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Women and Men at Çatalhöyük

The largest known Neolithic settlement yields clues about the roles played by the two sexes in early agricultural societies

By Ian Hodde

Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities

Recently excavated artifacts from Pakistan have inspired a reevaluation of one of the great early urban cultures--the enigmatic Indus Valley civilization

By Jonathan Mark Kenoyer

The Tapestry of Power in a Mesopotamian City

Mashkan--shapir was for a brief time one of the most important cities in the world. Its remains challenge traditional notions of power distribution in early urban society

By Elizabeth C. Stone and Paul Zimansky

The Iceman Reconsidered

Where was the Iceman's home, and what was he doing at the high mountain pass where he died? Painstaking research--especially of plant remains found with the body--contradicts many of the initial speculations

By James H. Dickson, Klaus Oeggl and Linda L. Handley

The Death Cults of Prehistoric Malta

New archaeological excavations reveal that as the ancient island societies suffered from environmental decline, they developed an extreme religious preoccupation with life and death

By Anthony Bonanno, Caroline Malone, David Trump, Simon Stoddart and Tancred Gouder

Rock Art in Southern Africa

Paintings and engravings made by ancestors of the San peoples encode the history and culture of a society thousands of years old

By Anne Solomon

Precious Metal Objects of the Middle Sicán

A Peruvian culture older than the Incas made unprecedented use of gold and other metals. Studies of Sicán metalworking techniques offer hints about this mysterious society

By Izumi Shimada and Jo Ann Griffin

Life and Death in Nabada

Excavations in northern Syria reveal the metropolis of Nabada, founded 4,800 years ago. Its elaborate administration and culture rivaled those of the fabled cities of southern Mesopotamia

By Joachim Bretschneide

Great Zimbabwe

For centuries, this ancient Shona city stood at the hub of a vast trade network. The site has also been at the center of a bitter debate about African history and heritage

By Webber Ndoro

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

Workmen and their families lived some 3,000 years ago in the village now known as Deir el-Medina. Written records from the unusually well educated community offer fascinating descriptions of everyday activities

By Andrea G. McDowell

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