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Peer Review and the Support of Science

A statistical analysis of the evaluative procedures on which the National Science Foundation bases its funding decisions provides no evidence to substantiate recent public criticisms

By Stephen Cole, Leonard Rubin and Jonathan R. Cole

X-Ray Stars in Globular Clusters

The dense central cores of some such clusters favor the formation of X-ray-emitting double stars in which a neutron star or black hole accretes matter from a star still consuming its nuclear fuel...

By George W. Clark

Fundamental Particles with Charm

The search for particles with this quantum-mechanical property has been a preoccupation of high-energy physics. A few such particles have now been seen in the debris of electron-positron annihilations...

By Roy F. Schwitters

Side-Looking Airborne Radar

A radar antenna mounted on the belly of an aircraft and aimed to the side can record microwave images of terrain in striking detail, regardless of the weather or the time of day or night...

By Homer Jensen, L. C. Graham, Leonard J. Porcello and Emmett N. Leith

The Structure and Function of Histocompatibility Antigens

Histocompatibility antigens are proteins of the cell surface that cause the rejection of tissue grafted from one person to another. They may also help defend the body against infection and cancer...

By Bruce A. Cunningham

The Solution of the Four-Color-Map Problem

Four colors suffice to color any planar map so that no two adjacent countries are the same color. This famous conjecture has been proved true by a new kind of proof, one that relies on high-speed computers...

By Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken

How the Iron Age Began

Until almost the end of the second millennium B. C. bronze was the utilitarian metal of the Mediterranean world. Within a few centuries it was replaced by a new kind of metal: "steeled" iron...

By Robert Maddin, James D. Muhly and Tamara S. Wheeler


These false perceptions, which can occur in any of the senses, turn out to be much alike from one person to another. Apparently they have their roots in excitations of the central nervous system...

By Ronald K. Siegel


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago, October 1977

  • Science and the Citizen, October 1977

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, October 1977

  • Recommended

    Books, October 1977

  • Mathematical Recreation

    Mathematical Games, October 1977

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist, October 1977

  • Departments

    The Authors, October 1977

  • Bibliography, October 1977

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