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The Biological Effects of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation

What is the hazard to human beings of ubiquitous low-level radiation from natural and artificial sources? The evidence so far indicates that compared with other hazards it is slight

By Arthur C. Upton

The Fossil Footprints of Laetoli

At this site in Tanzania thousands of animal tracks, including those of predecessors of man, are found in volcanic ash that fell some 3.5 million years ago

By Richard L. Hay and Mary D. Leakey

How an Animal Virus Gets into and out of Its Host Cell

Experiments with the Semliki Forest virus show in considerable detail how the cell is caused to manufacture new virus particles, including an outer membrane that is a piece of the cell's own...

By Kai Simons, Henrik Garoff and Ari Helenius


The largest moon of Saturn is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. The chemistry of the atmosphere may resemble that of the earth's atmosphere before life arose...

By Tobias Owen

The Chemistry of Flames

Research in the field of combustion chemistry focuses mainly on the intermediate substances created as hydrocarbon fuels burn to produce carbon dioxide, water and trace pollutants

By William C. Gardiner Jr.

Quasars as Probes of the Distant and Early Universe

The light from most of these enigmatic objects was emitted 15 billion years ago. Therefore they are a unique clue to how the universe looked when it was only a fourth its present age

By Patrick S. Osmer

Color Vision in Fishes

The visual environments of fishes are blue, green or near infrared. The retinal pigments acquired by diverse fish species in adapting to these environments are a valuable clue to the evolution of the eye...

By Joseph S. Levine and Edward F. MacNichol Jr.

Henry A. Rowland

This 19th-century American physicist has been undervalued by history. Among his accomplishments was the building of the first engine for ruling the diffraction gratings on which modern spectroscopy depends...

By A. D. Moore


  • 50 and 100 Years Ago: February 1982

  • Science and the Citizen, February 1982

  • Letters

    Letters to the Editors, February 1982

  • Recommended

    Books, February 1982

  • Amateur Scientist

    The Amateur Scientist, February 1982

  • Departments

    The Authors, February 1982

  • Metamagical Themas, February 1982

  • Bibliography, February 1982

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