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Industrial Productivity

What determines how much a worker can produce in different periods and in different countries? The answer is found in the study of a sensitive ratio between the cost of labor and the cost of machinery...

By Seymour Melman

Fractures in the Pacific Floor

The bottom off northern California is broken by a cliff a mile high and more than 1,000 miles long. It is one of four immense fractures apparently due to the same massive deformation of the earth's crust...

By Henry W. Menard

A Forgotten Nation in Turkey

Three thousand years ago the Hittites pushed south to invade Syria and Mesopotamia. They were unable to subdue their powerful western neighbor Arzawa, the remains of which are only now being excavated...

By Seton Lloyd


It is by far the largest store of fossil organic substance, but its utilization lags. Scientific and technological advances suggest that it might best be used not as a fuel but as a chemical raw material...

By Lawrence P. Lessing

An Interview with Einstein

Two weeks before Einstein died he was visited by a historian of science. They sat in Einstein's study and discussed some of his illustrious predecessors in the evolution of physics

By I. Bernard Cohen

The Mutation of Viruses

Viruses provide a simple example of the basic process of biological change. Some recent experiments suggest that it may soon be possible to alter their inborn characteristics predictably by chemical means...

By C. A. Knight and Dean Fraser

Dislocations in Metals

Many important properties of metals are now understood to result from a kind of imperfection in crystal lattices that is called a dislocation. The theory is helping to transform metallurgy from an art to a science...

By Frank B. Cuff and L. McD. Schetky

Polarized Light and Animal Navigation

A number of land-dwelling animals can guide themselves by means of polarized light from the sky. Underwater light is polarized also, and some aquatic organisms may use it as an aid to navigation...

By Talbot H. Waterman


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: July 1955

  • Science and the Citizen: July 1955

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, July 1955

  • Recommended

    Books - July 1955

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist - July 1955

  • Departments

    The Authors - July 1955

  • Bibliography - July 1955

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