Family Likeness in Handwriting SOME of our readers may have amused themselves with the hobby of reading character from a person's handwriting. The indications thus obtained may perhaps also be applied for serious purposes. If a person's writing discloses his character, and if individuals of the same family resemble one another in their characters, we must expect to find that there will be a resemblance shown in their handwriting also. That this is indeed the case is shown very clearly in a number of examples illustrated by R. H. Chandler in Knowledge and reproduced here. Perhaps the most striking case of general resemblance is the handwriting of two sisters which is reproduced in Fig. 1. Note especially the formation of the word “the,” which Fig. 1.--Handwriting of two sisters. is almost identical in the two cases. Somewhat similar remarks might be applied to the cases shown in Pigs. 2 and 3, while the resemblance of the characters Fig. 2.—Three brothers write very similar hands. Fig. 3.—The writings of these two brothers are almost undistinguishable. shown in Fig. 4 is less obvious, but is really most striking when we examine into details. Note for example the peculiar method that both father and son follow in lifting their pen in writing the word Belvedere. Each makes an entirely separate act of writing the “e” in the middle of this word. Another feature common to both writings is that the letters increase in size toward the end of each word. This is especially marked in the first example, the father's writing. Motor Trucks for Mines. MR. H. M. BEATSON, writing in T.he Engineering and Mining Journal, draws attention to the utility of automobile ore trucks at mines where ore is hauled by wagon to mill, smeltery or railroad shipping station: “There should be a demand for such trucks just as soon as wagons suitable for hauling ore are placed on the market. The automobile truck is a comparatively recent development. It is still hardly beyond the experimental stage, but it already gives promise of hauling ore at a smaller cost than such work can be done by teams. "At some mines traction engines have been used for hauling a string of wagons. Where the roads were comparatively level and in good condition, they proved to be satisfactory, but the traction engine is too heayy in proportion to its tractive power to do the work that could be expected from the lighter gasoline-motor truck. The traction engine sinks deeply into soft ground, cannot readily run on steep grades, and is too heavy to safely cross the wooden bridges that are so frequently used to carry a road across a stream. The motor truck is free from most of these defects, but in order to pull a number of wagons in one train some special provision will have to be made to control the trailers on steep grades. "This has been the object in view of a German manufacturing company that has recently built a road train in which the lightness of the gas-motor truck is combined with the advantages of a traction engine for pulling a number of wagons. The train consists of a generator wagon and six trailing motor wagons, each of which is capable of transporting live tons at a speed of seven to ten miles per hour. The two gasoline motors drive two electric generators. For each axle of all the wagons there is one driving motor. Steering is effected from the driver's wagon, and the provision of suitable shafting between the trailers causes them to follow the bends or curves in the road taken by the generating wagon. "It is said that these trains can travel readily over rough ground; that the wheels, which are fitted with broad tires, do not sink into sandy soil. The weight is better distributed and is less than that of a traction engine of equal power." The Workman's Attitude Toward the Machine IN a recent number of Die Umscliau, under the heading “What the Workman Thinks of the Machine,” F. Muller gives an account of impressions gathered by him regarding the place which machinery occupies in the mind and life of the workman. The method which the author has adopted to obtain his material is to approach a large number of workmen, requesting them to express their views to him by letter. He quotes passages from a number of such letters, from which a few excerpts are given below. An umbrella maker writes: “For the last twenty-two years I have had my post at a special machine for making umbrella ribs. There are hundreds of members and joints working at a time. The eye finds it quite impossible to follow all the motions. The first impression which the machine made upon me was one of admiration, coupled with a certain dread. I believe men would be better off if there were not so many machines in use. My machine can hardly be said to be dangerous, unless a man commits some act of extreme negligence. In such case it is true that I have known one of my own fellow workers to have his hand crushed into a shapeless mass. I shall never forget the sight. Such accidents harden a man and seem to turn him into a machine himself." Another writes: “If an accident has occurred in the works, it often affects a workman in such a way that he becomes extremely nervous and excitable. At every chance outcry, made perhaps in jest by some one of his fellows, he imagines that some one has been caught in the machine. The accident will torture sluch a man in his sleep, from which he will wake up with a start in the grip of a horrible nightmare." A glass maker in Dusseldorf, who has been at his work for thirty-two years, makes the following thoughtful observation: “1 am of the opinion that a man attending a machine cannot follow up an idealistic train of thought, but becomes deadened in his sensibilities. On the contrary, in' the pursuit of some congenial manual labor, such as glass making was until recently, he has an opportunity to dj this. There is a peculiar charm in watching a gang of men working at the tank furnace and singing at their work. It seems a pity that the machine should put an end to all this. In the machine room there is always a certain depression. My opinion is, living for a prolonged period with the machine means a slow dying of a man's higher instincts." Another workman remarks: “It is found that machine attendants are much more irritable and much more easily given to anger than manual laborers." This complaint of the strain upon the nerves and the ill effect upon the man's temperament occurs in almost all the letters published by the author; in many, too, is found the statement that the workman's sleep is disturbed by evil dreams about accidents. One man says: “I believe that we should be much happier without the machines, and that there would be three-quarters less cripples in our population than under present conditions.” This statement may, perhaps, be thought exaggerated, and is here quoted for what it is worth. Nevertheless, it evidently represents a common impression among workmen, for close upon it we find an observation by another workman, who says that “of four hundred and fifty machinists on woodworking machines in Munich, there are not ten men who still possess their ten fingers." While it appears probable that the workmen's estimates may in some cases be exaggerated, through their natural horror at some of the terrible accidents witnessed by them, the mere fact that this impression exists is sufficient to command our very thoughtful and sympathetic attention. The Great Cities SOME interesting facts relating to the population statistics of the world's great cities are cited by Prof. W. B. Bailey in the Independent: There are at present ten cities in the world with a population of over 1,000,000. Of these, three are in the United States. Russia is the only other country to have more than one city of this size. London leads with a population of over 7,000,000; but its area is over 440,000 acres. The area of Greater New York is less than half that of London. If New York city could annex enough of its suburbs to make its area equal to that of London, it would at present have a population of over 6,000,000. Even without annexing any more territory, New York may, within twenty years, become the greatest city in the world. If it were possible to include suburbs, as has been done by London, it might become the leader within ten years. The area of Registration London, not including the outer ring, is 74,839 acres. On this territory is found a population of nearly 5,000,000, but within the past decade the population of the old city of London has actually decreased. Business is crowding residences from the center. Diagrammatic representation of the population and area of the world's greatest cities. Berlin has recently annexed suburbs with a population of nearly 1,000,000. It seems likely that when figures are available it will be discovered that Berlin has displaced Paris as the third city in the world. The following are the population and area of the ten largest cities in the world at the latest date for which figures are available: City. Area in Acres. Population. London ............... 441,600 7,252,963 New York ............ 209,218 4,766,883 Paris................. 19,280 2,763,393 Tokio................. 27,989 2,186,079 Chicago ............... 117,447 2,185,283 Vienna................ 39,686 2,085,888 Berlin ................ 15,698 2,070,695 St. Petersburg ........ 22,991 1,678,000 Philadelphia .......... 81,828 1,549,008 Moscow ............... 17,654 1,359,254
This article was originally published with the title "Abstracts from Current Periodicals"