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The Ethics of Giving Placebos

Ethical issues are raised when a treatment is prescribed that, unknown to the patient, cannot have any specific effect on his condition. The practice is often deceptive, the author finds, and should be restricted...

By Sissela Bok

Gravitation Theory

The general theory of relativity has many competing successors. For such theories to be viable they have to meet observational and theoretical criteria that are steadily becoming more rigorous...

By Clifford M. Will

Computer Control of Electric-Power Systems

After a cautious introduction, computers now play a critical role in ensuring the security and economy of the large networks that distribute electric power

By Hans Glavitsch

The Development of the Immune System

The highly diversified cells that defend the body against foreign substances derive from a single kind of precursor. Differentiation of the cells is controlled by the environment in which they mature...

By Max D. Cooper and Alexander R. Lawton III

Musical Dynamics

Contrasts in loudness make music exciting. Many performers do not, however, produce the variations composers expect from them

By Blake Patterson

The Physiology of the Giraffe

The head of the animal is so far above the heart and the lungs that the task of supplying it with oxygenated blood calls for a remarkably high blood pressure and unusually deep breathing...

By James V. Warren

Contrast and Spatial Frequency

The visible details of an object often consist of contrasting areas with a regular spacing, or spatial frequency. The visual system is more sensitive to certain of these frequencies than it is to others...

By Fergus W. Campbell and Lamberto Maffei

Time Spent in Housework

As one might expect, working women spend less time in housework than their mothers and grandmothers did some 50 years ago. Women who are not in the labor force, however, spend just as much time...

By Joann Vanek


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago, November 1974

  • Science and the Citizen, November 1974

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, November 1974

  • Recommended

    Books, November 1974

  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist, November 1974

  • Departments

    The Authors, November 1974

  • Bibliography, November 1974

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