THE third international aeroplane race for the Bennett trophy ¦was held at the Isle of Sheppey, East-church, England, ort July 1st, and for the second time America came out victorious, although she had but one representative against the three each of France and England. After attempting to get the Wrights and Glenn H. Curtiss to represent America this year in the race, the Aero Club officials finally secured Charles T. Weymann, the young aviator who has made a, name for himself in aviation abroad, to endeavor to bring back the cup to America. It was first won in 1909 by Glenn Curtiss, who went to France with his own machine and beat Bh3riot with his fast monoplane. Last October, at Belmont Park, Grahare-White won the race on aocount of an accident to Leblanc, BleriGts chief pilGt. The Englishman won on a Bleriot monoplane, as there was no rule requiring the machine to be built in the coun-. try which it represented. The Nieuport monoplane, during the past six months, has proved itself to be one of the fastest and one of the most efficient aeroplanes; and as there was no rule forbidding it, Mr. Weymann decided to use one of these machines, which he has flown cnsiderably of late. He was obliged to abandon the Paris-London-Paris circuit race, in which he was amGng the leaders, at Utrecht, in order to fly in the cup !'ace; but the result of the race amply justified him in doing this. For the past eight or nine months M. Bleriot has been experimenting upon speed machines, Several months ago we gave information about his latest speed monoplane” which had a peculiar shape of wing and was fitted with a pGwerful motor. BleriGt experimented with a 140 -horse -power 14 -cylinder Gnome motor, and it was thought that the machine for the race would be equipped with one of these engines, as well as with the peculiar shape of wing, with flexible rear edge, with which he had had' his greatest succesf. When M. Leblanc appeared at Eastchurch with a machine having wings of only one meter width and a total spread of nine meters, or, in other words, nine square meters (96.876 square feet) surface, and fitted with a 100-horse-power Gnome motor only, he sprang a surprise upon aviation enthusiasts, who dGubted Whether he could win the race with such a diminutive machine, equipped with no more powerful motor than he used last year. The Nieuport monoplanes, however, had only 70-horse-pGwer motors, and considerably larger wings. One Gf them, driven by Chevalier (who was the third man on the French team), had only a 50-horse-power Nieuport motor. Nieuport himself drove a 70-horse-PGwer Gnome-engined machine, as did also Charles T. Weymann. The English team was made up of G. Hamel on a 100-horse-power Bleriot, whkh was practically a duplicate of Leblanc's; Alec Ogilvie, on a baby Wright fitted with a 50-horse-power N E. C. two-cycle motor; and Graham Gil-mour, on a Bristol monGplane, As reserves, England had Messrs. J. Radley, J.' V8Jlentine, and O. C. Morrison. Mr. Radley flew in the Bennett race last year, as did also Mr. Ogilvie. The latter completed the race last year on a Wright biplane, and secured third place. This year he used an English-built Wright machine constructed under the supervision of Wilbur Wright, and fitted with a four-cylinder V-type two-cycle motGr, recently illustrated in our columns. Te reserve members' of the French team consisted of Aubrun, who flies a Deperdussin monoplane; Vedrines, the Morane pilot; and Gibert, with his R. E. P. The Frenchmen had on hand at the time Gf the race four extra Nieuport monoIlanes, three Bleriots, two Deperdussins, and one R. E. P. A llum- ber of trial flights were made on Thursday and Friday, June 29th and 30th, by Weymar,n, Nieuport, and one or two other members of both the English and French teams. The Nieuport monGplane was booked as the winner, and it was thought that Wey- SCENES AT THE GREAT RACE. mann stood an excellent chance. July 1st dawned clear and pleasant, although there was considerable wind in the morning and early afternoon. The race was scheduled to start eight hours before sundown, but the flying did not begin until la,bout 3 P. M., at which time the wind was blowifg at less than twenty miles an hour. The course was six kilometers (3.72 miles) in circumference, and was over level, smooth ground. Its only disadvantage was its proximity to the sea, which, of course, was responsible for the rather stiff breeze that blew some of the time. Gustave Hamel, the English aViatGr, was the first to start, which he did at 3 P. M. It was thought that he would do well, as he had made an excellent shGwing in the morning while practising. Instead, he banked too much on making the turn Gn his first rGund 01 the course and his machine slid sideways to the ground, and was smashed to pieces. The aviator luckily escaped without any serious injuries. Shortly after Hamel's accident, We y mann started in his Nieuport monoplane. He rose to the height of 100 yards or so, which elevation he maintained through-. out the entire twenty-five circuits of ¦ the course. He covered the first five circuits (30 kilometers) in 14: 00 2/5. GhevaIier was the first Frenchman to start. He flew fairly well in his low-powered Nieuport, but alighted after completing ten laps, and did not finish the race. As Gilmour withdrew, England's only remaining representative was Ogilvie, who flew his baby Wright in excellent fashion; though he was unabJe to make anything like the speed of the Nieuport Gr Bl' monoplane. Nieuport covered the first five circuit! in 14 :46, whereas Ogilvie required 21: 45 to fly the same distance (18 miles). Leblanc was the last to ascend. He covered the first circuit in practically the same time as Nieuport, and at the end Gf ten laps, which he covered in 29: 29 4/5, he was only four secGnds ahead. He was still ahead of his compatriot at the end of fifteen laps, and although he succeeded in the end in beating the latter by 57 seconds, he failed to beat Weymann by 2 minutes 2 4/5 seconds. The time of the winner in the race was one hour, eleven minutes, thirty-six and one-fifth seconds, which corresponds to an average speed of 78.1 miles an hour. Leblanc was second in 1: 13: 40 1/5 -an average speed of 75.91 miles an hour. The third place went to Nieuport in 1:14:373/3 (74,94 miles an hour), and fourth to Ogilvie, L 1:49:10 2/5 (51.22 miles an hour). Chevalier'S time for his ten laps wzs 37: 371/5. This corresponds to an average speed of 59.3 miles an hour, which is very good, considering the low power of his machine. The winning Gf the race by America should serve to stimulate aviation in this country greatly, especially since next year the rules will probably be changed so that the machine and pilot must both be the production of the country which they represent. As speed is the desideratum of the racing aeroplane, and the thing for which it exists, we believe that if our inventGrs can develop the speediest, and at the same time the safest, flying machines, they will again cause America to lean the world in aviation, just as she did at the start. South Sea Swells WE all remember with what frequency in the old narratives of experiences In the South Seas reference is made to the heavy swells of the ocean, which impressed the navigators with the idea of their remoteness from land. The great size of the sea waves in high Southern latitudes has been explained by the fact that south of the Cape of Good Hope and Clpe HGrn there is neither windward nor leeward shore, and the prevailing wind in all longitudes is westerly. Thus when a west wind springs up it finds a long westerly swell, the effect of a previous wind, still running. The new-born wind increases the steepnes' of this swell, and so forms majestic storm waves, which sometimes attain a length of 1,200 feet from crest to crest. The average height attained by sea waves in feet is about half the velocity of the wind in miles per hour.
This article was originally published with the title "The Winning of the International Aviation Trophy" in Scientific American 105, 4, 75 (July 1911)