(Continued from page 128 ) Artesian wells require no pumps, their principle, as differing from other wells is, that they overflow, while the water has to be raised from other wells by machinery of some the whole of a pump are represented in two working positions ; the sections are on a larger scale than the pumps. Figures 9 and 10 are sections of the same pump ; c is the buck- ' et; it has a valve in it opening upwards. A similar valve, d,opening upwards alsois situated at the bottom of the handle, and is termed the sucker. The, action of the pump is as follows, when the bucket is drawn up in the barrel as represented by the arrow, a partial vacuum is formed under it, as it works air tight. The valve in the bucket is kept close by the pressure of air above it, while the sucker valve, d, is opened by the water following up after the vacuum created by the act of the bucket or plunger as shown in figure 9. The water is forced through the barrel upwards, by the pressure of air on the water in the well, while the pressure of air has been removed from the surface of the water in the barrel by the act of the bucket. When the up stroke of the bucket is complete, and the space under it in the barrel filled with water, the water cannot turn downwards through the sucker valve, when the down stroke is commenced, for that action closes the sucker valve, the downward pressure on the bucketwater being incompressibleforces open the valve in c,and the water then gushes through it, and thus the water passes above the bucket. On the next up-stroke of the bucket, c, it is evident that the water which is above it will be lilted up and forced out of the spout. This is the principle of the common pump's action, and there is not a single handy mechanic in the world but can make one for himself. The details of such a pump as that describeda good oneare shown in the sections above. Figs. 1 amp; 2 are elevations of the bucket, and for a first rate one are made of brass. The screw at the bottom is lor leather packing, shown by figure 4. Fig. 3 is a ring, the cup leather packing can be removed or refixed, by screwing or unscrewing said ring over it. Figures 7 and 8 are En elevation and section of th lower clack valve or sucker, the grooves are for kind. Many different machines have been and are employed to elevate water. The common bucket and windlass is the most simple arrangement for raising water; this we represented in our last, and the apparatus is so well known that no words Were required for explanation. There are other machines, however, and the number is neither few nor far between, and some of these we intend to present to our readers. The number and variety of pumps is not small, indeed it is legion. The principle of the common pump is very simple, it consists merely of a barrel or cylinder into which is fitted alight bucket or plunger with a valve in it as represented in the annexed figures, where the sections and hemp packing. To remove this sucker, a hook is inserted in the pump barrel to catch part of it.; the clack (really the valve) is of leather, with a plate of lead, or brass, or iron screwed to the upper side, as shown in figures 6 and 8 ; a is the brass or metal plate, and c is a metal strip to screw the clack to its Seat. Figure 5 is the sucker valve seat. The hinge of the valve is formed by the elasticity of the leather itself. The body of the pump may be of cast iron, or a hollow log.