. and in rotation, and bulged at the equator by centrifugal force. The earth has cooled and become solid, but the centrifugal force remains. The yielding water takes the position which the rotation of the earth requires it to take. The very definition ot a level surface Is one which Is parallel to tile surface of still water. The Mississippi River flowing south does not take this position. It is below that position at its mouth. It really flows down to the Gulf of Mexico, although in so doing it goes farther from the earth's center. The name of the force raising it farther from the center of the earth is “Centrifugal Force." (12549) ,A. J.. 1. says: Kindly settle the following argument for Ile: A friend ot mine contends that after water has assumed the solid state as Ice, provided the pressure is constant, its temperature will remain at 30 deg. F. so long as the temperature of the surrounding medium remains below 32 deg. F., and that if the surrounding medium was to go down to 8 deg. F'. , the temperature of the ice would remain constant. 1 contend that the temperature of the ice varies with the temperature of the surrounding medium, as also does its volume. A.- Water, in the solid state. Is no different from any other solid. All solids rise and fall in temperature as the place in which they are Is heated or cooled. Everybody knows that ice cream, which is largely frozen water, is cooled much below the freezing point and packed to make it keep. Ice also expands and contracts by heating and cooling, just as iron or any other solid does. People are misled by the fact that ice cannot be heated much above 32 deg. Fahr. It melts. but so does every other crystalline solid when it is heated to its melting point. All such substances cannot be heated above the melting point any more than ice can. The peculiarity ot ice Is that it mefts at a very low temperature. Most crystals melt at a much higher temperature than does ice. Ice when below 32 deg. becomes dry. It is easy to see the difference between ice in cold air and ice in warm air. The writer has cooled ice to the temperature of liquid air, more than 300 deg. Fahr. below zero. It crumbled into very small pieces .by Its coptraction at that temperature. (12550) A. F. H. asks: Will ' you please explain through Notes ' and Queries, tile following terms as applied to steel rails : Horizontal Inertia. Vertical Inertia, Moment of Inertia, Section Modulus, Radius of Gyration? A. Consult one of the books on mechanics. such as Merrlman's “Mechanics of Materials,” ($5 It ordered from our Book Department), for a full explanation. Briefly, “moment of inertia” is a term signifying the sum of the masses ot the particles of a body,' each multiplied by the square ot its distance from the center of inertia, which may be a point or an axis. In the rail section herewith, the sum of the masses of the particles multiplied by their distances squared, would be the polar moment of inertia. it all the distances ran together at the crossing of the axes; or the moment' of inertia about the horizontal axis, if the distances all ran vertically to the horizontal line AA; or the moment about .the vertical axis, It the distances ran perpendicular to that axis. The section modulus is the moment of inertia divided by the distance of - the most distant particle from the pole or the axis of inertia. Its value, like the values of the moment of inertia, may be found in the pock-etbooks, for all standard rail sections. The radius of gyration is the distance from the pole or the axis (as the case may be) of inertia to .that point at which, if a 11 the mass of the body were concentrated, the moment of inertia would be the same as tor the original shape. To Start in Business or Increase Your Present Business Oxy Acetylene Welding Plant. complete with Oxygen Generator, CompresaedAcetyleneTank, T oich, Interchangeable T i ps, Valv es. Gau gcs, H o s e. etc .. suite ble for Gatages, Re-patr Shops, M a n utactu-rers, etc., tot $250.00. A s p 1 endid chance to start in business tor yourself or to increases out “ garage or repair shop earnings. Phenomenal profits are made m the repairing, by this orocess, of broken parts ot Automobiles, Machinery and on genei a I tepairs. Mention this advertisement and get full particulars horn WalterMacleod&Co.213 E. Pearl St. Cincinnati, 0. ROBERTS AVIATION MOTORS FIFTY FLYING TODAY 4 (Minders o0 M.I'.. (> (Mmdors 76 H.I'. I AT.U.Oi; I''It ICE Tfae Roberts Motor Co. 1465 Columbus Ave. Sandusky. Ohio Chas. F. Willard Aeronautical Engineer AEROPLANES designed and built to order. Aeroplane exhibitions arranged for and given at short notice. My experience as an aeroplane pilot dates back to the first machine sold by Curtiss and purchased by the Aeronautic Society over three years ago. Address me in care 0/ Scientific American, 361 Btoadway, New York. MAKES A PHONOGRAPH SOUND LIFELIKE THE Morse Clanfier is remarkable little device made to tit in tube between reproducer unci horn of phonographs. It renders-the sound loud, clear and, life-like and eliminates that unpleasant metallic effect which is more or less common to all phonographs, regardless of price. Can be attached pAT AppL.D FOK in a minute by anyone and lasts as long as the mach ine. Thoroughly tested and proven successful. Mailed Prepaid upon Receipt of Price,$1.00. GuaranteedAbsolute-ly Satisfactory or Money Refunded. In ordering please state whether for Victor, Victor-Victrola, Edison with rubber or metal connection, Columbia Disc or Columbia Cylinder. Information and circular matter free. MORSE BROTHERS, Manufacturers and Distributers 448 Lumber Exchange, Minneapolis, Minn. AGENTS -$452fi A WEEK ENDETS mtlj in granite ware, hot water bagu, tin, oopper, I I(looking utensil a, eta. Wo heat, solder, cement or rivet. Ad; one oan I usetnem. Fit any etirfaoe. Smooth. Sample box, lOo. Complete box, 9 aastd. sizes, 25o, postpaid. Wonderful opportunity for live agents. Write I Collette Mfg. Co., Bos 192, Amsterdam, N.I j BIG MONEY FOR YOU Selling our metallic letters tor office windows, store fronts, and, glass signs. Any one can put them ou. Nice, pleasant business. Big demand everywhere. W rite today tor free sample and tull particulars. METALLIC SIGN'LE'fTER CO., 488 North Clark Street""ChIcago Learn Watchmaking We reaeu it thoroughly in aa manv months as it rormeny Took years. Does away with tedious apprenticeship. Money earaedwhilestiidyin;. Positions secured. Easy terras. Send for catalog. ST. LOUIS W ATCIIMAKING SCHOOL. St. Louis, Mo. ni tdd cd Expert Manufacturers RUDDLlX Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS &: CO., 288-290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. lif'wiijm Corliss Engines. Brewers Bottlers' Machinery lih.. VIL TER MFG. CO. Clinton Street, Milwaukee, WlS- AERO BOOKS Send tod ay for our New List ol Books and Drawings . Spon&Chamberlain 123 S.-A. Liberty Street New York CRUDE ASBESTOS DIRECT FROM MI NES R. H. MARTIN, PREPARED ASBESTOS FIBRE lor Manufacturers use OFFICE. Sr.PAUL BUILDIN0 220 B'way, New York. October 14, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 359 Let the Red Devil Water MotorDoYour Work Improved construction, absolutely perfect, runs inl” machine and a hundred other things, Pnwerfor “ borse poweroo J^-inch pipe, 80 pounds pressure; I 6>inch Motor. your washing Bmall tools. ,,______ _ ......_ r_________ horse power on 2-incfipipe, 60 pounds pressure. New net Price, ,5.00 cash WIth order. c No. 1492 4-inch Motors for grind-ingftfo UshinYtand buffing. Runs sewing machines, faus, bottle washers, etc. Price with emery, buffing wheel, silver polish and pulley, $3.00. No. 1493 Motor and pullew only .2.50. U-horse power on 80 pounds pressure. Improved con- ne 3,000 to 5,000 revolutions per minute. Only scien-tiffical] y and mechanically perfect small water motor manufactured. Patenter! construction makes it possi ble. Tremendous. output warrants the price. Money back for any CATALOGUE AND LARGE SHEET FREE WRITE TO-DAY 6-Incb Bucket Wheel DIVINE WATER. MOTOR. COMPANY Dept. 12. Utica. New York, U.S.A. For the name of your local hardware tool dealer, we will send you free booklet on “Theory and Design of Water Motors." _2A«. 4CKLE | A*Jr^*___^ ^Catalogue M Free of Motors. Catalogue B Free of Boats. i§3 ENGINES FROM 2 TO 4-0 H.P. PALMER BROS., IN STOCK Cos Cob, Corfu. The Pump that Costs Nothing to Operate First cost is nothing when compared with the day-after-(iay operating expense of pumping engines. The. first cost is the only cost when you install a Niagara Hydraulic Ram It is auto!ii;iti(.';illy operated by water pressure. Supplies evf-ry part of the farm and home with running wsiter without trouble or expenst Write for catalogue A A and guaranteed estimate NIAGARA HYDRAULIC ENGINE CO. 750 m-ecl Itldg. I'hila. Factory, Chester, Pa. R I FE Rife Rams are the most satisfactory m a Hjl means of supplying water for your ^8*»%Iwl country place. w Raise water ?O feet for eacb footof fall --no trouble or pumping: expense. Satisfaction guaranteed. Booklet. ffRlt plans. estimate. Free. RIFE ENGINE CO. 2533 Trinity Bldg., N. Y. AIR GAS! Latest Invention Standard Vacuum Gas Machine makes ^automatically! Uses97% ordinary air' Cheapest,safest, most hygienic for lighting, hoatinK \ and coofcinsr! All conveniences of city gas' Non-^ poisonous, non-aspbyxiatine, inexplosive and inodorous! Machine always ready! Gas can be made v?Jn5? p^1000 c";ft-! 25 times cheaper than acct nr rit* ™ueiap|rt-han karosone laniDB. electricity or city gas! Saving will pay for the machine in ?h£Ti TA3; Agents wanted everywhere in ^ febt"*^ Machine of 25 ^ Standard-Gillette Light Co.. 10 H Michigan St., Chicago, U. S. A, THE HOLTZER MAGNETO CLOCK will safeguard your factory. by keeping your watchman awake. Makes indelible. indisputable records. Will reduce insurance costs. too. Send for bulletin 15S2. The Holtzer-Cabot Elec. Co. Brookline, Mass. • Chicago, III. ELECTRIC rTORS * ^ Dynamos SPECIAL Grinders MACHINES Polishers ROTH ELECTRIC MOTORS 198 Loomis Street. Chicago, ills. "POROX" Storage Batteries The best for ignition and light. No loss of current. Absolutely reliable. Transparent iars are used for all batteries. 6 volt, 00 ampere hour battery. Price $24.00. Semd for cafaiooue ALBERT MULLER Hoffman Boulevard, Dear Hillside Ave. JAMAICA. N. Y. BRISTOL'S RECORDING INSTRUMENTS For Pressure, Temperature and Electricity The most complete line of Recording Instruments in the world. Write for new 64-page illustrated Bulletin No. 160 which is a condensed general catalogue of Bristol's Instruments. BRISTOL COMPANY, WATERBURY. CONN. NEW BOOKS, ETC. Principles of Physics. By William Francis Magie, Ph.D., Henry Professor of Physics in Princeton University. New York: Tke Century Company, 1911. 570 pp. The author's name is sufficient guarantee for the general excellence of the book before us. It is very remarkable how much information has been condensed into a volume so small, considering. the boundless scope of the subject. Moreover, the information is thoroughly up-to-date. In turning over the pages we have found the Brownian movement and Per-rin's recent work duly considered in their relation to the kinetic theory. Similarly the chapter on “Electricity and Matter” presents in simple but clear terms some of the fundamental facts upon which the modern views on the subject are based. A brief note is also devoted to the phenomenon of radioactivity. There is little criticism to offer. The opening paragraph of the first chapter attempts a definition or description of “physics,” and can hardly be said to be quite successful. There are some things that can not be rigorously defined, and probably the scope of physics is such. One is almost tempted to say that “physics” is all science which has not been for one reason or another (not necessarily a very good reason) been given some other name —and even that may be physics. One can not help regretting that it should be necessary or desirable in a book of this kind to avoid the use of the calculus, often at the cost of much complication. So much can be done in elementary physics with a small stock in trade of the methods of the calculus, that it would seem well worth the while to arrange the student's courses in mathematics in such manner as to avoid the necessity of working out from first principles every case of “proceeding to a limit.” In the development of tile absolute temperature scale, the ideal gas is introduced as a “guide” for the choice of the temperature function which shall enter into the expression for the efficiency of a heat engine. It appears preferable to develop this function without reference to any specific properties of the working substance. Making use of an “ideal gas” (which does not exist) gives an appearance of unreality to the argument, and is apt to leave in the mind of the young student an impression that the argument in some way depends on the properties of the “ideal gas,” whereas what one is particularly anxious to impress upon the learner is the fact that the efficiency is wholly independent of the properties of the working substance. The general scope and arrangement of the book may be gathered from the main headings, which are as follows: Book 1— Mechanics. 1. General Notions About Forces. 2. Statics. 3. Dynamics. 4. Mechanics of Liquids. Book II—General Properties of Matter. 5. Gravitation or Mass Attraction. 6. Elasticity. 7. Capillarity. 8. Gases. 9. Friction. 10. Diffusion. Book Ill—.Sound. 11. Sound and Sound Waves. 12. Sounding Bodies. Book IV—Heat. 13. Temperature and Heat. 14. Thermal Relations of Bodies. 15. Heat and Energy. Book V—Light. 16. Geometrical Optics. 17. Physical Optics. Book VI—Magnetism and Electricity. 18. Magnetism. 19. Static Electricity. 20. The Electric | Current. 21. Electricity and the Ether. 22. Electricity and Matter. Bungalows. Their Design, Construction, and Furnishing. With Suggestions also for Camps, Summer Homes, and Cottages of Similar Character. By Henry H. Saylor. Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company. 4to.; 188 pp.; illustrated. Price, $1.50 net. Bungalows, springing .up mushroom fashion all over the land, have imparted a not unpleas-ing variety to our countryside architecture. Mr. Saylor's papers are aptly introduced by Burgess Johnson's “Bungal-Ode.” The advantages and limitations of the true bungalow are impartially set forth, and under the heading “Types” we are given, in beautiful plates and succinct description, more than a score of houses scattered from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. Bungalows for seacoast, woods, and hills are given separate consideration, and chapters on “Plan,” “Foundations,” “Walls,” “Roofing,” and “Interior Finish” tell what the prospective builder needs to know. Even the fireplace, furnishings, lighting system, water supply and sewage disposal are treated at some length, and the setting of flowers, vines and shrubs, an important matter from an artistic point of view, Is the subject of a final chapter. The large pages, fine paper. clear plates and good printing make the book a desirable one to own, and the common-sense manner in which the author presents his knowledge and advice places the seal of practical value upon what would still be a work of beauty and suggestive inspiration even without so Informing a text. Practical Silo Construction. By A. A. Houghton. New York: The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company, 1911. 69 pp.; 20 illustrations. Price, 50 cents. We have before taken the opportunity to mention favorably the earlier Issues of these “Concrete Worker's Reference Books.” The treatise in hand, No. 3 of the series. comprises directions for constructing concrete silos of various types. Full data and working drawings are given, and unpatented forms and molds are shown for the building of monolithic and block silos. Do It Now — ForYour Family HUT” Subscribe to-day, sending $1.75 for 1912, and get all the issues -__§ of The Companion for the remaining weeks of 1911 Free. On Jan. I, 1912, the price will be advanced to $2. See offerbelow. THE YOUTHS COMPANION Do you realize that the contents of The Youth's Companion for a year, published in book form, would make 30 volumes of the best and most varied reading? The 52 issues for 1912, for instance, will be equal to 1 Serial Stories, the kind you V UIS wish never would end, each selling for $1.50 in book form. 2TT 1 Articles by Famous Men and V UIS Women. Travel, Science, Invention, Biography. 3IT I Current Events, The Doctor's V UIS Weekly Counsel, Science, Wit and Humor, Editorials, etc. I Sketches, Anecdotes, Selec-VU1S tions, Social Topics, One- 1 For Boys on Expert Training V OIS for Athletic Sports—Football, Sprinting, Swimming, etc. 8IT 1 Each containing some thirty V UIS complete stories—Adventure, Heroism, Humor. 2\Z_1_ For Girls and the Household, VU1S Ideas in Dress, The Family Table, Profitable Occupations. 3 _1_ Jingles and Stories for the O V OIS Little Folks, Puzzles, Beauti-Minute Stories. ful Pictures. ALL FOR $1.75 — AND EVERY LINE WORTH WHILE. Fall Prospectus for /9/2 sent Free to any address with Sample Copies of the Paper. ALL THE REMAINING 1911 ISSUES FREE. If you subscribe at once, cutting out and sending this slip (or mentioning this publication) with $1.75 for the fifty-two issues of the Volume for 1912. you will receive 1. All the Issues for the Fifty-Two Weeks of 1912. 2. All the Issues for the Remaining Weeks of 1911, including the Holiday Numbers. 3. The Companion's Art Calendar for 1912, Lithographed in Ten Colors and Gold. Your last chance to get The Youth's Companion at the present price. On Jan. 1. 1912. the subscription will be advanced to $2.00. Subscribe to-day and save 25c. - ; Apia? THE YOUTH'S COMPANION, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS. Every Man Who Owns A Razor Every woman who owns a knife—Every man, woman or boy who owns an edged tool—will never realize what smooth, keen cutting sharpness is until demonstrate il— \__ Carborundum is the most remarkable sharpening agent the world has ever known. Hard and sharp and fast cutting as a diamond—smooth and velvety as the finest natural stone. Made into hones and sharpening stones of every size, shape and grade— for every possible sharpening need. Here are a few Carborundum specialties that ought to be in every home— No. 1 03-F Razor Hone—very fine—wonderfully efficient—in neat box • • $1.00 No. 79-F Knife Sharpener—Stag Horn Handle —solid stick of Carborundum — Octagonal in shape—in satin lined box 1.00 Round combination stone for sharpening carpenters' \ tools . . . .1.00 No. 149-F ' Pocket stone m neat , box . . . .15 Ask your hardware dealer — If he doesn't have them, send direct. The Carborundum Co. Niagara Falls, N. Y. WALTHAM—a watch name recognized by every child; proved by over eighteen million WALTHAM owners; and endorsed by the practical watchmaking experience of every Jeweler. WALTHAM WATCH always stands for a timepiece of the highest excellence. Even lower priced Walthams maintain a wonderful record for accuracy. Between the popular grade and the Waltham Premier Maximus at $250—the watch de luxe of the world—are the several standard high-grade Waltham movements, offering models of exquisite design and workmanship, and guaranteeing timekeeping re-suIts of unrivalled accuracy. High-grade Waltham movements are invariably named. Riverside, for instance, is always a good name to remember. Ask your Jeweler. Write for handsome booklet containing much watch information and describing various Waltham movements. "It's Time Fow Owned a WaZ/ham.” WALTHAM WATCH COMPANY, - Waltham, Mass. PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD TWO STATIONS IN NEW YORK Through trains between New York and Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and the South, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago, and St. Louis, arrive at and depart from the Pennsylvania Station Only one block from Broadway at 32d Street. Special tube trains, running through to and from Manhattan Transfer and connecting with through trains leave and arrive at the Hudson Terminal Church and Cortlandt Streets, only five minutes from Wall Street, and only one block from the Subway at Fulton Street. These two stations Accommodate all Sections of New York Serving directly the downtown financial and business district, as well as the uptown hotel, shopping, and residential sections. J R. WOOD Passenger Traffic Manager GEO. W. BOYD General Passenger Agent Aeronautics Death of Edouard Nieuport.—M. Nieu-port, the builder of the fastest monoplane in the world, died from a fall sustained on the 15th ult. An account of his and other fatal accidents, together with a description of his monoplane, appears in the current Supplement. Helen's Record for the Michelin Trophy. —Emmanuel Helen, on a Nieuport monoplane, flew 1,252.8 kilometers around a 104.4-kilometer circuit on the 8th ult., in France. Deducting from his total time—14: 07: 50—the six stops he made, his time in flight was 13 hours and 17 minutes—an average speed of 58.6 miles an hour. His previous record of August 26th was 700 miles in 13: 47: 19. The Aviation Meet at Nassau Boulevard. —The international aviation meet on Long Island was successful, and resulted in several new records. Chief or these was the record of endurance with two passengers, which was raised from the 1 hour 38 minutes 40 seconds made by Mamet at Rheims in 1910, to 1 hour 54 minutes 22 2/5 seconds. The new record was made by Lieut. Milling, in his Wright biplane, and in making it he also won a prize of $1,000 offered by the Hotel Knickerbocker for 100 minutes in the air with two passengers. The best previous American record, made by Beatty at the Chicago meet, was 1 hour 18 minutes 22 seconds. Besides races between Sopwith, on a Bleriot, and Grahame-White, on his Nieuport, exhibition flights were made by Dyott on two Deperdussin monoplanes an d also by Mlle. Helene Dutrieu, on her “baby” Farman biplane. Miss Matilde Moisant outflew Mlle. Dutrieu by soaring to a great height in her Moisant monoplane, and flying far across country, while Miss Harriet Quimby made a record cross-country flight in 39 minutes, ascending to a height of 2,500 feet. The Transcontinental Flight. —After delays of three or four days, owing to breakages and unfavorable weather conditions, the two aviators who attempted to cross the continent in opposite directions in Wright biplanes—Robert B. Fowler and Calbraith P. Rodgers—finally resumed the flight on September 28th. Fowler had twice previously tried to scale the Sierras, but without success. In one of these attempts he experienced difficulty in climbing to the necessary elevation, while in the second one, after attaining a height of nearly 7,000 feet and getting to a point within 15 miles of the summit, his' motor stopped and he was obliged to glide back to a suitable landing place. He alighted at Emigrant Gap. His third attempt, on the 28th ult., resulted in reaching an altitude of but 1,500 feet on account of choppy"' cross currents of 20 miles an hour or more which drove him back to earth after a 20-minute flight. After this experience Fowler abandoned' the race. Rodgers's Progress in the Flight Across the Continent. -Rodgers's machine was so badly damaged by contact with a barbed-wire fence on the 24th ult. that nearly four days were required to repair it. He left Red House, N. Y. (where the accident occurred) at 10:35 A. M. on September 28th and' alighted on the race track at Meadville, Pa., at 12: 30 P. M., after having covered the 104 miles from Salamanca to Meadville in 106 minutes. This included circling the former town and hovering above Meadville at a 3,000-foot elevation for several minutes in an endeavor to locate the Country Club. About 10V2 gallons of gasoline were consumed on the trip. A fresh start was made at 1:20 P. M. but the aviator was obliged to alight shortly after at Warren, O., on account of the oil tank not having been filled by his mechanics. A skid was broken by a concealed ditch and it was 4:30 P. M. before he set out for Akron. He covered 30 miles to Kent, a small place some 10 miles from Akron, in 40 minutes and was able to alight successfully in a field which he was barely able to discern on account of darkness setting in. He covered 204 miles altogether. During the next four days he made some progress aI).d reached Huntington, Ind., 142 miles from Chicago. In starting on October 3rd, a down current drove him to the ground and smashed his machine once more,.. On 'the 5t}J he. resumed the flight and covered 123 miles to Hammond, Ind. Science Constituents of the Body.—Our body may be said to weigh about 70 kilograms, or say 154 pounds average, the various constituents being as follows: Kg. Lbs. av. Per cent. Muscles ........ 30.4 Fat............. 13.3 Skin ........... 12.4 Bones .......... 12.2 Brain ........... 1.5 67.02 43.5 29.32 19.0 27.34 17.8 26.90 17.5 3.31 2.2 69.8 153.89 100.0 There are 45 liters = 45 kilograms or 99 pounds average of water and 25 kilograms = 55 pounds of solid matter; the latter being composed of 14 kilograms = 30.8 pounds of albumen, 7 kilograms or 15.4 pounds of fat, 3V2 kilograms or 7.7 pounds of salts, and 0.7 kilograms, or 1.54 pounds of sugar. The Work of the Human Heart. —The average human heart is a suction and force pump of remarkable capacity and durability. Each of its two chambers contains, on an average, 75 cubic centimeters or 4.575 cubic inches; the total contents of 150 cubic centimeters or 9.15 cubic inches being discharged 81 times a minute, corresponding to a delivery of 12,150 cubic centimeters (12.15 liters) or 741 cubic inches per minute, 729 liters or 25.73 cubic feet per hour. Expressed in TJ. S. gallons, the average human heart pumps through it each hour 192.6 gallons; each day, 4,622.4 gallons; each year 1,687,176 gallons; and in the adult life time of a man living to the age sung by the Psalmist 8,435,880 gallons. The pressure against which this fluid is pumped is equivalent to that of a water-column 2V2 meters or say 8 feet 2.42 inches high; otherwise expressed, about 0.242 atmospheres or 3.55 pounds avoirdupois per square inch. Strength of Human Bone.—Fortunately the human skull, although composed of bones is elastic—much more so than one would think. The average male adult skull, in fact, is so elastic that it may be compressed laterally in' diameter by a blow or by pressure, applied at the center of area, at right angles to the surface at that point, by 1V2 centimeter or about six-tenths of an inch; recovering its original diameter and form, without breakage. The material of which our bones are made is so highly resistant that a cylindrical piece thereof only one square millimeter or 0.00155 square inch in area (i. e” only 1.128 millimeter or 0.044 inch in diameter) has a tensile strength of 15 kilograms or 33 pounds avoirdupois, figuring out at about 21,300 pounds per square inch. A similar sample of hard wood tested in the same manner held only 10 kilograms—that is, bone has . 50 per cent more tensile strength than wood. A single bone fiber is shown in the Hygiene Exhibition, Dresden, supporting a weight of 5 kilograms or 11 pounds avoirdupois. Change in the Habits of Wild Rabbits. —German natural historical periodicals are calling attention to an interesting change in the habits of wild rabbits, especially in the western parts of Germany, as for instance, Westfalen. The animals in question are giving up their ancient habit of burrowing, and have commenced in great part to imitate the hares, which, as is well known, nest only above ground. The hares themselves were once burrowers, and gradually went through the same change in habits in this particular that appears to characterize the rabbits at the present day—at any rate in Germany. In woods where the undergrowth is thick, and which are therefore especially suitable to the rabbits, they find hiding places in plenty for their nests; and even in open country, unwooded—and the rabbits seems to be taking more and more to the open—they take refuge' in board-piles, rubbish-heaps, brush-piles, brick-kilns, drain-pipes, and ditches that are overgrown with weeds. The' female makes little fortresses for her young, to protect them from the cannibalistic propensities of' the male; she lines the nest warmly with .fur from her own breast, visits them secretly at night, and perhaps suckles them once more during the 24 hours; but each time thp.t she leaves them she care fully piles .rubbish before .the opening which loads to her defenseless family, and defiles the obstructions with • ordure. The Curtiss Aeroplane The safest, speediest and most dependable of all aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplane The acme of ease, safety and comfort— Are sold without restriction for immediate delivery Both are equipped with the Curtiss J.3«:oior The CURTISS method of instruction is the safe, sane and efficient one. Summer training school at Hammondsport, N. Y. Winter training school and experimental station at San Diego, California. CURTISS Aeroplane Co. GLENN H. CURTISS, President HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. JEROME FANCIULLI. Sales Manager, 1737 Broadway, New York City BE A FACTOR IN EPOCH-MAKING HISTORY Learn to Fly We will teach you and furnish your entire equipment ' I 'HE development ot aviation has reached a point where success centers upon the motor. The conquest of the air is the application of scientific principles. To apply these principles in' a practical way, the essential thing is power - AMPLE, RELIABLE, CONSTANT POWER. The three are combined in the “Queen” aeromotor. "Queen” Aeroplanes are the safest and speediest machines designed and made in America. They are used by the three leading aviators in the world. Ovington, the American, Simon, the French, and Lukowitcz, the Russian. A “Queen” monoplane equipped with a 100 H. P. “Queen” Aeromotor is capable of 75 miles an hour. A “Queen” monoplane won the Woodruff cup at the recent Nassau Boulevard Meet. The engine used in this race is of the same construction as the 275 H. P. motors used in the Dixie IV, champion motor boat of the world. LEARNING TO FLY is not as difficult as learning to swim. Our experts will instruct you so that you may qualify for an aviator's license in from two to four weeks. To purchasers of “Queen” Aeroplanes, this instruction is free. QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY Office: 71 Broadway Factory : 197th St.&Amsterdam Ave. NEW YORK CITY To warm your house six months in a year you must have a Heating Plant. You can keep your house clean twelve months in a year with a Vacuum Cleaner. OVER ten years ago A. P. Broomell, a well known and successful manufacturer and inventor of York, Pa., invented a new and novel system of heating which he called VAPOR. The name “vapor” was adopted for the reason t hat just as soon as the water in the boiler reaches a temperature about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, vapor—hot 'Vapor—begins to rise from the water, and Mr. Broom-ell's invention makes it possible to circulate this hot vapor through the radiators without any pressure, and without any mechanical means. It is a well known fact that to get the greatest economy it is necessary to use steam at a very low pressure, or better still at no pressure. In the Broomell Vapor System there is positively no pressure in the radiators, in fact there is a partial vacuum, and, as above stated, that, without any pumps, aspirators, mercury seals or mechanical devices whatever. The temperature of each room can be regulated at 'Will. . The system is positively noiseless; it is very economical; no air valves are used; it has all the advantages of steam heating and hot 'Water heating without any of their many defects. This wonderful system has been installed in thousands of fine homes and in hundreds of office buildings, ch urches, schools, hotels, etc., and has never failed to give the very greatest satisfaction. It saves the owner money — it saves the architect trouble — it saves the heating contractor responsibility. If you want to know more about this plan of heating—Broomell Vapor System (there are many imitations) write to the Vapor Heating Company, North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa., J. D. Arnold, Manager. Vapor Heating Company, I Broadway, New York City, Chas. E. Scott, Manager. Or to the Vapor Heating Company, York, Pa., A. P. Broomell, President. You may ask “ What has this to do with Vacuum Cleaners ? ' '— and the answer is—that the same man who invented Vapor Heating is also the inventor and manufacturer of ' the best and most complete Vac««OT Cleaner ever offered to the public. The Vacuum Cleaning business is run under the name of the Victor Cleaner Company, works and main office at York, Pa. A. P. Broomell is the sole owner of the business. VICTOR Vacuum Cleaners Are made in sizes and styles suitable for every service, and include Electric Portable, Electric Stationary, and a machine especially designed for the country home where electric current is not available. THE VICTOR ELECTRIC PORTABLE This is a very handsome, simple and durable machine. It can be operated from any lamp socket. It moves a large body of air and gives sufficient vacuum to thoroughly clean all kinds of carpets, rugs, furniture, etc. With this Portable, this “sucker broom,” there is furnished a full equipment of floor tools, brushes, etc., also 25 ft. of special electric wire, and 15 ft. of wire inserted vacuum hose. The Victor Stationary for Country Homes. Almost every farmer and owner of a country home has one or more gasoline engines, or some available power, and we make a Vacuum Cleaner especially designed for use with such power. The Cleaner can be placed in the cellar of the house, or in any available out-building, and a pipe run underground to the house and connected to a riser, with vacuum hose connection on each floor. We furnish with this machine a combination cast iron pedestal, dust receptacle and dust separator, and on this is mounted a powerful rotary vacuum pump, which is driven from the gasoline engine or other available power. We have these machines in successful operation where the Cleaner is placed as much as 400ft. a'Way from the house. The dirt is rapidly and completely removed from floors, carpet, etc., and delivered into the dust receptacle of the Cleaner. In many cases a pipe is run to the stable and 'Vacuum currycombs used with great success on horses and co'Ws. THE VICTOR ELECTRIC STATIONARY VACUUM CLEANER For Residences, Hotels, Schools, Churches, etc., is the acme of perfection. Designed by Mr. Broomell with a special object in view of making a machine which would move the greatest possible amount of air, pull a strong steady vacuum, and at the same time be of the simplest and strongest possible construction. This machine has no equal. The vacuum is prod' iced by a specially designed medium speed rotary pump of only three mo'Ving parts. This pump consumes a minimum amount of power, requires very little lubrication, runs noiseless, and will stand a great deal of abuse and still last for many years. The design of the machine is such that it is entirely self contained, no foundation is required. The electric motor and vacuum pump are mounted on a handsome cast iron pedestal, which also forms the dust receptacle and dust separator. The electric motor and rotary vacuum pump are accessible from all sides. It can be taken apart in a few minutes' time without removing them fromtheir position. or either the pump or motor can be taken off in five minutes' time. The electric motor and vacuum pump are raised a considerable distance above the floor. making them handy to clean and examine, and removing them as far as possible from the damp floor. While Victor Stationary machines are made of several sizes. a great specialty is made of single sweeper machines especially adapted to residence work. In this machine a motor of 1 H. P. is the standard. and the capacity of the machine is ample to do very rapid and thorough work. The whole outfit can be erected in a new or old building in a few hour! time without expert help—you can install ityourself. The extreme simplicity. the freedom from complicated parts, the small amount' of attention required. and the durability of the outfit make the VICTOR suitable for use by women folk of the home. Or by servants. Write today. Tell us what you want. What is in your mi-d? We can meet your views as to the style of machine, price and terms. Address all correspondence in reference to Vacuum Cleaners to the manufacturers: VICTOR CLEANER COMPANY, York, Pa. W5e Phonograph Company presents: 1 Photos (c) by Misbkin&Dupont an unequalled series of Double-Disc Records by a majority of the greatest singers in the world, artists whose names are household words in Europe and both Americas—among them nordica, 2fremstad> 3mary garden, “alice nielsen, 5zenatellcy 6bonci> 7caval1eri. constantino, 9lipkowska> iobaklAnoff, “am a to, “MccOrmack, 3boNinSegna,' l4emmy destiNn, l5sammarco> “anselml 17 Mardones RECORDS of all these magnificent ' voices, and of scores of others, may be purchased of Columbia dealers. Many of them nowhere else; for they are now singing under exclusive Columbia contracts; records that may be played on any disc instrument, and are better in surface, tone and durability than any others, and so guaranteed to you. Hear them on the new Columbia Grafonola “Regent Junior,” here illustrated, and you will admit the claims of “the one incomparable musical instrument.' ' New catalogs of Columbia instruments and records of any Columbia dealer, or from us by mail Exclusive selling rights granted to dealers where we are not actively represented COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH CO., Gen'l—Box 264, Tribune Bldg., New York London : Earlsfield, S. W. Creators of the Talking-Machine Industry. Pioneers and Leaders in the Talking-Machine Art Owners of the Fundamental Patents. Largest Manufacturers of Talking- Machines in the World. The New Columbia Grafonola. "Regent Junior “—$150 Other types of the Columbia from $17.50 up to $200.