The building represented in our illustration is by far the prettiest structure in the Cotton Exposition grounds. Classic in its design, the Womans building is the one object that attracts the attention from any point of view taken from the terraced heights. It is unlike the larger structures in that it is divided into stories ; the first or ground floor being used as an emergency hospital and kindergarten, the main floor with broad hall and stairways leading to a third floor above. The three stories or floors are subdivided into rooms, and in these are displayed the handiwork of women, in painting, etching, architectural designs, embroidery and many works requiring delicacy of touch united with skill and taste in execution. The building is 150 feet by 128 feet and was designed by Elise Mercur of Pittsburg, Pa. Our illustration was taken from the landing of a flight of steps leading to the Plaza ; statues of heroic size ornamenting the balustrades. Science Note. New Process of Tanning.—In order to hasten the process of tanning, says the Revue Scientifique, Messrs. Bake and Leverett pass a current of hydrogen gas or a current of some gaseous compound of hydrogen containing a certain quantity of arsenic through the liquid in which the hides are immersed. They obtain the hydrogen either from the action of commercial sulphuric acid upon zinc or iron or from that of steam npon iron. They calculate, in fact, that in this case the hydrogen obtained will contain II, sufficient quantity of arsenic. The gas, collected under pressure in a gasometer, is introduced into the bottom of the tanning vat through a pipe provided with a series of apertures. After bubbling up through the liquid it flows out through another pipe affixed to the cover of the vat. Vats of very large dimensionsare employed, and the tanning proceeds very rapidly. A New Asphalt Beton.—The Austrian Militair-Comite has been testing a new asphalt beton introduced undei the name of Lavoid beton, and recommended principally because it hardens quickly. It is an earthy brown powder, which has a slight odor of tar and consists mainly of sulphur and iron slag. The analysis made in military laboratories yielded : Sulphur, 3353 per cent; tar, 821 ; iron slag, 5783; and water, 043. The iron slag contained : Silica, 4301 per cent; ferrous oxide, 2242 ; alumina, 30 9; and lime, 416. The hardening is ascribed chiefly to the formation of an iron sulphide, the tar acting as a reducing agent. From this point of view, the silica, clay, and lime would be useless, though they might combine at a slower rate the committee, however, styles them impurities sim ply. For the tests, plates of from 3 to 6 inches square were formed by pouring the melted lavoid over heated small granite. The material proved quite brittle and not able to resist blows, but was found to withstand high pressures. Induced Draught.—The induced draught trials of the Magnificent, says the Broad Arrow, have proved beyond question the superiority of the system to thai of forced draught. Induced draught is simply this Fans are placed in the uptakes or funnel!; and draw the air through the furnaces, so that the more air thai gets into the engine rooms and stokeholes, the better There is no rushing of air, no unpleasant air pressure whereas in the forced draught system everything i battmed down and air is forced into the furnaces un der pressure, generally with disastrous effects, such ai fused fire bars and overheated furnaces. At no tim during the four hours trial did the temperature in th engine rooms or stokeholes rise above 78, although i was an exceptionally hot day. Mr. Penn and th Admiralty officials, who were on board, were mon than satisfied with the results. The engines workee without the slightest hitch from beginning to end making 10.5 revolutions and working up to 1,200 horsi power. The speed obtained was 1763 knots, or 202i miles per hour. By the time the four hours trial hac finished the Magnificent had passed Hastings, having skirted the coast from the Nore, passing close to Rams gate. Margate, Wahner, and Dover. The great tes having concluded, Lord Charles Beresford, who wa in command, and never left the bridge until hi dropped anchor again at the Nore, tried the ship turning powers with both engines full ahead, the cir cle being completed with a diameter of about 340 yard, He then stopped dead, and went full speed astern, re versed engines at full speed in opposite direction am did his utmost to find a weak spot ; finally this splen did ship returned to her anchorage under natura draught, making 16 knots easily. The Present Status of Walnut.—As a fancy wood either for furniture or house finishing, says an ei change, walnut has yielded most of its prestige to oak and the bulk of our American walnut. wood now goe abroad, the greater portion of it being taken by Gei many. At least 80 per cent of it is shipped to London Liverpool, and Hamburg. There is no reason why i should have fallen into disfavor, but the fact remain that it is unfashionable in this country andit must go The foreign shipments run along between three and half and four and a half million feet, and the bulk of it comes from Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, and Penn-sylvania. The finest shipments of the present year have been from Texas, but, as a rule, Indiana walnut is the best. Kentucky has more than any other State, but it does not average as high as Indiana. Walnut is graded into firsts, seconds, rejects, and culls, and t he price varies from $18 to $20 for culls and $35 to $40 for rejects to $70 per thousand for firsts and seconds. The best grade of walnut is forest growth, what is known as cornfield walnut. This is hard and irregular, with more or less windshakes. Walnut trees are worth from one dollar up, according to their accessibility, and there is no rule for finding them. A tree should be at least 16 inches in diameter. while some trees go up to over 50 inches ; and a log over 60 feet in length is occasionally found. As a rale, however, walnut branches low, and short logs prevail. Figured walnut is a specialty and is used for veneering. Its price varies from six cents to a dollar a foot. One man in West Virginia is said to own a figured tree that cost him a thousand dollars, for which he asks four thousand, having refused three thousand. There are over six thousand feet in it. A walnut tree is at its best at about fifty years of age, or rather it should live that long before it is cut down for the market. Our competitors in the European markets are Italy and Circassia, the latter furnishing Black Sea walnut. The so-called French burls that are shipped to this country to some extent are not French at all, but Circassian, shipped to Marseilles and reshipped from there. The Italian walnut is small and not of as good quality as the others. As might be suspected, New York is the leading point of consumption in America. and the largest amount is shipped abroad froui there, though some goes from Baltimore and Norfolk. Carbide of Glucinium.—Glucina, as well known, has up to the present been placed among the oxides irreducible by carbon. Now the recent labors of Mr. Moissan have considerably diminished the number of such oxides and shown that, in many cases. the reduction can be effected with the aid of a sufficiently intense source of heat. In following the same order of ideas, Mr. P. Lebeau has undertaken some researches upon glucinium and its compounds. The pure glucina that he used was obtained from the emerald, which is its principal mineral. Then, by heating in the electric furnace a mixture of oxide of glucinium and carbon, he obtained, not the metal, but a definite carbide, pure and crystallized, the preparation and properties of which he recently made known to the Academy of Sciences. His conclusions are as follows : (1) The properties of pure, crystallized carbide of glucinium, and, more particularly, the action of water, which decomposes it cold with the disengagement of methane, make it so closely resemble carbide of aluminum, C3Al\ that Mr. Lebeau has been led to attribute to it the formula CGI4. (2). Under such circumstances, the atomic weight of glucinium would be, say, 14, and glucina would become a sesquioxide with the formula G1203. The Vanderbilt Arboretum. All those Americans who are interested in the material welfare of their country will- watch with interest what Mr. George W. Vanderbilt is doing on his North Carolina estate. Mr. Vanderbilt, as is well known. is making on his estate a sort of model forest, where scientific forestry is to be practiced, and experiments made in acclimating valuable foreign trees, and in the most profitable management of the native species; but every one does not know that his plan includes horticulture and agriculture as well as forestry, and that he , wishes and hopes to make his experience valuable to ; American farmers and land owners everywhere. With this view, he proposes to build on his property a little . village, including not only a hotel, but houses and stores, where people interested in agriculture, who come properly introduced, may rent rooms or houses ! for themselves and their families, for such time as they , may desire to study the work going on upon the estate. , There can bl no doubt that there will be plenty of applicants, for nowhere else in this country can such op portunities for advanced study of the sort be found. . Fortunately for his countrymen, Mr. Vanderbilt is not I only able. but willing. to expend large sums of money . in experiments which may return. for the present, I nothing but advances in scientific knowledge ; and it is just these experiments which are perhaps, in the end, most valuable to the country.—Amer. Architect. , THOSE who hold that no man can avoid his fate may s find support for their doctrine in the experience of - Charles J. Weller, of Elkhart. Ind. He was employed in grinding at an emery wheel, but, regarding the pot sition as dangerous, handed in his resignation. Five s minutes before the time for ending his last day at the . work the wheel burst and killed him.—Philadelphia 1 Ledeer.
The Woman's Building, Atlanta, Ga
This article was originally published with the title "The Woman's Building, Atlanta, Ga" in Scientific American 73, 24, 375 (December 1895)