The device shown in the engraving which accompanies this sketch is one likely to render tlie profession of the light-fingered gentry much less profitable than heretofore. By its use the watch is so firmly held in the pocket, that a snatch-thief or pickpocket, must, in order to take it, take also the garment, or least a portion of it. In the engraving, A represents a plate of braes swaged to the proper form and covered with velvet. To the lower end of A, which is recurved, is attached a ring of smooth wire, so made that the plate, A, and the ring, B, spring together with considerable "force. To the back of A, are attached strings or cords, C, which, when the protector is placed in the fob, pass through eyelets made in the back of the fob, and after being passed through holes in the plate, D, are firmly tied, thus fastening the instrument firmly to the garment in which the watch is carried. When thus attached the watch is slid in between the top of the ring, B, and the plate, A, and the lower part of the case rests upon the recurved portion of A. The plate, A, and the ring, B, then close by their elasticity, which brings the shoulders, E, directly over the top of the case, while the stem of the guard ring passes through between them. When thus closed no amount of pulling will remove the watch, until the ring, B, is made to opan away from the plate, A. This is accomplished with an easy manipulation by the wearer of the watch, but one which if attempted by a pick-pocket would infallibly lead to his detection. This device was patented by E. R. Pease, April 14, 18G8, whom address for territorial rights, at Poughkeesio, N. Y. Geo. E. Ranous, 35 Maiden Lane, New York city, is agent for the sale of the article. Tlie Captive Balloon Those who visited Paris during the last Great Exhibition will, doubtless, remember M. Giffard's captive balloon, and the machinery by which the ascents and descents were regulated. This machinery has now been brought to London, together with a balloon 23ft. larger in diameter than the Paris balloon, and a rope of much greater length. On entering the Ashburnham Park, the visitor finds himself in a circus 246ft in diameter, encircled by a screen of timber framing, 80ft in hight, and covered with canvas. In the center of this arena is a well about 15ft deep, over which the balloon, when not on a journey, is held in place by numerous guy ropes. This balloon is 93ft in diameter, and when inflated contains 421,161 cubic feet of gas, pure hydrogen being the gas used. The material of which the balloon is constructed is composed of one layer of linen interior, united to another layer of the same material, by means of a solution of india-rubber. Outside of this is a layer of Cretonne linen, the attachment being formed by a vulcanized india-rubber composition. The exterior is finished with two coats of gum shellac varnish, over which again are laid fine coats of boiled linseed oil. From the balloon is suspended a circular car, having the center open for the passage of the rope, which is attached directly to the body of the balloon. The car will accomodate about twenty-five persons; this was, in fact, the number that made the ascent to which we have referred. The rope is made fast to a pressure gage, having a horizontal dial, upon which a pointer indicates the strain pnt upon the rope at any moment. The balloon weighs 6,000 Ibi; the core netting, with which it is covered, and the necessary guy ropes, etc., which are very numerous, are stated to weigh 4,000 lbs. The' main rope by which the balloon i s held captive, weighs 4,350 lbs., is 2,150 feet in length, and is 2 J in. in diameter at the end next the balloon, gradually tapering to 2 in. diameter at the end next the winding drum. The object of thus tapering the rope, is that its weakest part may be nearest the ground, at which point it would first give way, if it broke at allwhich is hardly probable. By this means, if such an event should take place, there would be no danger to those below, from a heavy mass of rope falling upon them. It would also act somewhat as a brake upon the balloon, which would otherwise shoot upwards at a terrific rate, when suddenly relieved of its load. The rope passes from the balloon over a pulley wheel 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter, which is so arranged that it allows the rope to pass freely over it, no matter what angle it may take. It is, in fact, swiveled horizontally and vertically, and has a heavy counter-balance weight attached to it. This pulley wheel is held down by a strong framework, which is built into the earth, and is weighted with 50 tuns of brick, iron, and timberwork. The rope passes horizontally from the pulley along a gradually widening tunnel to the winding drutn which ia placed at tie far side of the circus. This drum is 23 ft. in length and 7 ft. in diameter. It is cast in lengths, and is grooved to receive the rope. The drum is surrounded by a platform, at each end of which is a double-cylinder steam engine of horizontal construction. These engines drive the drum by means of toothed gearing; they receive steam from two vertical boilers placed in the rear of the circus. The boilers are of French construction, by M. Duresnes, as are also the engines, which are by M. H. Flaud. The -winding drum was made in London by M. Babeaud, the engineer in charge of the balloon machinery. On a piece of spare ground in the rear of the circus is the apparatus for producing the gas. This consists of a series of wooden vats in which scrap iron is placed in a solution of sulphuric acid. The gas is drawn off to a receiver, and is made to pass through a washer and a purifier, after which it is stored in a gas holder ready for use. The balloon is always kept inflated, but there is always a loss going on from condensation, the deficiency being made good every evening. The cost of the balloon and apparatus has been something considerable, as will be seen from the following items : Cost of balloon, 2,000; netting,guy,and other necessary ropes, 2,000; main holding rope, 220; engines, boilers, and machinery to work the balloon, 4,000; gas works, 1,200. These items which are not all that could be enumeratedrepresent the respectable sum of 9,420, and when we add that the gas for one inflation costs 600, it will be seen that M. Giftard has made an investment of no light nature, but which we trust will prove as satisfactory to himself as his balloon will prove attractive to the public. A careful examination of the whole apparatus has satisfied us that everything is as safe as human ingenuity and foresight can make it. Two experienced aeronauts, MM. Godard and Aymo, accompany each ascent, while the manager is M. Yon, who manufactured the whole of the ropes and netting, and also constructed the balloon for M. Giffard. We can but wish success to this novel enterprise, which we are sure will be well patronized by the public, whenever the weather will permit of ascents being made. There is now no excuse for the public not enjoying the privilege of a balloon ascent, which luxury has hitherto only been allowed to a select few.Mechanics' Magazine. The London Court Journal contains the following notice of the apparatus employed in printing the Times. " The Times is now printed by new machinery so perfect and so simple, that it takes but one engineer and three laborers to print off the whole edition of the Times. The principle of the machine is that the paper is not cut into sheets before it is printed, but is brought to the machine in a long roll. It passes through the machine, is printed on both sides, and is divided as it passes out, the whole process being automatic. The idea has long been worked at by engineers, but has only lately been practically carried out, under the superintendence of Mr. Macdonald, the engineer, who has charge of the whole Times machinery." Four of these machines are ia the printing department of that paper. This machine appears to bo the same as the Bullock Press now used to print same of the newspapers of this city. The Press says: "Anew era in scientific education has been inaugurated by the management of Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. The scientific classes of that institution will make a tour of the State during this month. They will be under control of one of the leading professors, and will visit points of mining and manufacturing interest. When nature is made the class-room, American youth must needs acquire the highest order of education. Perfection in this respect is not perfect unless it is practical, and practicability is the result of the system introduced by Lafayette." 403 Treatment of Disease by Inhalation The treatment of certain diseasea by inhalation, has advantages that do not pertain to any other method of administering drugs. In lung and throat diseases the parts may by this method be treated by direct application of the remedial agent to the diseased part, and in diseases of the uterus and vagina, the application of medicated vapors insures intimate contact of the remedies with the parts affected, when a proper apparatus is used for the purpose. The inhaler, patented December 26,1868 ,by G. H. Ticlienor, M.D., of Canton, Mississippi, is designed to facilitate the process of inhalation and to enable it to be performed in a more perfect manner, than can be done by any of the means previously employed. Its construction is simple and will be easily understood by reference to the engraving which accompanies the description of the improvement. Pig. 1, is am elevation of the complete apparatus, and Kg. 2 is a vertical section showing the interior construction. The apparatus may be made of tin, slieet iron, or other suitable material, and the general form is that of a cylinder surmounted by an inverted funnel. It contains an upper drawer, A, with a perforated bottom, and a lower drawer B. In the upper drawer is placed the drug or compound, of which the vapors are desired to be inhaled. In the bottom drawer is placed the coals, or preferably a piece of heated iron. The heat radiating against the bottom of the drawer, A, volatilizes or ignites the substances placed in A, and thus the vapors are formed. The drawer, B, is left partially open while the vapor Is generating and admit3 atmospheric air which becoming heated rises and passes through the perforations in the bottom of the drawer, thus dilutingthe vapor. The amount of dilution is regulated of course by the amount of opening of the drawer, B. Prom the top of the inverted funnel passes a tube composed at each end of vulcanized rubber, to give flexibility and terminating in a mouth-piece, C. The medicated Tapors rising through the funnel, as shown in the engraving, pass through this tube with considerable force, on account of the draft occasioned by the heat, and are then inhaled by the patient. When the uterus or vagina are under treatment, the drawer B, is closed and an artificial draft is created by means of a hand bellows attached to the tube as shown in Pig. 1, and the manner of using the instrument will be obvious to medical men.. Dr. Tichenor may be addressed for further information at 363 Broadway, New York. Disposition of Gas Burners Much of the economy and effect of gaslight, sayB the a,?-ligjit Journal, depends upon the arrangement of gas burners in relation to each other, to the surroundings of furniture, hight of ceilings, distance, and angles of walls, hangings, etc. The general practice in this country and in Europe, of disposing burners in chandeliers in the center of rooms, although, pleasing to the eye in its artistic effect, simply as an ornament to the room, is far from being the most philosophical manner to obtain the best effect from the light. The diffusion of light, in its effects, is materially modified by the laws of reflection and refraction. Light decreases in intensity in proportion to the square of the distance from the burner or point of illumination. This is a general rule, but in a room with four white walls and a coiling, the reflection of the light upon itself, as it were, will apparently modify the rule. Shadows have much to do in the effective and satisfactory lighting of any hall or room. Hence it is a single light, or a center piece, or nucleus of lights as represented by a chandelier, is objectionable, because your shadow will appear in any part of the room opposite to the light, and is more or less inconvenient in proportion as it differs in that respect from daylight, which is so diffused as to avoid this evil except in peculiar conditions. Now, in view of these suggestions, is it not apparent that the proper and most efficient position for gas buiners is at the different sides, or better, the different angles of a room ? Then the intensity of light will be more uniform in every part of the room, no shadows will be formed, and the reflective action of the walls will be most effective. These reflections will show the folly of using bracket lights at one side only of a room; where shadows fall in every direction it is possible to move from it, and with increased intensity as you go, until tne gloom of the opposite side brings you back like a moth, to be blinded by the glare of the immediate proximity of a single luminary. If brackets are to be employed, let there be at least two in a room, and these disposed vis a vis, or as nearly so as possible. Re factors.The value of reflectors is not appreciated as it should be, and the reason is principally because few people, even those whose business is to make apparatus for artificial i light and attend to the introduction of gas fixtures, etc., are j sufficiently acquainted with the laws that govern reflected light, and when so, they fail in the mechanical ability to properly arrange reflectors so as to obtain the proper effect. Reflectors should be made of a material that will not tarnish by the action of the atmosphere or the temperature tjiej may be exposed to. A very slight film of dust, moisture, or smoke on a reflector will almost entirely destroy its value as a reflector. The surface of the reflectors should be perfectly smooth and free from scratches and abrasions. Hence, it is apparent that metallic reflectors are' not the best in that respect. Glass reflectors are superior, inasmuch as they do not become tarnished, abraidod, or scratched, but their action is impaired if the glass is too thick, owing to the absorption of light The late American invention of a mica reflector is advantageous on that account, because the plates or lamina are very thin. It has also ihe advantage of not being fragile or liable to fracture. Reflectors are better placed overhead. A reflector which throws the light in a horizontal direction, unless neutralized by another opposite, will be very disagreeable, owing to the dazzling glare. Aa a rule, reflectors should be so placed that the reflective rays shall never reach the eye in a straight line. This will avoid the evil effects of glare. As a rule, all the direct rays of a lamp or burner thrown upward may be thrown downward by reflectors, producing a great economy of lifjht and an effectiveness of illumination very pleasant and satisfactory. Apple Worms,--" Carpocapsa pomonella." Almost every one who is in the habit of eating raw apples must have repeatedly noticed the little whitish worm, which is so often found burrowing at the core of the fruit, and filling i it -with its disgusting excrement. But probably not one fruit- j grower out of a hundred has everseen the little moth which is produced from this worm, and whicli, in in its turn, gives birth to a fresh generation of such worms. In the annexed I figure, a shows the borrowings of this worm-like larva, b the point where it effects its entrance, e the larva itself, of the natural size when full grown, h the front part of its body magnified, d the pupa, i the cocoon, and / and g the perfect moth, which is distinguishable from all other moths by a patch of burnished coppery scales at the tip of its front wings. In English this moth is variously known as the apple-worm, moth, or tlie codling-worm moth, but there is only one scien-kt'fic or Latin name for it. Like most of our worst insect foes, was originally a denizen of the Old World, having been introduced into this country only about the beginning of the present century. Twenty years ago it was unknown in Illinois; and it is only within the last eight or ten years that i* has penetrated into Iowa. The apple-worm moth makes its first appearance in North Illinois from the last of May to the forepart of June, and a little earlier or later according to the season or the latitude. Usually, at the time it appears, the young apples are already set, and beginning to be about as large as a hazel-nut. After coupling in the usual manner, the female moth then proceeds to deposit a single egg in the blossom end (b) of the fruit, flying from fruit to fruit until her stock of eggs (amounting to probably two or three hundred) is exhausted. Not long after accomplishing this process she dies of old age and exhaustion. In a very few cases the egg is deposited in the ho] low at the stalk end of the fruit, or simply glued on to the smooth surface of its cheek. In a short time afterwards the egg, no matter where it is located, hatches out, and the young larva forthwith proceeds to burrow into the flesh of the apple, feeding as he goes, but making his head-quarters in the core. In three or four weeks time it is full grown, and shortly before this the infested apple generally falls to the ground. The larva then crawls out of the fruit through a large hole in the cheek, which it bas bored several days beforehand for that express purpose (as shown in the figure), and usually makes for the trunk of the tree, up which it climbs, and spins around itself a silken cocoon of a dirty white color, in any convenient crevice it can find, the crotch of the tree being a favorite spot. Here it transforms into the pupa state; and, towards the latter end of July or the forepart of August, bursts forth in the moth state. We have noticed that a larva will occasionally spin its cocoon on the under surface of some board lying flat on the ground, instead of climbing the tree in the usual manner. The whole of the above process is now repeated by this second generation, of moths; but, the apples being now very much larger, not near so many of them fall to the ground through the internal injury inflicted by the insidious little apple-worms. A large part of them, in fact, hang on the trees till they are ready to be harvested, and in many of them the worms may still be found even up to the "beginning of the winter. Those larvas that leave the apples before they are harvested dispose of themselves in the same manner as the larra belonging to the first or spring brood. Those that remain in the apples until they arc barreled up almost invariably make their way out in the course of the autumn, and spin their cocoons under the hoops of the barrel, or in any suitable cracks they can find in the staves. In a single apple-barrel, which we broke up in the spring for this express purpose, we once found about two hundred such cocoons. But wherever this second brood of larva; spins its cocoonwhether on the tree, under some loose board, or under the hoops of a barrel it always lies in its cocoon, in the larva state, all through tlie winter without eating anything, and never transforms into the pupa state till the beginning or middle of the following May. It is from this generation of pupa: that the early brood of moths takes its origin, which lay their eggs upon the young apples when they are about the size of hazel-nuts, as already explained. It has long been known that, by placing an old cloth, or anything of that nature, in the crotch of an apple tree, the apple-worms may be decoyed into building tneir cocoons underneath it, and thus be destroyed wholesale. Dr. Trimble's methodwhich amounts to the same thing, and has been found to bo practically very beneficialis to fasten two or three turns of a hay band round the trunk of the appla tree, and every few days, from the middle of July to the middle of September, to slip the hay band up and destroy the cocoons that have from time to time been formed on the bark underneath it. All authors are agreed as to the practical importance of picking up and destroying the wormy apples as soon as they fall, either by hog-power, or, when that is inconvenient and impracticable, by man-power. When we consider that every female moth that hatches out in July or August, from the first brood of apple worms, will probably deposit an egg in some two or three hundred nearly matu red apples, thereby rendering them more or less unsalable, the importar.ee of destroying the wormy windfallsin the forepart of the season at all eventsbecomes at once apparent. The larvaj that leave these early windfalls lie so short a time in the cocoon before they come out in the moth state, that there is not much chance for birds, and other insect-devouring animals, to get hold of them, more particularly as insects of various other kinds are always to be met wit a abundantly in the summertime. But withthesecond brood of larv*,which have to lie for six months in a torpid state, all through tho long and dreary winter, when woodpeckers, and such other birds as do not migrate to warmer climates in the cold s( jon, are often hard put to it for food, we are satisfied that the case is very different. Prom the careful inspection of several large orchards in the early spring months, we are convinced that almost all tho cocoons of the apple-worm moth, that have been constructed in the autumn on tlie trunks and limbs of apple trees, are gutted of their living tenants by hungry birds, long before tho spring opens. How th en is the breed propagated in tho ensuing spring ? Partly, perhaps, from such few cocoons as have been placed under boards lying flat pn tho jjround, under logs, etc., but in a great measure, a.s wo 404 believe, from the cocoons contained in such vast numbers, as lias "been already shown, in empty apple barrels. To these, situated as they generally are in cellars, or in barns or other out buildings, birds have no access, consequently, as the spring opens, the moths mature from them in great flocks, without let or hindrance, and, flying forth into the apple orchards, immediately commence their evil works. We have ourselves noticed the moth in early spring, in the windows of a house in the cellar of which a few bushels of apples had been stored through the winter. Suppose that from one such infested barrel there are generated one hundred female apple-worm moths, and that each moth, on escaping into the orchard, lays only two hundred eggs, thereby spoiling two hundred apples; it follows that twenty thousand apples, or, allowing a hundred apples to the bushel, two hundred bushels of fruit may be ruined by the product of a single old barrel, worth perhaps a quarter of a dollar ! We would, therefore, earnestly impress upon our fruitgrowing readers the practical importance of examining all barrels or other vessels, in which apples have been stored through the winter; and if, as will generally be the case, they are found to bo swarming with apple-worm cocoons in the spring, let them be either burnt up at once, or thoroughly scalded by immersing them in boiling-hot water for a few minutes. American Entomologist.
This article was originally published with the title "Watch Protector" in Scientific American 20, 26, 402-404 (June 1869)