ONE of the recent developments of wireless telegraphy for military purposes is an equipment for cavalry use to insure. a positive means of communication between bodies of mounted troops or with the main body and the commander-in-chief's staff. The installation is completely self-contained, comprising a small and light motor driving a dynamo, a receiving and transmitting set, and a mast. The whole outfit can be handled by a squad of four men and eight horses, four animals being required for the transportation of the parts. One horse carries the generator set, another the transmitting instruments, the third the receiving equipment, and the fourth the detachable mast and the wire stays. The generator set is particularly interesting. Secured to the saddle is a light outer framework of tube steel, with four side members projecting to serve as legs when the saddle is removed and stood on the ground. Each pair of legs carries a lug and bracket near the ground to form a support on the one side for the small dynamo and on the other for the small gasoline engine. Above each is fitted a semi-cylindrical tank to carry the fuel, oil, etc. It will thus be seen that the weight of the installation is fairly equally divided for the horse. When the saddle and load is removed from the animal's back, it forms a rigid structure on the ground. The dynamo which is air cooled is direct-coupled to the motor by a short length of detachable shafting slipped into sockets on the shafts of the engine and the dynamo respectively. The telegraphic instruments are of the latest Marconi type. Both the receiving and transmitting apparatus may be packed into small compass so as to lie flat against the horses' flanks. The mast is built in lengths of about four feet, which slip together in much the same way as the parts of a fishing rod, and when erected give a mast between 40 and 50 1"'et in height. The equipment shown in the. illustrations is one of two that have been acquired by the Westmoreland and Cumberland Yeomanry of Great Britain and are identical in every respect with those recently employed in demonstrations in Turkey and in Spain. They were submitted to a searching test on the occasion of the Investiture of the Prince of Wales at Carnarvon, when they accompanied the Westmoreland and Cumberland Yeomanry which had been ordered to attend the ceremony. One of the stations was established in the vi cinity of Carnarvon, while the other was set up at the headquarters some distance away. By means of these two installations constant communication was maintained between the two points, which did not possess other communicating facilities beyond a circuitous telegraph line; also with the Royal yacht anchored off Holyhead and with the warships in attendance. Communication was also secured between Carnarvon and Liverpool. Heavy work was thrown upon the field station at Carnarvon as messages had to be received and distributed to all points. This regiment employs the two outfits regularly on maneuvers. Within a few minutes of halting the company can secure communication with another mounted unit or the main camp, while only a few minutes are required to dismantle the whole equipment and to . pack it upon the horses' backs for transport. The British War Office is following this development closely owing to its great military value, and there is every probability that similar sets will be distributed among the regular mounted troops. Neglected Paestum ONE lIf the noblest Greek cities of southern Italy was Paestum of the wild roses, and the site is of easy access. A carrozzella will convey you all the way to Pesto from Sorrento or Pompeii, if you dislike railway' trains. Pesto itself is of course a malarial wilderness, over which three big Doric temples stand silent guard. Qualified excavators have neglected the site to their shame, because these monuments and a Roman town wall seemed to survive the dead Greek city alone. Pesto. is a buffalo pasturage. Piranesi's etchings of the old temples are familiar to print collectors, and one sees them painted . and photographed a-plenty in the Naples art shops. If our architects realized how superior they are to the over-extolled Parthenon in their rugged early Greek lines and masses, to say nothing of their glorious gray and orange weathering, they would copy their serried colonnades and their towering gables. Wilkins surveyed them for his “Magna Grmcia.” Pesto is further the scene of a chapter in Hans Christian Andersen's fairly popular Italian novel “The Improvisatore." In the face of all this modern notoriety, a German editor has been able to locate the ruins of Paestum or the Greek Po-seidonia on the south coast of Sicily, and to credit Spinazzola with the discovery of those early Greek structures in 1911! His firm contention that the extant temples at Pesto originally occupied hilltops like other Greek temples, and that plentiful remains of the antique city lay' buried between them, was the Neapolitan arche-ologist's real merit. Spinazzola has proved his point with pick and hoe. He began his probe at the two principal gates in the Roman wall. Vestiges of the city's older, Greek gates were found under the Roman. The next step was the location of a Greek “Main Street” on the earlier level, along a line connecting the north and south gates. An abundance of wall, gate, road-bed and house ruins, vases, terra cottas, lion head gutter spouts. bronze swords and spear heads, bracelets and brooches has rewarded the excavator's patience. Spinazzola's venture has incidentally enriched the Naples Museum's gallery of antique sculptures with a beautiful super-heroic statue of a real Roman hero, the elder Drusus. The marble portrays the Augustan prince in a pontifical robe. And above all, the majestic old temples of Neptune and Ceres crown the summits cf their original terraced eminence 5 again. The seaboard settlement has recovered its twofold acropolis. Earth-eating in West Africa HENRY HUBERT publishes in the Bulletin du Comite de VAfrique Ji'ran-caise an interesting account of the practice of geophagy in the French Sudan. Although the practice is common in many parts of the world, this particular case is remarkable for the systematic way in which the dirt is collected, and for the fact that it occurs in a well-cultivated region, where food is abundant. The earth consumed is a clay, which is found intercalated among the grits of the region in beds of various thickness. The deeper layers are preferred, and for this reason the natives dig galleries, which are so crudely constructed that falls of earth frequently' occur, sometimes with fatal results. When an unlucky miner is thus buried, no attempt is made to rescue him, as it is believed that the divinities of the mines require an annual victim. It is stated that individuals not infrequently consume seven and a half pounds of clay daily.
This article was originally published with the title "Wireless Telegraph Set for Cavalry" in Scientific American 105, 19, 408 (November 1911)