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Fundamental Questions in Science

An issue devoted to science in its strict sense: the interrogation of nature. This introduction raises the question: Does our society confuse science with applied science, and thus neglect the former?...

By Warren Weaver

What is Matter?

The wave-particle dualism afflicting modern physics is best resolved in favor of waves, believes the author, but there is no clear picture of matter on which physicists can agree

By Erwin Schrödinger

What Holds the Nucleus Together?

Electrical forces bind the electron to the atom, but they cause nuclear particles to fly apart. The powerful cohesion of protons and neutrons must be explained by a wholly different phenomenon...

By Hans A. Bethe

Where do Cosmic Rays come from?

This question involves another one: How do these particles attain their awesome energy? They have told us much about the nature of the nucleus, and they promise to tell more about the universe...

By Bruno Rossi

Why do Galaxies have a Spiral Form?

Some do and others do not, suggesting an evolutionary sequence. The answer awaits more knowledge of how the forces of turbulence and magneto-hydrodynamics affect the attenuated matter of space...

By Cecilia H. Payne-Gaposchkin

How is a Protein made?

These giant molecules are constructed in fantastic variety out of 22 amino acids. The mechanism of their synthesis is perhaps the greatest challenge facing the modern biochemist

By K. U. Linderstrom-Lang

How do Cells Differentiate?

An unspecialized egg gives rise to all the specialized tissues of an organism. The study of this marvelous phenomenon engages two disciplines of the modern biology: embryology and genetics...

By C. H. Waddington

What is Memory?

The means by which the brain stores the rich variety of human experience is completely unknown. The nerve physiologist tries to apprehend the mechanism with cleverly designed experiments...

By Ralph W. Gerard

What is Probability?

Some mathematicians argue that it is "statistical"; others, that it is "inductive." The author believes that there are two kinds, both essential to the future progress of science

By Rudolf Carnap


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: September 1953

  • Science and the Citizen: September 1953

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, September 1953

  • Recommended


  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist

  • Departments

    The Authors

  • Bibliography

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