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The Perception of Pain

Pain is not a fixed response to a hurtful stimulus. Its perception is modified by our past experiences, our expectations and, more subtly, by our culture

By Ronald Melzack

Peculiar Galaxies

Most galaxies are spiral, spherical or ellipsoidal aggregations of stars, but some have irregular configurations. These unusual objects may very well be galaxies in an early stage of evolution...

By Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidge

Blood Platelets

These minute disks of protoplasm circulate in the bloodstream along with red and white cells. When a blood vessel is broken, platelets plug the break. They also play a key role in the formation of clots...

By Marjorie B. Zucker

The Chemical Structure of Proteins

The atom-by-atom structural formulas of three proteins have now been worked out. This knowledge should help in understanding how the structures of proteins are related to their biological activity...

By William H. Stein and Stanford Moore

Experimental Geology

An account of Soviet work on the use of scale models to visualize tectonic processes. Because rigidity must be scaled down with time and space, rocks are represented by such materials as clay and syrup...

By V. V. Belousov


In a wide variety of organisms from both the plant and animal kingdoms these tiny hairlike projections have the same basic structural plan: two long filaments surrounded by nine others

By Peter Satir

The Celestial Palace of Tycho Brahe

In the late 16th century a Danish nobleman built on the island of Hven the most ambitious astronomical observatory the world had yet seen. Its precise instruments created modern astronomy...

By John Christianson

The Teredo

Otherwise known as the shipworm, this distant relative of the clam destroys submerged wood by honeycombing it with burrows. Its way of life is predicated on its unusual ability to digest cellulose...

By Charles E. Lane


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: February 1961

  • Science and the Citizen: February 1961

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, February 1961

  • Recommended


  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist

  • Departments

    The Authors

  • Bibliography

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