I.—APPLICATION AND PROGRESS OF THE MANUFACTURE. When we glance over the chemical products that influence to the greatest extent the useful arts of society, we find them among the acids and alkalies ; for by the chemical reaction of those compounds, furnishei by nature or art, the manufacturing and domestic arts generally obtain a multitude of useful compounds. But of all substances that have made their imprint on the modern progress of the arts, there is no one approaching sulphuric acid in importance, produced as it is from the cheapest materials furnished by nature, and of which there seem to be inexhaustible supplies. Glass making, soap making, bleaching, calico printing, dyeing, etc., are all debtors to sulphuric acid. It is said that the consumption of sulphuric acid in any country will show, with that of iron, its industrial activity. The low price of the acid is one of its great merits ; the ordinary form known as oil of vitriol, being the most concentrated form in ordinary use, is now made in France at a cost of about one and a quarter cent per pound, and in England for a' shade less ; in this' Country ill-advised legislation makes a much higher and fluctuating price. No material change has taken place in .the last ten years or more in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. The well-known method of converting sulphur into sulphurous acid, and completing the oxidation of it by the oxygen of the air, aided by one of the oxygen compounds of nitrogen, is still the predominant method ; and, in fact, all of this acid that is manufactured, except the small quantity made by distilling copperas, and called Nordhausen acid, is made by this process. It will not, however, be unprofitable to the readers of this report to enumerate some of the various attempts made in the last twenty years to supplaut the present method in leae{ chambers. Lealand and Deacon, in 1854, suggested “the use of chambers made of stone, or earthenware. Simon, in 1860, proposed vulcanized gutta-percha, but on trial this substance was found more destructible than lead. Peter Ward, in 1862, proposed a series of glass sheets to increase the surface and hasten the reaction ; that, however, had beenused before, and as the formation of sulphuric acid is not dependent on surface action, it is of no advantage. Philips and Kuhlmann, as far back as 1838, propo£d the use of heated air, and sulphurous acid passed over spongy platinum, but this has been almost . forgotten. Fouche and Lepelletier, in 1850, employed a series of large Woolfe bottles instead of the lead chambers, at Javelle, near Paris, but this has been long since abandoned. Kuhlmann proposed to pass a mixture of sulphide of hydrogen, obtained by proper means from soda waste, through nitric acid in stoneware bottles, but the method was never put in practice. Petrie, in 1860, applied a system of stoneware columns, filled wiet pebbles, through which currents of .nitric acid and sulphurous acid in proper proportions were passed ; but this has not been successfully applied. Several years ago Persoz accomplished the oxidation “ by passing the sulphurous acid gas through nitric acid, diluted with from four to six volumes of water, and heating to 212° Fah., or through a mixture of nitric acid, or a nitrate with hydrochloric acid. The reaction takes place in a comparatively 'small vessel of suitable material; the gas arising from the deoxidation of the nitric acid is reconverted into nitrous acid by air and water. Theoretically, it works without a loss of mitric acid ; nevertheless the process has never been adopted in practice, possibly from want of suitable material to withstand the combined action of the two strong acids. n.- -SUBSTANCES EMPLOYED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID. Sulphur.—There was a most beautiful display of specimens ot sulphur from the south of Italy and from Sicily ; and these countries furnish all the sulphur that is employed in the arts and in agriculture, except some little that is employed for domestic use in countries producing it, of which notice will be taken a little further on. While we now obtain the larger proportion of sulphuric acid made in Europe from pyrites, it is very much to be desired that new and abundant supplies of sulphur may be fbundj for the acid made from this substance directly is purer, find the apparatus required less expensive than when pyrites is used. Besides the sulphur exhibited from Southern Italy and Sicily,' there were specimens from Apt, in France, which locality furnishes a poor sulphur mineral. Also in the neighborhood of Constantine, in Algiers there is native sulphur. In central Italy, near Bologna, there is a vein of sulphur ore about fifteen miles long, but the mineral iS not rich ,and is necessarily taken from a great depth, Sometimes over 800 feet; About 12,000 tuns are produced here annually, which is almost entirely consumed in the neighboring country for di! eases of the vine. From the Papal States there were also specimens of sulphur, but the quantity produced there. is very small, not exceeding 500 tuns. The Spanish specimens come from Murcia and neighboring localities, where there are some fine mines of sulphur. Besides the above, there were specimens on exhibition from Galicia, near Cracovy, from Corinthia, in Hungary, from the Grecian island of Milo, from Tripoli, Isthmus of Suez on the borders of the Red Sea, province of Rio Grande, in the north of Brazil; but, as already stated, it ili from Sicily that we obtain the great bulk of sulphur used in the arts. In this island the strata of sulphur extend over a length of about 170 miles, superimposed one on the other to a depth of from three to twenty-five feet and containing about thirty per cent of sulphur. The mines are owned by various influential individuals, who, by restricting the supply and by rude and imperfect mining, keep up the price to the present standard. There have been as many as 1,000 mines opened, but at the present time not more than one half are worked. The manner of obtaining the sulphur has been frequently described, and was formerly of a crude character. The method now in most frequent use is that of Tueci, the inspector of of mines of Catanisette and Catania. It is by means of a species of furnace called calaronea, by which very large amounts of the mineral can be operated upon at once. These calm-ones are simply circular furnaces of a conical form, having an inclination of from 20° to 45°, according to the nature of the gangue (which is calcareous or of gypsum), so that the viscous sulphur can descend and run off at the bottorm The walls of the furnace are about 0I\e foot thick and ten feet deep, and made of a capacity to hold more than 1,000 cubic yards of the ore ; at the bottom of the furnace there is a hole to run off the melted sulphur, being the outlet of a channel coming from the interior of the furnace, which channel is continued for a little distance outside the furnace, and is branched and arched over by laying masses of the mineral so as to form little tunnels leading to a reservoh\ The furnace is charged by putting large lumps in the middle, and then smaller fragments on the outside, and finally covering all over with previously exhausted ore. Around the upper part of furnace are several small chimneys going down a foot or two ; by these the'furnaces are kindled at the top ana air is supplied by percolation from above. One>opera-tion requires about twelve or fourteen days. '.The sulphur which has been collected in the reservoirs is cast into molds. The furnace requires twelve or fourteen days to cool down, when it is cleaned out and recharged; and this operation is repeated so long as the furnace lasts. ' There are recent processes of separation proposed by Fan-gere, and by Emile and Pierre Thomas, depending on heat, but they deserve no special notice. The most novel method is that of Deiss ; namely, to dissolve out the sulphur by sulphuret of carbon, and an apparatus has been erected to extract by his process several tuns of sulphur daily, but practical difficulties still exist and prevent it from becoming a complete success. The quantity of sulphur produced in Sicily has gradually increased from 46,000 tuns in 1832, to 800,000 tuns at this time, worth from $22 to. S24 a tun at the port of exportation. This increased consumption of sulphur, in spite of the diminished use of it in the chemical arts (for it will be shown a little further on that pyrites to the amount of 800,000 tuns, representing 250,000 tuns of sulphur, has taken its place), is due to the very large and increasing amount used for preventing diseases of the vine—diseases that have been almost exterminated by its use; but its use is kept up, as it is considered of great importance to give the vineyards an annual treatment of sulphur. If, however, sulphur should fall in price a little below what it is now, it would again come into general use in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Sulphur from Soda-Waste.—In the German section were shown the results obtained by the process of M. Mor^ a chemist, of Utrecht, by which he extracts sulphur from soda-waste. The soda-waste has ever been a great nuisauce, as well as a great loss in the manufacture of soda by Leblanc's process. It has become so great a nuisance in many of the large factories, that stringent sanitary laws have been passed concerning the disposal of it ; and in some places, where it has been scattered over large surfaces, birds have been known to be asphyxiated while flying over it, and to fall to the ground. A large amount of sulphur is thrown away in this waste, so that for forty or fifty years chemists have endeavored to solve the problem of turning it to some account. The prospects now are that it can be made to ,yield up much of its sulphur, and the residue to furnish a valuable fertilizing agent, instead of a pestilential nuisance. Some idea may be 'formed of the abundance of this waste when it is stated that for every tun of alkali manufactured one and a half tuns of dry waste is produced, furnishing the accumulations referred to, that during moist and rainy weather emit sulphureted hydrogen 'gas, and in solution, poisoning waters of all kinds in the neighborhood. Besides the process of Mond there are two others brought forward, one by M. Schaffner, and the other by P. W. Hoffman ; and seven works exhibit sulphur. prepared by one or other of these processes. All the processes are based on the same principle—the conversion of the insoluble sulphide ot calcium in the waste into soluble compounds, by bringing it freely m contact with air, in order to oxidize it; lixiviation of the oxidized mass, and precipitation of sulphur in these hq uiol by a strong acid. as muriatic acid. (To be continued.) Reverie is not thought tnough many people mistake it for thought. Thought is systematic j, reverie is disjointed and fragmentary. Thought is laborious; reverie is the reverse.