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Linear Programming

Like the theory of games, it is a method of pure mathematics that can be applied to human affairs. It is used to calculate the best possible solution to a problem that involves a number of variables...

By William W. Cooper and Abraham Charnes

Artificial Internal Organs

The artificial kidney has been widely used when the natural organs are temporarily unable to do their work. Now several machines are being developed to replace the heart and lungs

By Peter F. Salisbury

The History of a Peruvian Valley

For 4,500 years the tides of civilization and conquest have flowed across the Viru Valley. An account of how its history was reconstructed by an intensive archaeological expedition

By James A. Ford

The Origin of Life

How did living matter first arise on the earth? As natural scientists learn more about nature they are returning to a hypothesis their predecessors gave up almost a century ago: spontaneous generation...

By George Wald

A Topographic Microscope

In recent years there has been a demand for methods to represent the microscopic profile of a surface. The author describes a new instrument based upon a simple extension of classical microscopy...

By Samuel Tolansky


They are huge waves that crash suddenly into a coast. Often called tidal waves, they have nothing to do with tides. They are created by underwater earthquakes or volcanic explosions

By Joseph Bernstein


Although these tiny mammals are seldom seen they are remarkably common. Some weigh less than a penny, some possess a deadly venom, some are skilled underwater swimmers. All are voracious and nervous...

By Oliver P. Pearson

The Boundary Layer

It is a thin region on the surface of an airplane wing where air is subject to frictional forces. By perforating the wing the thickness of the region can be controlled and flying characteristics improved...

By Joseph J. Cornish III


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: August 1954

  • The Authors

  • Science and the Citizen: August 1954

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, August 1954

  • Recommended


  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist

  • Departments


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