One of our lady correspondents requests us to give some account of " butter-making"— low and when butter was invented—stating hat such information would be interesting to nany of our readers. The origin of butter-making is unknown, 'rom time immemorial butter has been made ,nd used by the natives of Western Europe, kittle is said about it by ancient writers. Jalen and others do not mention it as an -rtielo of diet, and it is probable that neither he Greeks nor Romans employed it in cook-ry, nor set it up on their tables as food, in he same manner as it is enjoyed by us. As ratter melts and becomes liquid at 90 Fah., his may account for the ignorance of ancient Luthors as to its use in cold countries in their lay, because the seats of ancient learning fere confined to warm climates, and geogra-ihical knowledge was then very limited, fhrough the indomitable courage and enter-irise of modern travelers we have been made icquakited with the customs and habits of al-nost all tribes and nations—civilized and avage—so that we know of butter being used imong many of the barbarous Arab and Tar-ar tribes inhabiting mountainous regions ; md no doubt it has been known to them for nany centuries. The Tartar, carrying milk or his frugal meal in a leathern pitcher slung iver the crupper of his saddle, would perceive, ifter a hard ride, that there had gathered on ts surface a rich yellow substance, unknown ;o him before, and which could have been n'oduced from the milk alone. The cause of Its development would readily suggest itself, ind its pleasant flavor would incite him to re-iroduce it in the same manner. This is the >vay butter is now churned by some of these lomadic tribes. The milk is placed in a bag made of skin ; the Tartar flings it across his saddle, mounts his steed, and trots np his butter. This, we believe, could not have been ;he way butter was first discovered by the inhabitants of Western Europe, as their most indent practice of churning consisted in agitating the milk in wooden vessels ; but how or when thay discovered the art, we shall never know. In Palestine, and other warm countries, alive oil holds the same place that butter does with us. As an article of diet, we are only acquainted with the butter made from cow's milk ; but butter made from the milk of the sheep, goat, buffalo, and ass are known and used in various countries, especially in Asia. Some tribes of Arabs use the butter (called ghee) of the buffalo, which they drink clarified in a liquid state. In the East Indies there are breeds of goats which give a large quantity of milk ; and among the hill tribes of the Himalaya mountains they take the same place as the kine tribes with us. One of these goats, lately brought to. this city from Calcutta, (and by a Mormon family, ftrange to tell !) yielded on shipboard from six to eight quarts of milk daily. V-V really hope that some of our enterprising agriculturalists, who have devoted so much attention to improving live stock, will endeavor to introduce and acclimatize such a valuable breed of animals. They can be raised and fed in mountainous regions where cows would starve. Their milk is good, their flesh excellent, and their hair makes strong and durable fabrics for cold weather. Goats' milk and butter are also common in some parts of Europe. Butter is the oil of milk, separated by the mechanical action of churning, from its other constituents—casein, sugar, and some salts. It exists ready formed in the milk, as oil does in various seeds, and it can be churned from sweet (but not so quick) as well as from sour milk. It is called by chemists httyrine and hiUyric acid. In some dairies the whole milk is churned to ubtain the butter ; in others, only the cream. By the former method it has been asserted tlmt more, but by the latter, superior butter is produced. It is our opinion that with proper care there is little difference in the results of the two systems. Grass-fed 1 kine yield milk from Vhich beautiful yellow utter is gathered ; on the contrary, stall-fed ows give milk which yields a tallowy-looking -utter. This latter kind of butter is often-imes colored to deceive the buyer, by annatto, he juice of carrots, and the flowers of the larigold. The color, therefore, is not always he test of grass-fed milk. Some kinds of eed impart their strong and peculiar flavor o mille. This is the case with turnips, which hould never be given to milch cows, except a very limited quantities. In winter, when ;rass cannot be obtained, the best kind of food s a question of no small importance. Milch :ine should receive at least one meal per day if steamed or boiled food. The cheapest and lest for this purpose are indian meal, a few lumpkins deprived of their seeds, carrots, hay, ,nd cornstalks ; potatoes are excellent, and phen cheap should be given freely. Cows vhich receive one meal per day of boiled or teamed food, during winter, yield at least one-hird more milk than those which receive only Iry food, the condition of the former at the ame time being much superior. Much has been said about the best methods >f treating butter to preserve it sweet and rom becoming rancid, under ordinary cir-umstances. There is no difficulty at all in he matter ; and yet the quantity of inferior bad butter) in proportion to good butter phich comes into market, is immensely large. i.s all healthy, well-fed country kine, pro-luce good milk, no bad butter should be found n our markets. It reflects unfavorably upon he intelligence and thrift of our farmers that ;uch butter is offered for sale. Cleanliness md care are two of the great secrets for naking good butter. Holland butter has the lighest reputation of any other ; this is sim-)ly attributed to the great cleanliness of the jeople of that country, but there are other sonditions also necessary. The dishes con-aining the milk should be perfectly clean, md kept in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated ipartment, and the milk or cream which is lesigned to be churned should never be suf-"ered to become very sour—to have the least )dor of putridity. It has been discovered that ratter made from sour cream is very liable to become rancid, in comparison with that made 'rom sweet milk, or sweet cream. It is, perhaps, owing to want of attention on this head, luring warm weather, that so much inferior butter is made. It requires longer time to ;hurn fresh than sour cream ; but the quality jf the batteT obtained will pay for the use of liorse power to churn, oven ou a farm having no more than five cows. After the butter has come, it requires careful manipulation, or working. It makes it tough to work it over a great deal, and the use of much water for washing takes away its line flavor. The best plan to treat butter is to submit it first to severe pressure, by placing it in a cloth, and squeezing it'n a vessel containing a perforated false bottom. This can be done with a cheese press, if not, with a pounder like that employed for clothes. After all the milk is thus squeezed out, the butter should be lifted and worked over carefully, and afterwards receive one or two clean, cool waters, to wash away every trace of milk. It should then be salted with the best salt, containing a minute quantity of white sugar mixed with it, and last of all it. should again be submitted to severe pressure. The great object in thus treating butter is to remove all the water and milk from it, because these induce incipient decomposition and consequent rancidity. By churning the cream before it becomes too sour, and removing all the water and milkfromthe butter, and by careful and thorough salting and working, the best quality will always be obtained.
This article was originally published with the title "Butter-malting and Butter"