No. XI. TECHNOLOGY.—PART VIII. CONCLUSION. WATER SUPPLY. One of the most important considerations in the choice of a suitable location for a beet root sugar establishment is an abundance of water during the whole period of manufacturing sugar from the beet. In a factory for the working of 150,000 lbs. of beets the Quantity per hour needed, we have computed as follows : Pounds. For the supply of the steam generators.............. 8,000 Washing and pulping............................. 6,000 Defecation........................................ 1,000 Milk of lime....................................... 100 Filtration........................................ 4,000 Bone black washing............................... 6,000 Concentration ot juice.............................73,l$0 Boiling..........................................19,900 Total per hour..................... .........113,190 or 1,882 cubic feet. This is equal to a delivery of 32*5 lbs. per second, or about half a cubic foot. In practice, it would be safe to reckon oft. thirty per cent more than the quantity as here stated. LABOR AND GENERAL ESTIMATES. With perhaps the exception of two or three men, no " skilled" labor is required in new beet root sugar works, as most of the operations are of a simple, mechanical nature, which is easily taught to the " greenest" country hands, by a competent superintendent and his overseers. The only skilled hands really needed are an engineer, an hydraulic pump man, a defecator, a sugar boiler, and a bone black burner. Of these, the defecator and sugar boiler it would be best to import from Europe, as the best" sugar refiner," accustomed to cane sirups alone, would not understand the practical difficulties incident to important minutiae in the special treatment of the juice of the beet. We here give a general estimate of the cost of labor for a 150,000 per diem factory on the basis of one dollar per shift; of which two take place every 24 hours, the work being continuous day and night. We have added as a separate item the necessary additions to be made for the extra salaries to be paid to specialists in the various departments. Our calculation is based on a campaign of 100 working days. I.—WASHING AND PULPING. Transportation and washing of the beets, 14 men, 2 shifts per 24 hours, is 2,800 days labor at $1.......$2,800 Press department, 28 men, 2 shifts per 24 hours, is 5,600 days at $1......................................5,600 Sack washing and darning, 8 women, 2 shifts, is 1,600 daysat$l...................................... 1,600 II.—DEFECATION. 8 men per 24 hours is 800 days labor at $1 800 III.—SCUMS. 6 men per 24 hours is 600 days at $1.................. 600 IV.—CARBONATATION. 250 days at $1.......-.............................. 250 Monte-jus...................................... 200 Carbonic acid (preparation of)........................ 200 V.—FILTRATION. 3 men every 24 hours at $1......................... 300 VI.—CONCENTRATION. 2 men every 24 hours........................ ...... 400 VII.—-BOILING. 2 men every 24 hours................................ 400 VIII.—CRYSTALLIZATION AND CENTRIFUGALS. 1,500 days labor.....................................1,500 IX..M3H NERATI0N OF STEAM. 2 shifts of 3 men is 600 days at $1.................... 600 X.—BREAKING AND PACKING. 5 men per day...... i.............................. 800 XI.—MEN IN THE YARDS, ETC. 500 XII.—MANAGEMENT. 1 general superintendent and 2 overseers.............. 4,000 Bookkeeper and clerk. * *............................ 1,600 XIII.—EXTRAS. Carpenter, plumber, smith (3 months)................. 1,500 Sxtra pay to skilled laborers....................... 2y500 General total of cost of labor for one rear's campaign, in currency.............................25,850 The quantity of coal consumed by such an establishm ent as we have described would average 600 tuns, which at $8 per tun would cost $3,600; The bone black, 30,000 lbs., would cosifc for the first outLiy, j at 5 cents per lb., $1,500, but in succeeding years would omly \ amount to replacing of waste j The lime used would amount to 4,500 bushels, and cost about $1,400. The cost of 15,000,000 lbs. of beet roots to be worked up into sugar would, at $3 per tun, be $22,500. ANNUAL EXPENSES. Summing up the above, we calculate that the yearly expenses will* amount to: Labor.............................................$25,850 Coal.............................................. 3,600 Bone black (waste).................................. 500 Lime............................................... 1,400 Purchase of beet roots..............................22,500 Adding 20 per cent for incidentals................... 10,570 We have a total of.........................$64,420 To which has to be added taxes and insurance, which we have computed at........................... 1,945 Interest on capital invested, at 7 per cent............. 4,793 Making a grand total of............................$71,158 FIRST COSTS. The first outlay for theestablishment of machinery, buildings, etc., may be summed up as follows : Production of steam................................$4,480 Washing and pulping...............................7,274 Defecation........................................... 1,420 Scums............................................. 640 Sacks, trays, sack washing............................3,110 Carbonatation.......................................3,050 Filtration......................................... 2,20 Evaporation of juice.................................10,070 Crystallization and turbines...........................3,550 Bone black department.............................. 1,77? Pipes and cocks..................................... 3,600 Packing and unpacking..............................2,000 Tubs and tanks...................................... 200 Brickwork...........................................2,500 Sundries and tools...................................2,000 Freight on 200 tuns of machinery.....................1,200 Total, in gold................................$49,124 In currency at gold 1-35 it would be........$66,317*40 Adding $10,000 for the erection of the works, and $1,500 for first cost of bone black, we have the sum of $77,817*40 needed for the first establishment in the United States of a manufactory of sugar from beet roots for the produce grown on 500 acres of ground, and wlich ought to procluee at least 1,200-000 lbs. of raw sugar. REALIZATION. The products to be realized in our example of a sugar manufactory would be as follows : Sugar from 15,000,000 lbs. beets, at 8 per cent of sugar, and sugar sold at 12 cents per lb............$144,000 2,700,000 lbs. pulp, calculated at 1 cent per lb........ 2,700 5,000 gallons molasses at 40 Baume at 25 cents per gallon....................................... 1,250 Residues, as fertilizers............................. 1,000 Total...................................$148*950 Deducting annual expenses andlrfteroot a above..... 71,158 Leaves net annual profit of......................... 77,792 We have every reason to believe that, with careful management, the quantity of sugar obtained in the United States will range as high as 10 per cent instead of 8 per cent, which we have taken as our basis. In such a case the net income would be $184,900, and the net annual profit $113,742. No good reason can be assigned why a branch of industry, which, in Europe (although exorbitantly taxetf. by internal revenue), is considered one of the most profitable investments, should not succeed and prosper in this country, where no tax is levied on beet root sugar, where it is protected by the tariff, and where all other conditions are favorable to its development. We ought to make ourselves self-supporting in the matter of our sugar supply. In this case, money-making and independence from foreign, supply would be sure to go hand in hand, and the producer and consumer both gainers by it. We now conclude our long series of articles on beet root sugar. We shall regret neither the space they have occupied in our paper nor the labor we have bestowed on them, if they prove to be the means of stimulating the establishment on a firm basis in the United States of a most important branch of agricultural industry, which must eventually assume an enormous extent on this continent, and which may, before many years, drive foreign sugar from our market. Oil among the Ancients. The ancients knew no method of refining oil. As a great luxury they mixed it with perfumes, such as essence of roses and sandal-wood ; but this rather detracted from, than added to the burning properties of the liquid, and all that was obtained by the process was an increase of fragrance and a diminution of light. The dwellings of wealthy men like Verres, Maecenas, and Lucullus, who expended extravagant sums upon scented oils, would not have borne comparison, in point of lighting, with the grimiest tap-room of a gas-lit public house. The gold and silver lamps, hung by slender well-wrought chains to marble pilasters, only yielded at their best a lurid tapering flame, that gave out an enormous deal of smoke, fluttered in the slightest breeze, and went out altogether at a gust of wind. Neither was it possible to steady the light by closing the apertures through which the air came ; for, had Roman or Grecian houses been possessed of glass windows, they would Soon have become uninhabitable. The fresco paintings of Pompeian villas, the delicate colors on the walls of urban palace, would in less than a month, have been hopelessly coated with lamp soot. At the end of an hour's conferr-nco of an evening, a party of noble Romans would have resembled ?a congregation of chimney sweeps. A tunic dyed In Tyrian purple would have acquired a mourning hue in no time.