To facilitate carrying on the ordinary wheel a pas-seuger in addition to the one who is propelling the machine, and to hold a lady's skirts out of contact and entanglement with the wheels, the improvement, shown in the accompanying illustration has been patented by Harry J. Getman, and is being introduced by Heury A. Lederle, of Traverse City, Mich. It consists of an elongated clip frame attachment, shown separately in the small view, and composed of two par allel rods joined at the front by a block, and connected to the rear upright by a bolt, the front portions of the frame resting on the collar of the bicycle frame. Securely attached to the front of the clip frame is a transversely bent rod extending to one side, on which is a seat, while bolted rigidly to the opposite side of the clip frame is a skirt or leg support, composed of a framework of metallic rods, over which is secured wire gauze or netting. This support extends rearwardly and outwardly from the left hand side of the machine, and curves downwardly from the clip frame, to conveniently 8upport the limbs and skirts of the person 011 the forward seat and afford such a balancing of the weight as will prevent undue torsional strain of the parts, and avoid liability of breaking or bending. v Force oC the Human Jaws. Experlents are reported to have been made by Dr. Black, a dentist of Jacksonville, Fla, to determine the force exerted by the human jaws in chewing food, and also the greatest force which the jaws are capable of exerting. By means of a spring instrument provided with a registering device he tookaccording to the account givenrecords of about one hundred and fifty bites of different persons, fifty of these being preserved as characteristic of the ordinary man, woman, and child. The smallest pressure recorded was 30 pounds, by a little girl seven years old, with the incisors, but. using her molars, the same child exerted a force of 65 pounds. The highest record was made by a physician of thirty-five, the instrument used registering only 270 pounds, and he simply closed it together without any apparent effort, there being also no method of determining how far above that figure he could have gone, and the test was made with the molars. Several persons exceeded a force of 100 pounds with the incisors and 200 with the molars. Dr. Black states that the physical condition of the persons experimented upon seellled to but slightly influence the result, and he is of the opinion that the condition of the peridental membranes is the controlling factor. rather than muscular strength ; and further, that in the chewing of food much more force is habitually exerted than is necessary. The C hi ff lliers of Paris. Ragpickers' Town reminded me of some ancient. tumbledown fishing village, and certainly it was hard to realize that this was positively the city of Paris at the end of the nineteenth century. Space, it would seem, was at a premium in the Cite Dore, for utensils of different kinds ornamented the outside walls, and here and there a cradle swung lightly from its rusty nail. Many of the houses boasted of but one room, in which were, often, neither furniture nor bedding; a bundle of rags did duty for the latter, and in truth it was a case of rags, rags, raggedest of rags everywhere. The ragpickers were seated on their thresholds, or as near the door or apology for a window as it was possible to get. Here and there an ancient Chiffonniere was patching together old remnants, but most of the men were classifying their merchandise spread upon the floor. These were the trieurs 01 sorters, whose business lay in dividing the odds and ends into their various classes before reselling them to the merchants en gros. The white rags had to be sorted from the colored, and the silk from the cotton or woolen. The woolen ones, I found, were prized the most, as they hrought ill nearly thirty francs the 100 kilos, while the silk were worth only seven. The chiffonniers collect over 50,000 francs' worth of pickings in ope day (statistics of 1889), and nothing comes amiss to them. I begged permission of an old Chiffonniere to sketch her as she sat at her mending, and then the motley crowd, which had all the time followed closely at my heels, promptly surrounded me. The elders did not appear to view my movements with much favor at first, but their scowls were soon turned into broad grins by a general distribution of the cigarettes. The packet could not go all round, it is true, but it went far enough, at least, to make the inhabitants of the Cite my friends. They were a tough enough looking set, on the whole, but most of the older women appeared to suffer with inflammation of the eyes, and many of the children alsoa thing easily to be accounted for by a glance at their grimy hands. Still the eye trouble was the only one which affected them very much apparently. Though irredeemably dirty, the children looked bright, happy, and healthful. And they had reason to, living as they were in an open quarter of low houses, where the sun could stream down on them and the air play around thema sensation rarely to be experienced in the narrower Paris streets, where the immense height of the apartment houses keeps off, for the grpater part, these two most important health factors. The young girls, too, had evidently their share of hardiness, and, with it, a sturdy independence of manner, not unbecoming the daughters of this liberty-loving race, and there were several quite pretty enough to warrant the existence of that romantic play of Bourgeois and Emery's, La fille du Chiffonnier, which created so much interest on the boards of the Ambigu a little while ago. When I had maue the round of the Cite, I attempted one or two sketches, and wherever I stopped, every window within sight would immediately become alive with heads partially obscured by the flapping rags which bung before most of the houses. I caught one old Chiffonniere watching me complacently as she ate her supper, andcalled uptohertotellme, if she would, which was her quarter for collecting. She answered proudly, "The Opera," much to my surprise, for that part of Paris is five or six miles away. But I learnt that this neighborhood and the Chaussee d'Antin were the fat livings of the chiffonniers, and that a placeur will sell his right to empty the rubbish boxes of a few houses there for as much as 150 francs ; for, although a coureur or roving chiffonnier's daily collection is seldom worth more than 1 franc 50 cents, that of the placeur, or chiffonnier with a regular situation, often amounts to seven or eight times that sum, and neces sitates his bringing a hand or even a donkey cart. It is chiefly in suburbs snch as Malakoff, Ivry, and Gennevilliers that the chiffonniers now congregate though formerly they were to be found in Le Peti Mazas, Le Passage du SoleH, La Cite Maupy, and La Cite de la Femme en Culotte, which last, though now destroyed, once brought its eccentric landlady Mademoi8elle Foucault, 12,000francs per annum. Bu it is the Cite Dore as the home of the chiffonnier which is of special interest, partly on account of the historic records in connection with it in the reports " Commission des Logements insalubres" (1853), on ac count of the many controversies over it, notably in th Revue Municipale (1859-60) and because of the persona supervision still exercised over it by Monsieur Dore's daughter from her manor overlooking it. This wa once the Chateau of Bellevue, which up till 1848 wa surrounded by its park of 10,000 square meters. Afte that date, Monsienr Dore cut the ground up into littl lots, and let it out to horticultural-loving Parisians a fid. the meter per annum. An enterprising chiffonnier not only rented one c these, but with the aid of 8ardine boxes filled wit clay, bits of old building material and tin, built him-self a hut. He was the envied of all the crowd of chi fonnier friends who came to wonder and admire, an WhO were not long in following suit. They formed themselves into an independent republic tothenumber of 400, which by 1860 had increased to between two and three thousand. UnW the speculators appeared upon the scene, the chiffonniers were thus their own landlords, which fact created in them that self-respect and independence which is not often found in others of a like class. Drink is their besetting sin, and it would seem that the fascinations of their special liquors, such as camphre, petit noir, fil enquatre, casse-poitrine, are not to be withRt,ood. But though a liberty-loving race, these wild men and women of the outskirts are a peace-loving one too, and they are seldom in prison; yet from the beginning of their history they have been subjected to every kind of persecution. As early as 1698 they were forbidden by law to walk the streets before daybreak, and it is only since the Republic that the chiffonniers have been allowed to ply their trade without the once necessary adjuncts of government copper medal, certificate, basket, crochet (pronged stick), and lantern.Englishwoman.
This article was originally published with the title "A Bicycle Adapted to Carry Two Persons"