The windmill represented in onr illustration is one of those having sails of cloth, and the object of the invention is to make them selfadjusting, and render them capable of being easily furled. The sails present a large surface to the wind, and the action of that force sets them at the obliqnity necessary to maintain an equal and regular speed. A represents a framing, on the upper end of which a rotating cap, B, is placed, which can freely turn on the frame by means of friction rollers and a base fitting into the circle on the top of A. C is a hollow shaft resting in sui ta ble bearings, a a, on the cap, B. The outer end of the shaft, C, has a hub, D, attached to it, and spindles, E, are fitted radially in it, the lower ends of the spindles passing through annular ledges, b, on the face of the hub, and every alternate spindle has a part pinion or segment, c, on its lower end. These toothed segments, c, gear into a cylindrical rack, d, on the outer end of the rod, F, which is fitted loosely within the shaft, C, the inner cnd of the rod bearing against a plate or step, e, Fig. 2, (which is a plan view of it,) having a cord or chain, f, and a weight, g, attached to it. The spindies, E, have each a light frame, G, on them; these frames gradually increase in width from their inner to their outer ends, and are connected with the spindle rather out of center, so that the wind will act more powerfully at one side than the other, and have a tendency to turn the spindles, so that the frames will be presented obliquely to the wind. The frames of the spindles have links at their lower ends, which are connected to the alternate spindbs that do not gear with the rod F, at d. H represents the sails, the npper ends or broadest parts of which are fastened to rollers, h, at the extremity of the frames. From the above enumeration of the parts, it will be seen that the weight, g, is employed to counteract the force of the wind against the sails, and keeps them presented to the wind at a proper angle, which will vary according to the wind's velocity, a high wind overcoming the gravity of the weight and turning the sails in a very oblique direction, so that the whole effective force cannot be exerted on the sails. During a light wind, the weight will keep the sails less inclined, and give more surface to the atmospheric currents, thus maintaining an equal speed during the varying velocities of the wind. On the outer end of the rod, F, a cylinder, I, is permanently attached, and it is placed between two plates, ii, and carries two drums, j k. The inner peripheries have ratchet teeth in them, the teeth of one drum being in a reverse direction to those on the other; and pawls on the cylinder, I, catch into the teeth on the inner sides of i i. To the outerdrum,j, cords, p, are attached, which pass through pulleys, q, conneeted with the cords m, secured to the frames, G, one to each, and the ends of the cords pass through blocks, S, attached to the lower end of the spindles, and then the cord is tied to the sails. From the inner drum, k, cords, t, pass around pulleys, u, on the rollers, h, to which the broad end of the sails are fastened. On the inner end of the rod, F, a hand wheel, J, is placed; by turning this w hed in one direction, the outer drum, j, will be tUined in the same direction, while the inner drum, k, will rotate in the contrary, and by reversing this operation the sails can be furled or unfurled. Instead of the cords, m, the frames, G, may have small laths or ribs; and the sails, H, ought to be provided with small cross laths with grooves in them, to correspond with the ribs on the frames, and sewed on the backside, so that they would slide on the ribs by furling or unfurling the sails, and prevent them from slipping to the side. This windmill is the invention of F. W. Witting, of Twelve Mile Coletto Gin, Texas, and was patented by him March 24, 1857. Any further particulars may be had by addressing the inventor, care of E. Eckhardt, Yorktown, Dewitt co., Texas.
This article was originally published with the title "Witting's Windmill" in Scientific American 13, 18, 137 (January 1858)