WITH a great many of the standard cars for 1912 already announced, and with a new manufacturing season well under way, I have no hesitancy in predicting that 1912 will be a most prosperous year for the automobile industry. I do not say this as a mere matter of form, but because I really believe it. Every large manufacturer of motor cars is Vitally interested in the prospects for business. I know of many men in the industry who, after careful investigation of conditions, have arrived at the same opinion as myself. In my opinion success in the automobile industry depends upon the solution of a manufacturing problem. The days of rapid fire manufacturing and selling, of pyrotechnics and hail·felIow·well·met methods are past. We all know that water will reach its level. It cannot flow up hill and it is bound to flow down as soon as some of it is drained away. The water has been drained out of the automobile industry. I believe there is a tremendous market both in the United States and abroad for American·made automobiles. I cansider this market will last not only this year and next year, but for many years to come. Yet it is possible in any one season to flood this market. Over·production is the greatest danger to the automobile industry; or, at least, to those manufacturers who do not immediately realize that building and selling automobiles is a manufacturing proposition just like the building and selling of any other commodity. There is a great market, for instance, I for adding machines. Yet it would be _ And you must take Sanatogen regularly for several weeks" T. HIS urgent advice is given by physicians day by day in every civilized land—wherever sufferers from starved nerves and poor digestion seek relief. There is a reason for tlus. PhYSICIans know that Sanatogen is a substance capable of supplying the real needs of a starved, overwrought nervous system—that it is a scientific combination of albumen and organic phosphorus — a compound eagerly absorbed by the hungry tissues and possessing unique tonic and reconstructive qualities. They also know from theI. r own obs,reatt?n what Sanatogen has done for others. They have watched Its revIv . fYlllg action upon persons whose nervous strength had been u.derm . ned by overwork, worry or disease, they have observed how It has 1Ilfused renewed energy, life and elasticity into starved nerves, how !t has regenerated the appetite, digestion, in short, how w0!lderfully It has helped to make the human machinery fit to perform Its functIOns II the most perfect manner. There are on file with the owners of Sanatogen no less than 15,000 letters from practising physicians praising, endorsing Sanatogen. Truly ' a magnificent monument to the value of this food-tonic. But no less impressive is the enthusiastic testimony of patients them-selves. Men and women in the forefront of human endeavor, statesmen, prelates, authors, lawyers, have written above their own signatures of the wonderful benefits received from Sanatogen. We ask you earnestly to get acquainted with Sanatogen. Investigate our claims first, if you like, and we are only too glad to have you do so. Ask your doctor about it, and in any case write at once for our hook “ Our Nerves of Tomol'row” the work of a pbysidan-author, written in an absorbing.y interesting style, beautifully illustrated and containing facts and information of vital interest to you. This book also contains evidence of the value of Sanatogen which is 81 remarkable as it is conclusive. Sanatogen is sold in three sizes, $1.00, $1.90, and $3.60 Get it from your druggist, if not obtainable from him, stnt upon receipt of price. Th e B auer Chem·lCaI C ompany, Union Square, Ne w York Hon. Mile. Poindexter U. s. Senator from Washington, writes: .. I am sure Sanatogen has benefited me greatly, A few weeks' use of it has produced better digestion. better sleep, and a feeling of greater strength." Hon. John. W. Kern V. S. Senator from Indiana . writes: . . As a restorative and tonic, Sanatogen has been of real bene-tt to me. I feel sure that this preparation is deserving all the praise that has been bestowed on it." Harrison Fisher The well-known artist. writes: “I haveused Sanatogen hom the first of the year and find it a wonderful tonic. I am recommending it to my overworked friends." John Burrough. The distinguished naturalist and author. writes: ** I am sure I have been greatly benefited by Sanato£en. My sleep is fifty per cent better than it was one year ago, and my mind and strength are much improved.' , Solders and Soldering f If you want a complete text book on Solders and the art of Soldering, giving practical, working recipes and formulr which can be used by metallurgist, the goldsmith, the silversmith, the jeweler, and the metal-worker in general, read the following Scientific A merican Supplements: 1112, 1384, 1481, 1610, 1622, 1434, 1533, price 70 cents by mail. f Order from your newsdealer or from MUNN&COMPANY, Inc. 'ublishers, 361 Broadway, New York RICHELEUao; IUATIO NIAGARA To THE SEA The grandest trip i n America lor health and pleasure. It includes the Thousand Islands, the exciling descent of the marvdous Rapids. the historic associations of Montreal, Quebec and the lamed Saguenay River, with its Stupendous Capes. Trinity and Eternity Send 6c. postage for illustrated guide to THOMAS HENRY T raffic Mgr. Dept. C. Montreal, Can. HOW TO MAKE A lOO-MILE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH OUTFIT Cln the following Scientic A merican Supplements, the well-known wireless telegraph eXlrt, 1 r. tot r,-H I erick Collins, describes clearly and simply. withou t the aid ?f mathematlcs. the constructIon of a lOU-mlle ^-L* wireless telegraph outfit. Complete drawings accompany hiS descflPuons. 1605-The design and construction of a 100-mile wirel.. telegraph set. 1622-The location and erection of a l00·mile wireless telegraph station. 1623-The installation and adiustment of a l00.mile wireless telegraph station is lully explained. 1624-The adiu stment an d tuning of a 100.mile wIreless telegra ph ou tft. 1625-The theory and actIon of a lOO-m . le WIreless telegraph outfit. 1628-The mana b eme?t and operation of .hip and shore stations I clearly set forth. q These six articles constitute a splendid treatise on the construction, operation and theory of wireless telegraph i f truments. The complete set will be mailed to any address for 60 cents. SlOgle numbers WIll be maIled for 10 cents. *i Send for a 1910 Supplement catalogue free to any address, f Order from your newsdealer, or from MUNN&CO., Inc. 'Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York City 110 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN July 29, IDll See Se. Amero, Oct. 8, 1910 MODEL NO. 3 The Kullmer Equatorial Star Finder The new model is now ready for delivery. This is the lrst star lnder that points directly at the stars. Less than a year on the market it is already used by most of the large universities; it i. how ever. especially intended for and adapted tv the amateur astronomer. The price of the new model is $10. express paid. Money refunded if not satisfied. Send for circular. C. J. Kullmer, 505-W University Pl., Syracuse, N.Y. EfefclS-KEROSEKE gasolino, distillate—any fuel oil. Cheapest Safest, Simplest POWER for Electric Lighting, Water Systems, Vacuum Cleaners everything. Complete plans fur-1; rushed, expert advice. Adapted for basements anywhere. Women can operate. Comes com pleie. Ten exclusive revolutionizing features. pijt'p TKIA I o ()blia1ion till iJRIie,!. ll-> Pan the Freight No ()blip gwl'Al ),.” i,.uj it A!oir. ELLIS ENGINE CO. 52 Mullett St. DetrOit, Miell. to. GOES LIKE SIXTY $60 ilk” se lLs l ike Si xtvS> o O Jg» m BTLLS FOR SIXTY^* >"' >' **""1UIUHB GILSON ™> GASOLENE ..” ENGINE For Pumping, Cream ^Separators, Churns, Wash Ma- ihines, etc. FEBE TKIiL _____k Askfor catalog-all sizes gilson mfg. co. s«s Pari St. Port Washington, Wis. WELL DRILLING MACHINES Over 70 sizes and styles, for drilling either deep or shallow wells in any kind of soil or rock. Mounted on wheels or on sills. With engines or hor3e powers. Strong, sirple and durable. Any mecbanic can operate tbetu easlly. Send for catalog. WILLIAMS BROS_. Ithaca, N_ Y_ Nulite Gasoline Table Lamp A beautiPl ' nl l.-iini) lor homes, lL tels, offices, stores, h : mkR, citie s . Torl t a b le, rwa le; ciin ho e turned upsiile down 01 ro ll ed on the Hoof wiLllO llt o ang er or afec ting the light. 300 C . P. if so ft, bri llian t li g-ht, o n e_t hinl t;ent per hom. Als o 20l) diiVer. nt sty les of 1 amp S a nd sysl ems. AA C E M N TS - · e wa nt tOW ll , comit d , :ld tra veling ,'t!esmen. Best proposition f tl' o O fere ,l. Sells evt:fy-whale. Write fOl' Spedn.1 Oit'er. National Stamping&Electric Works 412 So. Clinton St. CHICACO HOLTZER-CABOT Wirele esms Opera to r's R eceiv ers Extreme ly sensitive - C omfortable to w ear -A su perior article. SEND FOR BOOKLET 40 s. THE HOLTZER-CABOT ELECTRIC CO. Brookline, Mass. and Chicago, III. New York Electrical School Offers a theoretical and practical course in ap plied electricity without limit as to time. Instruction, individual, day and night scbool, Equipment c.ompletG and, up-to. date. 8tudents]parn by doing, and by practical application are fitred to enter all rields of electrical industry fully qualified. School open all year. \Vrite for free prospectus. 27 West Seventeenth Street NEW YORK V - Your PATENTS I ncorporate nd ABRUISION ESS Laws the most liberal. Expense tbe least. Hold meetiu£s. transact business anywhere. Bianks. B y - Law s and forms for makinf stock futl paid for cash. pIpeny or services. free. President Stoddard. FORMER SECRETARY” OF ARIZONA. reSi(1ent aeent for many tIiousand companies. Reference: Any bank in Arizona STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Box8000 PHOENIX. ARIZONA BO YOU HAVE KNIVES TO GRIND, SILVER to POLISH, SMALL TOOLS Tp OPERATE. WASHING MACHINES OR WRINGERS TO RUN'J LET THE RED DEVIL. Water Motor Do Your Work At tache d t o any w ater fau c et will d e\'elop up to 3 H. P . c cordin g to siz e of pi illpD e and water “| p l 'essur e. Olily perfect s m all motor made. ' Imp : oved bucket w lleel const luctlOn. U in. lUotor for Mech:lllics nnd ''mdesmen. Was6lJiIng llnebine, % H. P. on X in. pipe, 80 lbs,water pieS-sure; 1 H. P. on 60 Ibs. pressllre, 2 in. p , pe, 1et 1 price $5, (1h wilh ol'tIer. 1Q . 1492-4 in. DICItor fol grindillA, polishing, . an s , sewing maO hines ; for Docturs, ]) n tlsts, Druggists, etc., with emery'buffin! wheel, silIer p:;:=il ed ;!11e;,$3': No. 1493—4 l;l. ' :' tor and pulley ollly $2.50, enIt ,,all ordl'1'. Money back 'for :tly reason. Order j our motor from dealer or from us. S enu i your water pressure and size of ::p:ip e . Active Agents wanted. C:talog free. DIVINE WATER h0 T UK DEP'T 12. UTICA, N. OR . ridiculous to think that manufacturers could build two or three hundred tho usand adding machines every year and not food the market. I think some manufacturers of automobiles have not yet come to a full realization of the fact that they can build too many cars. Those manufacturers, I surmise, are apt to find 1912 a very hard season before they are through with it. There are some who may find themselves in serious difficulties in the next couple of years unless they plan more conservative operations than they have attempted in the past. Every manufacturer must realize that for every thousand of population there is only a certain percentage of men of enough means to buy motor cars. The automobile manufacturer must consider his market. The percentage of people of means in every community is almost as exactly as the mortallty rates. Only trouble can result from trying to go beyond the fact. In my opinion the future of the automobile industry lies in the thoroughly standardized medium priced cars: ) The higher priced cars have a much more limited market than the medium priced cars. They cannot be built in as ;Iarge quantities, and Yet, quite as elaborate manufacturing facilities are required for their production. On the other hand, there are on the market at this time a number of medium priced cars which will give to the average buyer all the service he could purchase at any price. For this class the future possibilities Eeem to me to be practically unlimited. I believe, too, that the market for the American medium priced car will extend to all of the automobile centers of Europe. There can be no question but that the American manufacturer is better equipped to build a good medium priced car than his European competitor. But the medium priced car which is to be a continued success must be well built, well finished and well equipped. It must be able to compete with high-priced cars, without discredit to its owner. To this end all of the leading manufacturers are working. In this matter of greater automobile values one again has purely a manufacturing problem. The high-grade, medium priced car of the future, I suppose, is going to be possible only in an economically conducted factory. I believe this means eventually that nearly all standard manufacturers will be making most of their parts in their own shops. In the methods of manufacture, too, there have been opportunities for extravagance and waste which, unless eliminated, will create disastrous disproportion between price and value. I warrant that most of the recognized standard manufacturers have been giviug the public more value each year for their money, and I believe that most of these standard manufacturers have now reached the point where they are making only a legitimate manufacturing profit, and in same cases are not making nearly as big a percentage as is considered perfectly legitimate in standard lines. I think that those manufacturers who build cars of high dollar for dollar value and at the same time refrain from overproduction, have nothing to fear from the future. The automobile has taken a frm place in modern civilization. The world cannot do without it now and will not do without it in the future. The motor car is no longer a toy or a luxury; it is a necessity. There will be a demand for automobiles just as there has always been a demand for horse-drawn vehicles, untH something better than the automobile is devised to take its place. With this steady demand I see no reason why a conservative production of good cars at a fair price should not always bring success. Numerous Gall-stones rpHE French surgeon, A. Schaehner, 1 removed 14,000 gall-stones from one patient in one operation. Being greatly impressed by the large number, he sent out a questionaire to certain prominent surgeons, asking them to state their ex· periences as to this point. His results are published in the Gazette des Hospi· taux; some of the figures are as follows: Mayo-Roon, 'Often ,found over 500; at one time 1,058; 2,300. Moynihan, more than 3,000; 7,000 in one case. Mayo, 5,000-6,000. (schner, 6,780. Deaver, 2,252. Dunlop, 2,011. Morgagni, 3,000, Hoffmann, 3,646. Langenbuch, 4,000. Nauhyn, 5,000. Otto, 7,082. Gall-stones vary in weight from a few grains to about one ounce. When single, they are usually ovoid in shape, but when -present in large numbers they are angUlar in outline. Gall-stones are much more common in the gall-bladder than is generally supposed. There is hardly an autopsy on an elderly person that does not show from one to several. As long; as they are in the gall-bladder they are quite harmless. But when they start to go down the bile duct they are likely to cause serious trouble. The Current Supplement F EV of us realize how the science of geography has changed in recent years. A geographer nowadays is a man who studies environments, who examines the forms and qualities of the earth's surface, arid who recognizes, defines, and classifies the different kinds of natural units into which it can be divided. His work consists in collecting new information, and in making use of the material thus collected. Mr. A. J. Herbertson, of the University of Oxford, sets all this forth in a highly. instructive article in the current Supple:ent, No. 1856.-That light actually exerted a pressure was first experimentally demonstrated by Peter Lebedew and by Professors Nichols and Hull. In an article entitled “The Pressure of Light on Gases,” Prof. Lebedew preserts the results of an experimental application of the theory to comets' tails.-The planimeter is one of the most widely used of the measurement instruments employed by engineers. So few understand the principles on which the planimeter is based or the methods employed to determine if a particular instrument in use is giving. correct results, that Mr. , W. L. Durand', article on the .subject will undoubtedly be welcomed.-Mr. Frederick C. Coleman contributes an article, on a wire rope tramway 'for German East Africa, which does some remarkable' work in an inac-cessable yet rich region of Africa.:.Mr. Donald Murray, one of several inventors who have done their utmost to introduce the page printing telegraph, presents the frst instalment of an elaborate treatise on “The Practical Aspects of Printing Telegraphy,” in whicn he thoroughly discusses the type of machinery that must be employed and the commercial possibilities of that machinery.-Mr. S. O. Mast writes on, the, effect of light on the movement of the lower organisms. -The practical application of meteorology to aeronautics is considered by W. H. Dines.-Among the articles of minor interest may be mentioned those on the famous star No. 61 Cygni, “A Kerosene Oil Traetor for a Narrow-gage Native State Railway in India,” “The Foundation Walls 'Of the Giant Steamship Eu-ropa,” “A New Registering Steam Meter,” and “New Physical Apparatus." American Phosphate T HE phosphate lands which a year or two ago were withdrawn from entry for settlement by the Federal Government, constitute, it is said, the greatest known, phosphate deposit in the world. These lands comprise nearly the whole of Uinta County in Wyoming, and portions of Morgan, Rich and Cache counties in Utah, and of Bear Lake, Bannock, Bingham and Fremont counties in Idaho, making in all about 7,500 square miles of territory which is more or less underlain by phosphate rock. Besides these vast natural deposits, it is pointed out that the gases from the smelters at Butte and Anaconda, which are very injurious to vegetation, may be made to yield sulphuric acid for the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizers. A Model Hydroplane ON June 18th, 1911, Mr. Francis Lee Herreshoff and Dr. Carleton Dederer succeeded in making a hydroaeroplane model thirty inches long raise off the water with its own power in a distance of four feet and make a sustained flight for about 250 feet at a height of about 15 to 20 feet in Central Park, New York. <<CT*D” Foot and Power L>1/\1\ Screw Cutting A;tomatic ¥ A T'U17C! Cross Feed LATHES For Fine, Accurate Work Send for Catalogue B SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 695 Water Street Seneca Falls, N. Y., U. S. A. THE SEBASTIAN 1S-INCH ENGINE LATHE HIGH GRADE LOW PRICE Automobile Builders, Garages, Repair and Genera I Jobbing T Sho e Seba d tia is th athide Co. % Culvert St Cinciunati, Olio The “BARNES” Positive Feed Upright Drills 10 to 50-inch Swing Send for Drill Catalogue W. F.&Jno. Barnes Co.\ (Established 1872) 1999 Ruby Street Rockford, Illinois HALF DOLLAR TAP WRENCH worth twice its price. No. 174 (three inches long') is made of stepl, neany finished, aud v ill hold any xodI That can be put in*- u -laps,~re-.im-rs drills, ,'tc. Hold. tools of anv Ehape, Toufd, square or _0; al. “ PJ ice oOc. Send for 27- page catalog, No. f9-B. ''JIE L. age c 8. STAUUETT CO., Athol, M; Ma .... U. 8. A. -'THE BEST EQUIPPED SHOP Por Mechanical and Electrical Manufacturing Special Machinery, Jigs, Tools, Repairs, Experimental Devices ))(,81Knlng and CQmmerelnllzlng a Specialty THE UNIVERSAL TELEGRAPHIC COMPANY »rs t4' 'I'be Rowland Telegl'nphte Co. IHI/fiMORF DIES-METAL STAMPINGS Tools, special machinery manufactured. Will act as your factory. MOORE&C O ., :l l. Indians Street, ChIcago VT^'w ANTED To manufacture META1. t^ VV /VrN 1 ILL/ rpECi1lTiES, 20 year; experience in making ' Dies. Too ls and Special Machtnery, Expert work. C omplet e eq uipmeCnt. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS '4 1.R So. GHnton Street. - .. Chics2o. III. Patented Articles and Metal Specialties MANUFACTURED BY CONTRACT Stamping Dies, Metal Stampings and Screw Machine Work H. CARSTENS MFG. CO., 56Cmcato St. NOVELTIES&PATEnTED ARTICLES MANUfACTURED BY CONTRACT/PUNCHING DIES, SPECIAL MACHINERY. E.KONIGSLOW STAMPING&TOOL WORKS, Cleve land, 0, Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY . * . E.V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St., N.Y. Manufacturers of Metal Specialties, Stampings, Dies and Tools. Thirty Power Presses at your service_ Hoeft&Company, Inc. ™^a.0. 141-143-145 West Michigan Street, corner La Salle Avenue TriniArvif£ki” TVPJ* and Ty pe M akini 1 ypCWl'lCr I I X Li Outfit. for Typewriters and Other Machines Using Steel Type_ Makers of Steet Letters, Metal Stamps, Stencils, Etc. NEW YORK STENCIL WORKS, 100 Nassau St. , N. Y. ^iPRINT for YOURSELF -*sf ^-oCards. Cil'cularq, book, newspaper. Press $5, llr-trgei'$ 18. Rotary $00. Save money. Print rfo. others. big- profit. All easy. ruJes sent. Write factory for press catalog-, type, cards. .pape,·. THE PhESS CO., Meriden, lonn. DUR!EA AU!l?S have but one-third the usual number of parts, and will please you. Intestigate now. C. S. DURYEA, READING, PA. RUBBER Expert Manufacturers Fine Jobbing Work PARKER, STEARNS & CO., 288.290 Sheffield Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. ifjMUl^JH Corliss Engines, Brewers and Bottlers' ]achmery v A” VILTER MfG. CO. 899 Clinton Street, Milwaukee, Wis. m HilrUT•lL llJBRlCATES soT 1 ANYT” I N 6 nKfK lS.124.Noi.th Clinton St. C H BESLV Ca N :r£ fcffU !» BAlfUTI (reG. v. s. pat. off.) tie new syntlletic substance of many applications. Write for booklet. GENERAL BAKELITE COMPANY, 100 William 51", New York, N. Y. MD. CO. July 29, 1 911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 1 11 A Thoroughly Sound Timber Bond Netting 6% These bonds are secured by First Mortgage upon standing timber, land, mills, railroad and other property conservati vely valued at nearly four times the amount of the issue. The stockholders have an actual investment behind the bonds of more than two and a half times the bond issue. Based upon present operations the net earnings will show a large margin over principal and interest requirements. The mortgage provides for a sinking fund sufficient to retire this bonu issue from the exhaustion of considerably less than half of the timber security. The bonds mature in equal semi-annual installments from six months to ten years and the margin of security will rapidly increase. We recommend these bonds as a most conservative investment. Ask for Circular No. 734 Y Peabody* HonghteJg&Co. (Established 1865) 105 S. La Salle St., Chicago HE BEST LIGHT Makes and burns its own ^% gas. Pure white 50J candle r power light, more brilliant I than electricity or acetylene, I and cheaper than kerosene. Casts no shadow. Costs two ceuts per week per lamp. No dirt, no grease, no odor. Used iu every civilized country on earth. Over 200 styles. Every lamp warranted. Agents wanted. Write for catalog. THE BEST LIGHT CO. 81 E. 5th St., Canton, O. add or subtract-QUICK! The B:ksseit $ 1 .00 AJ,!” ;us",” '"pid !nd act:m'ak calcuJations il addillon a h! suutraC!i “ n. Gn.ranteed against de-feelS for one yeou', Simple to operate. Capacity $99f,!99. 99. Durably made. Qnkllly resets to z'-ro. Sent prepaid for $1.00, money rdurned if er not as repre· J. U. UASSKl"J'&to., Del)t. Silo 5921 1nti:um Ave. th Igen go, Ill. A Fascinating Booklet: “WAYS AND MEANS IN PHOTOGRAPHY" Fnl] of hcEpful hinis.—H'rEto Iluiiuou^ns WbiXcomh&Co. Jt-P. Wcs* tStA St., New Vorfc, or 1U1. Cocttofi BitittBog, MoulriNil Icy-Hot m The Bottle That Keeps Hot Liquids Hot 24 Hours Cold Liquids Cold 3 Days You can have bot 'r cold drinks while traveling, fishing, hunting1, motoring-, etc •• keep w a r m milk for babgy. cold wa ter for child or invalid at bedside w i t h ou t b oth e r . Jcy-Hot Jars-one and two qu a rts-tep ste:st: egetables, etc.,hot withkut fire—dessertsoricegrea;coidwithout ice: Mey New Exclusive Features Pints, $1.00 up; quarts, $2.50 up. See rh:: at eaters—look f na'a Icy-Hot on bottom-wite for book. ICY·HOT BOTTLE CO. Dept. F. Cincinnati. O. Nine-Tenths OF ALL IGNITION TfOVBLES ARE GAVSEB BJ wrong magneto lubrication. Highest priced cylinder oils are not good enough for even the cheapest magneto. All cylinder oils are mineral oils. They gum, clog delicate action points-bearings. I Clogged bearings start - “ of all ignition troubles. Ask any maker of any magneto or commutator. uaE 3 IN ONE a clear oil compound 01 highest known quality. Best lubricant for delicate mechamsms, speedometers, commutators, magnetos. Won't heat up e v en at 5,000 re v ol u tions per minute. 8 oz. bottle, 50 cents. 3-oz., 25 cents. Trial size, 10 cents. Send for free sample bday. 3 IN ONE OIL COIPANJ 12 AZM Broadway,_________New York City Electricity Turbine-driven Vessel With Electrical Speed Reduction.-Opportunity for comparing It he performance of recent improvements in speed'reducing gears with generator-motor systems of connection between steam turbines and propellers will be offered in the construction of two sister·ship colliers now building for the United States Navy, as we read in Ithe Electrical World. The new collier “Neptune” is to be equipped with Mel-ville·MacAlp:ne reducing gears, while the turbines of the new coal-carrier “Jupiter” will drive generators which in tUl'll SUllply energy for operating the motors on the propeller shafts. Power Brakes on New York Surface Lines. -The Public Service Commission has been conSidering the advisability of requiring all the surface railways of Greater New York ,to equip their cars with power brakes and folding steps. If this is carried out, says the Electric Railway Journal, it would mean the equipment of 3,630 cars, distributed among the following companies: Metropolitan Street Railway, 622; Second Avenue Railroad, 250; Brooklyn Rapid Transit, 1,807; Coney Island and Brooklyn Railroad, 459; Long Island Electric Railway, 16; New York Ciiy Interborough Company, 40; Richmond and Midland Compan:es (Staten Island), 20; Union Railway, 416. In 1910, 455 accidents were reported with double-truck cars equipped with hand brakes. Terrestrial Magnetism.-The first men, tion of a magnetic pole is made by Giro-lamo Fracastro in 1530. Fifty-eight years later Livio Sanuto makes mention of two magnetic poles. The scientific development of the theory of terrestrial magnetism may be said to have taken its origin in the hands of William Gilbert (1600), who regarded the earth as a great magnet. This is the same Gilbert who first applied the term “electric force” Ito the attraction and repulsion manifested by rubbed amber (Greek “elektron"). Certain variations of the magnetic declination were shown to have a period of twenty-six days by Broun (1861), and thc significance of this observation was pointed out in 1887 by Adolf Schmidt, who drew attention to the parallelism between the period of declinations and that of sunspots. The “Loading” of Telephone Circuits. - In an editorial comment upon the effects of the recent hot weather upon the telephone traffic, the Electrical World remarks: The recent hot wave, unprecedented in the records of the Weather Bureau for certain sections of the country, has had a remarlmble effect in nearly doubling the normal volume of telephone traffic in some of the Eastern cities and towns. The regular telephone subscribers acted as though they could beslt keep cool by keeping the telephone switchboards hot. It is said that the modern telephone sYstem has rendered possible the modern many-storied office building, by replacing the messengers that would otherwise overcrowd the elevators, so that the telephone is the reincarnate ghost of the displaced messenger boy. Now it may be said that the modern telephone system has substituted talking for wall,ing in the hot·wave intervals of the American summertime. The History of the Oscillatory Discharge-It is interesting to note the historical sequence of events leading up to the full understanding of the phenomenon of the oscillatory discharge, which is at the present day of such interest in connection with wireless telegraphy and the design of lightning conductors. The first observation having any bearing on the subje.at might be said to be that of the astronomer, Felix Savary, who in 187· observed that the discharge from a Ley-den jar would magnetizp a needle sometimes in the one direction, sometimes in | the opposite. This observation was repeated in 1842 by the great American physicist, Joseph Henry, who rightly attributed the effect to the oscillatory character of the discharge. The theory of the discharge from a condenser was worked out in 1853 and the succeeding years by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), and Feddersen succeeded in 1858 in actually rendering visible to the eye the alternations in the spark discharge. This was accomplished by means of a rapidly rotating mirror. Science The Zodiacal Jght. - The zodiacal light, the nature of which is still a mystery, sometimes presents very regular pulsations in intensity and form. In a recent note in the Comptes Rendus, Birke' land has stated that these pulsations correspond very closely with the periods found for regular magnetic waves in the polar regions, whence it is suggested that the zodiacal light may have an electrical ongm. On the basis of several experiments Birkeland suggests that there may be a ring of luminous matter extending in the plane of the sun's magnetk equator. White Water.-In a recent pilot chart of the British Meteorological Office many observations of the singular phenomenon called “white wa:.er” are collected. It is more frequently seen in the tropical parts of the Indian Ocean than anywhere else, and it impresses some observers as weird, ghastly and awe-inspiring. The ocean has a milky look and the ship seems to be passing through a kind of luminous fog, in which sea and sky appear joined and the sense of distance is lost. The phenomenon is believed to be due to some form of phosphorescence, but a satisfactory explanation of it is yet lacking. W orderful Wells of South Dakota.- East of the Missouri River in South Dakota, it is estimated, more than one thousand artesian wells now exist, drawing their water from the supply carried by the underlying sandstone formation, and supposed to come from the Black HUs and the Rocky Mountains. These wells, used mainly for irrigation Ipurposes, are from 500 to 1,000 feet deep, and the pressure of water in the eastern part of the State is sufficient to give a surface flow, except on the. highest lands. One well yields 3,292 gallons per minute, and furnishes power for a flour mill by day and for an electric light plant by night. The development of this source of water supply is still going forward. Meteorological Wireless Telegraphy in Japan. - In the Journ(1 of the Meteorological SOciety of Japan for May, 1911, T. Saki writes of the use of wireless telegraphy in the Japanese weather service. The first wireless weather messages were sent for some time in 1906 between the temporarily established naval semaphore on Hachijojima and the Central Meteorological Observatory. The present system went into operation in May, 1910. All vessels passing within range of wireless communication with any coast station are requested to send a cipher report of meteoTological observations taken at 6 A. M., 2 P. M., and 10 P. M. tOI the Central Meteorological Observatory at Tokyo. If the weather is threatening additional observa tions are desired. In exchange for this information the Observatory sends out wireless warnings to all vessels within range whenever a typhoon or dangerous cyclonic depression is reported, giving the position of the storm, barometric depth, and direction of movement. Reports are being received from a large number of vessels. Some of them come from as far east as the 180th meridIan. The New International Cloud Atlas.- Copies of the new edition of the International Cloud Atlas have been distributed. On the whole, this work is disappointing, as compared with the previous edition, published in 1896. The definitions of clouds have not been materia,]']y altered, except that stratus is now defined as “a uniform layer of cloud resembling a fog but not resting on the ground,” in accordance with the decision of the International Meteorological Commilttee. Offcial status is given to the terms cirrus uncinus and cirronebula. English·speaking meteorologists will be astonished to ,learn, from this work, that the common English name of the alto-cumulus cloud is “great waves"! The earlier edition contained an “index of figures,” in which was given the history, description and author of each of the paintings and photographs. This useful feature is unaccountably lacking in the new edition. Most of the colored plates of clouds are copied from the old edition, but are inferior in workmanship, on an average; and some of them are decidedly less characteristic pictures of the ()loud·types depicted. Does Your Engine Pound? Pounding, misfiring, backfiring and premature explosions warn you to look for the hard carbon deposit caused by unsuitable oil. In producing Polarine Oil we have practically eliminated the carbon-forming elements. At the same time we have preserved its lubricating qualities. Polarine does not break up or lose elasticity under severe friction. It holds its “body” under extreme heat. It flows freely at zero. Before the final product leaves the plant it must test up to the most rigid standards ever set for a gas engine lubricant. On the road it has already demonstrated its high efficiency. 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