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Oil and Gas from Coal

The conversion can be accomplished by several tested processes. The present effort is to combine such processes in a large-scale system that will manufacture the oil and gas at reasonable cost...

By Neal P. Cochran

Cell-Surface Immunology

Antibodies can serve as precise tools for the study of cells and cell surfaces. As such they have revolutionized immunology in the past decade and helped shape new concepts of cell-membrane structure...

By Martin C. Raff

Mechanical Alloying

Many useful combinations of metals cannot be achieved by melting or by conventional powder metallurgy. Such materials can be made by cold-welding metal powders in a special high-energy ball mill...

By J. S. Benjamin

The Vascularization of Tumors

Unless a solid tumor is provided with blood vessels by its host it remains small and dormant. The substance that is released by tumors and promotes vascularization is under intensive study...

By Judah Folkman

Synchronous Fireflies

Whereas the flashing of the familiar fireflies of the Temperate zones is unsynchronized, certain species of Asia and the Pacific flash in unison. What is the evolutionary role of this behavior?...

By Elisabeth Buck and John

The Mass of the Photon

The particle of electromagnetic radiation is often assumed to be massless, but the laws of physics do not require that assumption. If the photon has a mass, however, it must be exceedingly small...

By Alfred Scharff Goldhaber and Michael Martin Nieto

Stephen Hales

This 17th- and 18th-century clergyman was the first to measure the pressure of the blood. He also investigated the flow of water and sap in plants and thereby founded modern plant physiology...

By I. Bernard Cohen

The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter

First observed by Galileo in 1610, these four largest of Jupiter's moons have begun to be explored by passing spacecraft. What is being revealed is unlike anything seen so far in the solar system...

By Dale P. Cruikshank and David Morrison


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago, May 1976

  • Science and the Citizen, May 1976

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, May 1976

  • Recommended

    Books, May 1976

  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games, May 1976

  • Departments

    The Authors, May 1976

  • Bibliography, May 1976

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