T HIS comet, discovered by Dr. William R. Brooks at Smith Observatory, Geneva, N. Y., on July 20th, has been observed on every clear night by its discoverer, and at many other observatories throughout the world. On August 9th it was about seven degrees north of the star Beta in the constellation Pegasus, from which point the comet is moving northward about one degree daily. Three of Prof. Brooks's previous comets have been found in Pegasus-he has discovered twenty-six comets in all-so that this constellation seems to be a favorite hunting ground for the Geneva astronomer. The following elements of this comet have been computed by Mr. Young and Miss Aitken at the Lick Observatory: PERIHELION PASSAGE, OCTOBER 27TH, 1911. Dcg. Min. Perihelion minus node........ 153 25 Longitude of node ............ 292 53 Inclination of orbit .......... 33 ·t5 Perihelion distance ......... 0.482 The comet is coming nearer and growing brighter, and promises to be an interesting object. It is now visible in a moderate-sized telescope, and will be observable for several months. Motor Omnibuses in War T HE German military maneuvers this year will, as usual, possess many interesting features affecting modern warfare. It is anticipated that motor omnibuses will play a very great part in the maneuvers. Each motor omnibus will be provided with room for fifty soldiers and possess a speed of about twenty-six kilometers an hour. This experiment was tried with a small portion of troops last year in Germany, and was found to work splendidly, the men being conveyed to the desired positions far quicker than if they ,had marched on foot, in addition to reaching their destination mucn fresher and re a d i e r for the work before them. This year, when a long march is occurring. it is intended to use the motOl' omnibuses in conjunction with foot marches. The buses will convey a portion of the troops ahead, drop them at a certain point, whence they will continue their march, refreshed with the rest and the drive, and the buses will return to the main body for ;lother load of soldiers, who will, in turn, be conveyed to the now advanced guard. Costly Mining IT might be sa:d that in these days gold mining is about as expensive a way of making money as one could devise. It is often necessary to put a fortune into the ground before one can begin to take out a bit of the gold. This is especially true of hydraulic mining. The largest hydraulic gold mine in the world is that in Trinity, Califofllia. There the owners are engaged in tearing away great sections of Oregon Mountih wlth immense streams of water. Now, to displace hundreds of tons of earth, and to roll immense boulders about as if they were marbles, requires, it is needless to add, a great force. The operations at the Trinity mine extend over an area of between 2,000 and 3,000 acres. It was demonstrated from the first that gold was present in paying quantities in this mountain, but the difficulties in the way of getting at it were very great. There was no water availab le in the vicinity of the proposed mine ' and water-a lot of it-was necessary. So it had to be brought through a pipe line from a point thirty miles away. A part of this line goes through a tunnel in the s'de of a mountain. This tunnel is a mile and a half long and its c o nstruction consumed a period of two years. The water is forced into a huge reservoir on the top of Oregon Mountain, and is conducted from this to the nozzles of the hydraulics. From one of these nozzles a stream eight inches in diameter rushes out. The dislodged earth is carried through races and sluices prepared to receive it. NearIy 10,000 cubic yards of earth are turned into these sluices every day. Once a month the sluices are drained of the water, and the gold is gathered. Its weight carries it to the bottom of the .heap. The gold obtained at these monthly intervals ranges from $15,000 to $40,- 000 in value. As the mine is about fifty miles from a railroad, one can easily understand how great is the expense of transporting machinery and supplies. The cost of the tunnel and pipe line, too, was large; so that, before a dollar's worth of ore was taken from the mine, quite a fortune had been put into it. The present system is not much like that of the early days in California, when one or two men started out to seek a fortune armed with nothing but picks, shovels, and pans. The return s on mining investments in these days, although in some cases go od, are no greater than in many manufacturing concerns. Spiders' Threads in Astronomy TH E cultivation for scientific uses of certain species of spiders, solely for the fine threads they weave, has an important bearing upon astronomy. No substitute for the spider's thread h as yet been found for bisecting the screw of the micrometer used for determining the positions and motions of the stars. Not only because of the remarkable fneness of th e threads are they valuable but because of their durable qualities. The threads of certain spiders raised I for astronomical purposes withstand [changes in temperature, so that oftea in measuring sun spots they are uninjured when the heat is so great that the lenses of the micrometer eyepieces are cracked. These spider lines are only one-fifth to one-seventh of a thousandth of an inch in diameter, compared with which the , threads of the silkworm are large and clumsy. Turbine Water Meters I N th e Revue de Mecanique, Mr. Daries 1 publishes a detailed monograph on turbine water meters, or so-called speed meters; these are somewhat less sensitive, but, on the other hand, cheaper than tbose of disk construction. The turbine water meter consists es-1 sen tially of a vertical shaft provide,c with blades, and contained in a chamber into which the water is admitted through oblique orifices. The momentum of the water sets the shaft rotating, and a system of toothed wheels connected to an I indicator registers the number of turns. The eighteenth annual announcement of the 1893 1912 Automobile Haynes 40 Touring Car, Model 21, 5-pas-senger, $2100, fully equipped. Haynes 40 Close-Couple, Model 21, 4-pas-senger, $2100, fully equipped. Haynes 40 Limousine, Model 21] electric and oil lighted, $2750, fully eqUIpped. Haynes 40 Colonial Coupe, Model21! electric and oil lighted, $2450, fully eqUipped. Haynes 50-60 Touring Car, Model Y, 7-passenger, $3000, fully equipped. Haynes 50-60 Fore-door Limousine, Model Y, electric and oil lighted, $3800, fully equipped. All models are so designed as to accommodate dynamo electric lighting equipment, which we wiU install for purchasers at nominal cost. THE 1912 H ayn es car, product of America's oldest and m ost experienced aut?m o?ile man ufact u rers, is bigger in every way, more powerf'l and more pleas .ng I.n its line s than any o f its predecessors. The time-tested sweet-runmng Haynes motor has I been - UlIt wIth greater stroke and bore, giving more power, greater flexiblllty and !ecreased Vibrati; n. The w r eel , ase has been lengthened. The brakes are larger, prOidi n g 1 square I!ch braklng surface to every 13 Ibs. of car. And with these improvements there are many re;lnements In s tyle, suc h as te ri ;h black body and running gear, with black enamel and mckel trimmings throughout. The 1912 Haynes is now ready for delivery. You can see the new models at our branch es an d agencies, or we shall be glad to send you a catalogue and name of nearest dealer. SPECIFICATIONS HAYNES MODEL 21 Motor. 4 1-2 inch bore. 5 1-2 inch stroke , T-head Ha ,nes type cylinders cast in p air s . offset 1-2 in. .lexible f our pOint s uspension. Wheel Base. 120 inches. Ignition. Eisman dua l magneto, with dry cells for startmg. Carburetor. Stromberg 1 3 8 in., .odel B. Lub rica tion. Splash and fo rce feed. oil reser voir 1n lower h alf of crank case and filled through bleeder Pipe in center of crank-case. Steering-CoIUIln. Worm-and-gear type. Timken roller bearings on shtft, c7rrugated hard bkaf: r'bber rIm, aluminum spiJ :r. IS-in. wheel. Clutch. Haynes contracting steel band on bronze drum. Supported by crank shaft. Easily adjusted and lubricated . 'ransmission. Selective t y p e • t h r e e speeds forward, one reverse. 'imken roller bearings. Rear Axle. Timken full floatIng type. pressed steel housing supporting full weight of car. Sbaft. nickel steel. Front Axle. Single piece I-beam 2 inch, drop forged. Spring seat forged integral. Spindles 5-16 i nch diameter. Timken roller bear i ngs_ Wheels. Artillery type wood, twI ve spokes front and rear. Boss spokes alternating in rear wheels. l!res. : f i :b, front and rear. Demountable rims. Spring s. F ront. semt· el lip tic; 40 inches long, 2 inches wid e . 7 leav cjsO; rear, 411-2 in c hes I on g , 2 inc hes wide .61eav e s. F itte d with gre ase C UP. both front an d rear . Brakes. Internal and external on rear wheels. Drum Ii x 2 1.2 face. Colors. Body black, 18 coa t s of paint. all band rubbed. Wheels ilack Bame ns body. All metal eQuipment, gun metal. black enamel and nickel. EquJpment. Eisman dual magneto Strombe rg M odel B Carb ureeor, silk mobalr toP. wind sh ield, Prest-O. -Lite tank, five lamps, 'arner 60.mile dIal Speedometer, extra Dor i an Remount-able RIm, Tanner automatIC gasolme gauge. HAYNES AUTOMOBILE COMPANY NEW YORK-I71S Broadway Dept. E, KOKOMO, IND. CHICAGO-1702 Michigan Avenue DON'T BUY GASOLINE ENGINES Until you investigate “THE MASTER WORKMAN,” a two-cylinder gasoline, kerosene or alcohol engine, superior to any onc-cylinder engine; revolutionizing power. Its \eight and bulk are half that of single cylinder engines, with greater durability. Costs Less to Buy-Less to Run. Quickly, easily started. Vibration practically overcome. Cheaply mounted on any wagon. It is a combination portable stationary or traction engine. SEND FOR, CATALOGUE. THE TEMPLE PUMP CO., 417 West 15th Street, Chicago. THIS IS OUR, FIFTY-NINTH YEAR. OtlMBTRDCK^AMERICA T HE .. MACK” is the result of seven years of centralized effort in the production of m otor trucks exclusively. T ha t is why the largest and most progressive farms in America are installing MA CK motor tra nsportatIon service after trying out and experimenting with various other makes of trucks. The illustration shows the ease of operation with which the .. MACK” delivers seven tons of gravel, sand, lime or other material at one load. WIth rap.ld loading facilities, this truck is capable of handling 150 tons per day at a mru.nmum cost of 15 cents per ton per average of two miles. Our handsomely illustrated catalog, shows over 100 .. MACK “ installations, details of each, and other valuable information which every prospective truck buyer should know. Mailed free. Write to-day. MACK BROS. MOTOR CAR CO. Sales Offices and Show Rooms 30 CHURCH ST., N. y, CITY Main Offices and Shops ALLENTOWN, PA.
This article was originally published with the title "Brooks Comet of 1911, Motor Omnibuses in War, and more"