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What is Ionizing Radiation?

In their ability to penetrate matter and displace electrons in atoms and molecules, the various forms of this radiation have deep significance for science, technology and the future of man...

By Robert L. Platzman

The Circulation of Radioactive Isotopes

Man's experiments with nuclear explosions have stimulated him to study the distribution of radioisotopes in his environment. These investigations have clarified many geophysical processes...

By E. A. Martell and James R. Arnold

Ionizing Radiation and the Living Cell

The primary site of the biological effects of radiation is in the cell. The specialized structures of the cell, including the genes, are damaged not only by direct hits but also by the chemical products of radiation...

By Alexander Hollaender and George E. Stapleton

Ionizing Radiation and the Whole Animal

The cells of the whole animal form an interconnected society, making the effects of radiation more difficult to trace. Some effects are apparent; others can only be inferred indirectly

By John F. Loutit

Ionizing Radiation and Evolution

Living things evolve as a result of random mutations in hereditary characteristics that survive when they make the organism more fit. What role does ionizing radiation play in the evolutionary process?...

By James F. Crow

Ionizing Radiation and Medicine

X-rays have done much to conserve human life, but they have also doubled the exposure of people in advanced nations to radiation. The physician now has many ways to reduce the dosage to patients...

By Shields Warren

Ionizing Radiation and Organic Chemistry

In one of its many industrial applications, ionizing radiation is used to break organic molecules into ions and free radicals. These fragments often recombine to form compounds with novel properties...

By A. Charlesby

Ionizing Radiation and Metals

The effects of radiation on metals result from the displacement of entire atoms in a crystal, not from ionization. These atomic displacements yield new insight into the nature of the solid state...

By Douglas S. Billington

Ionizing Radiation and the Citizen

How can mankind secure the demonstrated benefits of radiation and minimize the hazards that attend it? The question assumes that the species will not exterminate itself in a nuclear war

By George W. Beadle


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: September 1959

  • Science and the Citizen: September 1959

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, September 1959

  • Recommended


  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist

  • Departments

    The Authors

  • Bibliography

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