WHENthe lamented Mascart, shortly before his death in 1907, relinquished the presidency or the International Meteorological Committee-an association comprising the directors of the principal national weather services of the world-the choice Jf his successor entailed no delay or discussion. The committee was singularly fortunate in having among its members a man ideally fitted to occupy the by no means easy position of head of official international meteorology. Others had contributed more conspicuously than Dr. Shaw to the advancement of the world's knowledge of the atmosphere; but no one even approached him in those personal qualities that stand for successful leadership. Dr. William Napier Shaw, president of the International Meteorological Committee and director of the British Meteorological Office, is a man whose personality compels attention. Physically, he is above the average in build and stature. Anyone who is prone to notice canine affinities in the human species would unhesitatingly class him among the mastiffs. Temperamentally, he is placid and self-contained, suave and tactful, under all the harassing circumstances that beset him as an administrator, national and international. Intellectually, he is the kind of man in whom Wa like to see the realization of the ideals of the English universities His meer happens to be physical science; but this fact does not warp his appreciation of the humanities. In his public addresses he is prone to quote poetry. The quotations are always felicitous, and fit in quite naturally with the speaker' graceful prose, which has itself a poetical undercurrent. Born at Birmingham in 1854, he was educated first at King Edwards School, in his native town, and then at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. His studies in physics were rounded out at the University of Berlin, under Helmholtr, whence he returned to Cambridge as fellow of Emmanuel, becoming later university lecturer in experimental physics, and then assistant director of the Cavendish Laboratory. Tn 1885, after the introduction of New Statutes for the University and Colleges he married Sarah, second daughter of Dr. T. Harland, of Salford, herself attached to the teaching staff of the university, as lecturer in mathematics at Newnham. Mrs. Shaw has kept up her interest in educational matters, and is an active leader in the educational section of the British Association. She is also an ardent amateur photographer, and we are indebted to her skill in this direction for the portrait of her husband that accompanies this article. From the beginning of his academic eareer, Shaw displayed an interest in certain applications of physics to meteorology, and he carried out special investigations for the Meteorological Council of the Royal Society long before he dreamed that he should one day be called to the directorship of the Meteorological Office. The first course he gave as lecturer on natural science at Cambridge was on meteorological instruments, in 1897. Fortunately, however, for his.. subsequent career as a meteorologist, he was at the same time laying the secure foundations of a general knowledge of physics and mathematics-the necessary prop:deutics of all serious work in meteorology. A glance at the list of his contributions to scientific literature during his residence at Cambridge reveals an extraordinarily wide range of intarests; electrolysis, ventilation, acoustics, pyrometry, thermodynamic problems, were a few of the subjects that he attacked with especial real, and to which, in each case, he added something of his own. As early as 1885 he published, conjointly with Glazebrook (now director of the National Physical Laboratory), a textbook of practical physics, which has passed through several editions. When in 1891 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society he held a commanding position among By C. Fitzhugh Talman physicists, and his genius as an educator was conceded to have plaeed the teaching of physics at Cambridge upon a more dignified footing than had ever before been granted to it-but he was hardly yet accounted a meteorologist. In 1897 he succeeded Stone, the Oxford astronomer, as a member of the Meteorological Council of the Royal Soeiety-which was, in those days, the governing body of the Meteorological Office. Not until 1900, however, did he definitely embark upon a meteorological career. In that year R, H_ Scott retired from the position of administrator of the Meteorological Office (as secretary of the council), and Shaw was called from Cambridge to succeed him. From the moment that he took up his new work in what, in a recent tribute to a deceased colleague, he DR. WILLIAM NAPIER SHAW President of the International Meteorological Committee. has called “the unpretentious room over a piano ShOD in ViCtoria street which fol more than forty years has been the chief center of meteorological work in this country,” the Meteorological Office awoke to new life. Official meteorology is not generously treated by the British government. It is supported by an annual Parliamentary grant which, together with miscellaneous revenues from other sources, amounts to less than $lOO,OOO, i. e., about one-sixteenth as much as Congress appropriates annually for the United States Weather Bureau. How, with the meager means at his disposal, the director of the Meteorological Office is able to keep up even the routine of a great national weather service is a mystery to his cisatlantic confreres. This routine work includes among othar things the preparation and publication of daily, week-monthly and annual reports, containing the results of observations at a few large observatories and a great number of small stations. In response to the frequently expressed desire of the International Committee for the prompt publication of data, Dr. Shaw has gradually brought up the arrears of these reports, which now appear so punctually that they set the pace for all publications of similar character throughout the world. Formerly one had to wait three or four years for the in extenso returns of the English meteorological obserVatories; now one gets them in as many months. 'he compilation of these returns, the daily weather forecasts, and the superintendence of the instrumental equipment, along with incidental clerical duties, might well be expected to absorb all the energies of the little staff of meteorologists and clerks, formerly housed in the cramped quarters “over a piano shop” for which Dr. Shaw's epithet “unpretentious” was somewhat unduly charitable-but, since last year, more happily installed in new and relatively spacious premises in South Kensington. Such, however, is far Indeed from being the case. At brief intervals the office publishes memoirs on special topics, ranging over a wide field, and so pregnant with timely' interest as to give outsiders the impression of being the fruit of ample leisure rather than of odd moments snatched from the “trivial round." If it be asked what all this has to do with the subject of our sketch, the answer is that all the publications of the offiee bear, at least, the unmistakable marhs of his directive genius, and not a few of them have come chiefly from his own pen. In an address before the British Association a few years ago he expressed his views as to the relation of routine to extra-routim, duties at the office in the following words: "There is a tendency among some of my meteorological friends to COl-sider that a meteorologieal establishment can be regarded as alive, and even in good health, if it keeps up its regular output of observations in proper order and lip to date. That is a view that I should like to see changed. To me, 1 confess. the speculation which may be dignified by 1 name of meteorological research is the part of the office work which makes the drudgery of routine tolerable. For my part I should like every worker in the office, no matter how humble his position may be, somehow or other to have the opportunity of realizing that he is taking part in the unraveling of the mysteries of the weather; and I do not think that any establishment, or section of an establishment, that depends upon science can be regardea as really alive unless it. feels itself 1n active touch with that speculation whiCk results in the advancement of knowledge." Since his election to the presidenci of the International Meteorological Committee, in 1907, Dr. Shaw has displayed, on a larger scale, the same genius for organizing and directing scientific work that distinguished him when, in his earlier years, he built up the department of physics at Cambridge, and that he later brought to bear upon the task of reorganizing and revivifying the Meteorological Office. Meteorology stood in need of just sueh a leader. He is not, as the typical Englishman is reputed to be, unduly wedded to the past. On the contrary, he is sometimes criticised for being in advance of his times. He has, for example, led the movement that aims to reform the units of measurement employed in meteorology, and stands ready to throw overboard the whole cumbersome system of inches and feet and Fahrenheit degrees; he has, in fact, already done so in the upper-air work of the office. A few evidences only can be quoted in this brief sketch of the advanced position that he has come to oecupy in the general campaign of meteorological Iisaarch: There Is urgent need of gathering in the scatt.ared results of climatological observations made In ,ountries that have no regular weather services. In recognition of this need Dr. Shaw has set the example by undertaking to publish all such data obtainable in the smaller British colonies, and heretofore almost wholly inac·ssible to the scientific public. (Continuer on page .6.) For a decade and more the most promising investigations in meteorology have been those relating to the exploration of the upper air. Accordingly, we find that Dr. Shaw has taken a leading part in securing to Great Liritain the enviable position she now holds in the field of “aerology.” I need only refer to a recent publication of the Meteorological Office, “The Free Atmosphere in the Region of the British Isles,” a large part of which was Dr. Shaw's individual product, to illustrate his and the office's activity in this field. Another recent development of meteorology is the discovery of striking correlations in atmospheric conditions at points on the earth's surface far remote from one another. Dr. Shaw has, within this branch of the science, devoted special attention to the relation borne by the southeast trade wind to the other currents of the general circulation, and to the secondary phenomena connected with them. This led him a few years ago to the discovery of a remarkable parallelism between the fluctuations of this wind and those of the rainfall in southern England. To the present writer meteorology appears to be just now entering upon an era of much enhanced prestige, due to circumstances that may be stated in the following syllogism: Aeronauts must cultivate meteorology. We shall all soon be aeronauts. Ergo, we must all cultivate meteorology, which henceforth must be looked upon as one of the most useful and important, branches of science. Conversely, meteorologists must turn their attention to the problems of aeronautics. The director of the Meteorological Office is a member of the Advisory Committee on Aeronautics appointed in April, 1909, by the British government. The membership of the committee includes some of the highest scientific talent of England, with Lord Rayleigh as president. To its admirable report for 1909-10 Dr. Shaw contributes four memoirs on meteorological topics of interest to aeronauts; and in these memoirs he shows how fully he realizes and how unreservedly he accepts the new tasks of meteorology. Besides the textbook of physics already mentioned, and scores of scientific papers and reports, Shaw has written a book on heat and one on ventilation. On the latter subject he is probably the highest authority in England, and he has been called upon, from time to time, to report on the ventilation of various public buildings, including the House of Commons. In recent years he has found time to deliver a number of lectures on meteorological subjects—as reader in meteorology at the University of London, and in other capacities—some of which are about to be published in two volumes entitled “Forecasts of Weather” and “The Climates of the British Possessions." His academic honors include the LL.D. of Aberdeen, 1906; Sc.D., Dublin, 1908; Sc.D., Harvard, 1908; and Sc.D., Manchester, 1910. He is an honorary member of the Meteorological Societies of Austria, Germany and Mauritius. In 1908 he was president of Section A of the British Association. In 1909 he attended the installation of Lowell as president of Harvard University, representing his college, Emmanuel, which was also the alma mater of John Harvard. In 1910 he received the Symons gold medal of the Royal Meteorological Society. The Knight Valveless Engine (Continued from nage U>8.) stroke of the motor the exhaust passage begins to open. The inner sleeve is moving down with the piston, and the passage is between the lower edge of the inner sleeve slot and the lower edge of the junk-ring in the head, the outer sleeve being practically stationary at the top of its stroke. The outer sleeve starts on its downward stroke, and, gaining in speed as the inner loses, leaves a clear opening for the exhaust. The piston is now one third up on its exhaust stroke, and the passage is closed by the upper edge of the outer sleeve slot in passing the lower edge of the exhaust port in the cylinder, as the piston reaches its top center. The four cycles or strokes of the engine( suction, compression, explosion, and exhaust) have now been completed; the crank has turned twice; the eccentrics have driven the sleeves once, and the cycle of operation is now ready to be repeated. The timing shown is not different from that ordinarily used in poppet valve engines. Any timing of the valves can be secured, however, by varying the “lead” between the eccentrics that operate the two sleeves and by properly locating the slots in the sleeves. The amount of valve opening is practically unlimited and is governed by the width of slot in the sleeves and the “throw” of the eccentrics that drive and determine the travel of the sleeves. This valve area need not be much greater than that of a poppet valve. The equivalent of increased valve area is gained, however, by the directness of the valve openings and the absence of restrictions in the gas passages made possible by this construction. The fourth diagram of Fig. 2 shows that the compression space is contained entirely within the inner sleeve and that the fit or clearance between the sleeves has no effect either on the amount of the compression or upon the tightness of the compression space. The diagram also shows the general shape of the combustion chamber. It is evident that a minimum amount of surface is presented for the volume contained, so that the ideal spherical shape desired in gasoline motors is approximated. The simplicity of the entire valve mechanism is apparent. The number of parts are few. All the working surfaces are cylindrical and consequently capable of easy and accurate machining. The -bearing surfaces are large and easily fitted, and with a fair amount of lubrication should last indefinitely. The operation and movement of the parts present no new principle in mechanics. The operation of these sleeve valves is absolutely quiet, accurate, efficient, and absolutely independent of the speed of the engine, which last feature is in great part responsible for the improved performance of Knight automobile motors. A test of two motors identical except for the valve mechanism will show a certain decided increase in power in the sleeve valve motor, an increase in power which becomes more and more apparent as the speed of the engine increases. At low speeds the difference is not noticeable, for the cam and spring operated valves are then at their best. At high speed, however, the action of the poppet becomes very uncertain and the “timing” is uneven. The sleeve valve is not affected by high speed. The resistance offered to the passage of exhaust and inlet gases by the shape of the poppet valve openings is far .greater than that of the sleeve valves. This limits the power output of the poppet valve motor. Continued use of the Knight motor seems to improve it. The sliding sleeves apparently lap themselves into a better working fit. The lips of the slots in the sleeves remain clean and no difficulty in the lubrication or cooling of the motor is likely to develop. The lubrication is generally effected by a splash system. In other words the oil is lifted from the base of the engine by the connecting rods and thrown upon the walls of the piston and sleeves. The sleeves are generally provided with a number of oil grooves, and the oil is lifted both by the wiping of the surfaces and the suction of the motor. The cylinders are cooled by water. The usual centrifugal pump circulates water, through the water jacketing of the cylinder and down into the water-jacketed head. The motor here shown is of 414-inch bore by 5%-inch stroke. The travel of the sleeve is 1% inch. There are now upward of six thousand of these Knight type motors in successful operation and their development and manufacture in this country will be watched with interest. Lessons of the 1911 International Cup Race (Continued from page 170.) The central frame, very deep at the front and of a significant fusiform shape, is entirely covered with fabric, reducing the air resistance immensely but adding in skin-frictional resistance. The shape of the body in section is rectangular, thus giving a large area of vertical and horizontal surface to aid in turning and in maintaining any given direction. Weymann and the other Nieuport pilots were able to negotiate the sharp turns with more ease in a calm than in a wind but were never able to attain the degree of “banking” repeatedly exhibited by the Wright. The large area of “directive” surface given by the body, would prevent any such sharp pivoting as is obtainable with the Dayton product. The shape and sections of the plane are given in the diagrams. The entering edge of the plane profile is smooth and lacks any pronounced dipping. The plane is thinnest at the outer ends and thickest near the center of each wing— a curious feature that adds considerably to the strength. The disposition of the seat in the frame and the shape of the rudders and tail are evident. The fixed semicircular tail surface is non-lifting and in fact is at a slight negative angle when the machine is in full flight. The two semicircular flaps at the rear of it constitute the elevation rudder and are operated by the forward-back motion of a large control lever. This same lever, when moved from side to side, operates the small single rudder for direction situated at the extreme rear. The most noticeable and admirable feature of the entire design is the extreme reduction in the number of stay wires and projecting spars. Outside of the body the only source of pure head-resistance is a four-piece mast to which the planes are braced and the simple chassis. The latter consists merely of a strong ash frame and skid and two wheels mounted on a laminated steel spring—a magnificent combination of simplicity, utility, and strength. The planes are double surfaced, 28 feet in span and with a chord measuring 6 feet 10 inches at the body, gradually decreasing to 5 feet 8 inches at the tips. The plane is warped for transverse control by means of a foot yoke actuating the inclined rod appearing on the chassis and to the ends of which the warping wires are attached. The entire length of the machine is 25 feet. The surface area of the supporting plane is in the neighborhood of 150 square feet. The weight with operator and fuel as flown in the race was nearly 700 pounds. This gives a loading of 4.6fi pounds per square foot. The aspect ratio is roughly 5 to 1. Weymann flew his Nieuport tail-high at an extremely low angle of incidence, often 1 degree or less—an interesting and suggestive fact. THE BLKRTOT XXIII. This racing type of Bleriot flown by Hamel and by Leblanc was originally about 22 feet in span. But at the last moment M. Bleriot deemed it wise to clip the ends of the wings, finally reducing the span of the machine used by Leblanc to almost 17 feet. The chord of this typo measured 3% feet, so that the surface area was in the neighborhood of but 60 square feet! This is less than the area of the elevation rudder, alone, on the old 1909 Wright biplane. The appearance presented by this machine was in consequence little short of ridiculous. At the front end of the long tapering frame was mounted the 100 H.P. 14-cylinder Gnome engine driving a Regy propeller, the same kind of power plant used by Weymann. Major Squier once defined the limit of the aeroplane as a helicopter flying horizontally; M. Bleriot is evidently aiming for this goal—with what success remains to ibe seen. The entire length of the apparatus was about 24 feet. The rudders at the rear and the warping were operated by the usual Bleriot “cloche” and pedal system. The weight with aviator aboard was nearly 550 pounds, thus giving a loading of over 9 pounds per square foot of surface, the high-water mark in aviation. The angle of incidence used in flight by Leblanc was much higher than that of Weymann—approximately 7 or 8 degrees. In straightaway flight the speed of Leblanc is said to have been tremendous, but on turns he was forced to go so wide that he lost ground, and eventually the race. 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This article was originally published with the title "William Napier Shaw, F.R.S." in Scientific American 105, 8, 163 (August 1911)