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Missile Submarines and National Security

Land-based missiles are giving way to submarine missiles as a secure deterrent to a nuclear first strike. The question now is whether or not the U.S. should spend perhaps $40 billion on a new missile fleet...

By Herbert Scoville

Markers of Biological Individuality

The rejection of transplanted organs has focused attention on the body's ability to distinguish foreign cells from its own. The cells of each individual are uniquely marked with protein

By Barry D. Kahan and Ralph A. Reisfeld

Organic Matter in Meteorites

The meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites contain organic compounds. These compounds have now been subjected to detailed analyses which indicate that they are not of biological origin...

By Clair E. Folsome, James G. Lawless and Keith A. Kvenvolden

The Evolution of Reefs

The community of plants and animals that builds tropical reefs is descended from an ecosystem of two billion years ago. The changes in this community reflect major events in the history of the earth...

By Norman D. Newell

Temperature Control in Flying Moths

The flight muscles of certain insects cannot function properly until they have been warmed up by a process that resembles shivering. The system also keeps the insect from overheating

By Bernd Heinrich and George A. Bartholomew

Nonstandard Analysis

This mathematical theory has restored infinitesimals to good standing. They had been employed since antiquity, but often with doubts, to solve such problems as finding a circle's area

By Martin Davis and Reuben Hersh

Contour and Contrast

We see contours when adjacent areas con trast sharply. Surprisingly, certain contours, in turn, make large areas appear lighter or darker than they really are. What neural mechanisms underlie these effects?...

By Floyd Ratliff

Psychological Factors in Stress and Disease

A new technique separates the psychological and physical factors in stressful conditions. In studies with rats the psychological factors were the main cause of stomach ulcers and other disorders...

By Jay M. Weiss


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago, June 1972

  • Science and the Citizen, June 1972

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, June 1972

  • Recommended

    Books, June 1972

  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games, June 1972

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist, June 1972

  • Departments

    The Authors, June 1972

  • Bibliography, June 1972

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