The transmission shown in the accompanying photograph is one of the simplest and neatest gears of its type that we have seen. In designing it, the inventor has done away with the usual type of sliding gear transmission in which the gears mesh from the side, and has made an arrangement that the gears can be put opposite the large gear placed upon the differential and can then be meshed face on. As can be readily seen, there is a sliding member of three spur gears mounted on a short countershaft carried in a yoke and placed beside the differential. This yoke can be moved forward and backward in a suitable bearing, and thus the gears can be brought face-on against the spur gear of the differential when once they are located opposite it. The location of the gears in the proper direction is accomplished by sliding them upon the short shaft. The large bevel gear upon this shaft meshes with the bevel pinion upon the propeller shaft, and this pinion is also arranged to slide upon the shaft, so that it can go forward or backward with the yoke, and thus always keep in mesh with the larger bevel, which it drives. In order to obtain the reverse there is a small spur pinion mounted in the case of the transmission, which can be brought into mesh with the spur gear on the differential, and also with the, large spur gear on the countershaft, thus obtaining a reverse motion. The idea of bringing the gears into mesh faceon was first used some years ago on the Renault car, in Paris, but there has been no subsequent development in this line until this little transmission was brought out. The device is found upon a small 4-cylinder runabout of the air-cooled type, and it has been very thoroughly tried out upon this car. In all prohahility, after its good points become thoroughly known, transmissions of this type will be applied to larger cars. The idea of having a transmission combined with the rear axle seems to be gaining ground in this country, and at the automobile shows there were some half dozen cars thus equipped. A sliding gear traiis-mission mounted in this manner is that shown below. This transmission is that found on the new Pennsylvania car. It is an ordinary transmission of the sliding gear type, but is located in a suitable casing forming part of the rear axle. This arrangement does away with the location of the transmission as a separate member beneath the floor of the car, and makes it possible t{) have a long straight propeller shaft reaching from the engine directly to the rear axle. It is possible to make the propeller shaft keep more nearly horizontal and to reduce the angularity which has to be taken care of by the universal joint. The other distinct method of arranging the transmission is to place it next to the crankshaft of the engine and have both cases bolted together, thus forming a unit of the engine and transmission. This arrangement also seems to be gaining in favor, and it has several new adherents among the builders of 1908 machines.The Gearless Two-Speed TransmisSion. (Oontinued from page 324.) wear from this cause. Furthermore, instead of the drive being through friction disks at all times, in this instance it is through the friction rollers only, and that during a very small part of the time when the car is running. The new transmission is similar in design to the ordinary two-speed planetary gear. It consists of an expanding-ring clutch mounted on the end of the crankshaft, and to which is attached a driving cone upon which can revolve five conical rollers arranged annularly around it, and contacting on their outer surfaces with the inner surface of a conical driving cup which is loosely mounted upon the propeller shaft. Either this latter cup or the cage containing the rollers can be locked to the propeller shaft by means of a sliding jaw clutch. An internal spring keeps the parts under pressure, so that the rollers will not slip when they are in use. To obtain the low speed, the driving cup is held stationary by a band brake, and the cage of rollers is locked to the propeller shaft by means of the jaw clutch. The drive is then from the inner cone to the rollers, and from the cage of the rollers to the propeller shaft. As the outer cup is held stationary, the rollers move around within it at a reduced speed. A speed reduction of three to one is thus obtained from the crankshaft to the rear axle. To obtain the rt, rerse, the cage of rollers is held stationary by means of another band brake, and the outer driving cup, is locked to the propeller shaft by the jaw clutch. The drive is then from the inner cone through the rollers (which merely revolve upon their axes) to the outer driving cup, which turns in the opposite direction. The high speed is obtained by the main expanding-ring clutch. All the parts are locked together on this speed. The only parts that can wear in this transmission are the rollers. These are made of a special paper composition that is said to be very durable. All the parts of the transmission are exceedingly large and heavy, and apparently they should easily outwear the other working parts of the car. The transmission appears to be a very neat solution of the problems encountered in the usual planetary gear and friction-disk; types. as 30 miles on a gallon of gasoline under favorable conditions. On account of their ability to negotiate all kinds of country roads at a fair average speed (15 to 20 miles an hour) they are coming into extensive use by farmers, physicians, and others who want a moderate-priced machine that has a low cost of upkeep, and that can be depended upon to run regularly in all kinds of weather. As can .e seen from the illustration, the Holsman is a "gearless" car in the true sense of the word. Even the differential gear is dispensed with. This has been found unnecessary, as the differential movement of the wheels in turning corners is allowed for by the slipping of the cables on the drums. Our illustration on page 328 shows the latest model Holsman machine.