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The Transplantation of the Kidney

A kidney can be transplanted from one person to another, but the body is normally "immune" to the graft and rejects it. In certain special cases, however, the immune response of the body can be circumvented...

By John P. Merrill

The Earth in the Sun's Atmosphere

The atmosphere of the sun may extend beyond the orbit of the earth before its density falls to that of the gas in interstellar space. Where, then, does the earth's atmosphere end and the sun's begin?...

By Sydney Chapman

Fuel Cells

Devices that convert chemical energy directly into electricity, thus circumventing the inefficiency of the heat engines used to drive electric generators, are now under intensive development...

By Leonard G. Austin

Life and Light

Life depends on a narrow band in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a consequence of the way In which molecules react to radiation, and must hold true not only on earth but elsewhere in the universe...

By George Wald

Molecular Motions

One of the aims of molecular physics is to account for the bulk properties of matter in terms of the behavior of its particles. High-speed computers are helping physicists realize this goal...

By B. J. Alder and Thomas K. Wainwright

The Social Behavior of Prairie Dogs

In building towns the prairie dog protects itself against predators and encourages the plants on which it feeds. Its social behavior is passed from generation to generation by both heredity and learning...

By John A. King


These humble incrustations of rocks, trees and soil are composed of two distinct organisms: a fungus and an alga. Together they are able to survive in some of the harshest environments on earth...

By I. Mackenzie Lamb


This extraordinary Frenchman is principally remembered for his invention of analytic geometry, but he attempted far more. His aim was nothing less than to reduce nature to mathematical law...

By A. C. Crombie


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: October 1959

  • Science and the Citizen: October 1959

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, October 1959

  • Recommended


  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist

  • Departments

    The Authors

  • Bibliography

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