On the Patapsco River there has recently been completed for the Patapsco Electric and Manufacturing Company, of Ellicott City, Md., a combined concrete dam and power house, which is certainly unique among hydraulic-electric plants. The novelty consists in the fact that the power house is built within the dam itself, and lies entirely belOw the water, which flows above the plant. It is located on the Patapsco River, about 17 miles below Baltimore, on a branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The advantages of the arrangement are many, the whole system being very compact, and by virtue of the disposition of its parts, it is conducive to the highest efficiency. The dam, a cross section of which is shown in one of our engravings, is 220 feet long, 40 feet wide at the base, and its height, from the average level of the water in the tail race to the crest, is 26% feet. As a protection from floods and to provide suitable entrances to the power house, the buttresses at each end of the dam are carried to a height of 10 feet above the spillway, which is 168 feet in length between the buttresses, and is provided with suitable connections, to which flash boards may be attached, should it at any time be desirable to increase the head of water. The dam consists of a framework of nineteen buttresses, arranged transversely to the axis of the dam, each of which is 24 inches thick at the bottom and 16 inches thick at the top. These buttresses are spaced 12 feet apart center to center. The whole dam is constructed of reinforced concrete, the reinforcing steel being freely used along the edges of the buttresses and of the openings and at the outer faces of the shell. Because of this reinforcement, it was possible to make the outer shell of the dam very light, its thickness varying from 18 inches at the bottom to 10 inches at the top. The apron, on the downstream side of the dam, extends about half way down from the crest, the remaining portion of the structure" being left open, exposing the downstream edges of the bulkheads. Between the bulkheads windows are inserted, and these serve for the lighting of the interior power house. The windows are set back a few feet from the lip of the apron, so that the overflow water falls entirely clear of them. The hollow interior of the dam is provided with a false ceiling of concrete, which is hung some 5 feet from the inner fa"e of the dam, its purpose being to protect the plant from any water which may seep through the outer shell. Such water as finds its way through is carried away by a drain provided for that purpose. The waste water which passes over the dam flows over the apron, until it is within 16 feet of the water passing out through the tail race, and ordinarily the water strikes the bed of the river at a point 20 feet from the downstream side of the dam. At present only about 108 feet of the structure is utilized by the power plant. The chamber in which the apparatus is housed is 10 feet in height and 27 feet in width, except where the buttresses occur, where the width is about 18 feet.. The machinery is carried upon a concrete-steel floor, and its arrangement is clearly shown in the accompanying engraving of the interior. The water is led to two 34-inch horizontal Leffel waterwheels by steel intake tubes, which pass through the upstream face of the dam at the point indicated by our engraving. As the intake is 5% feet below the crest of the spillway, the racks are kept entirely clear of driftwood and other wreckage. Each waterwheel is fitted with a Woodward governor in such a way that either governor may control both of the wheels when the generators are being operated in parallel. Each turbine is direct-connected to a three-phase 60-cycle alternator, and each alternator is provided with a 120-volt exciter belted to the shaft. The water is discharged by draft tubes into a well, sunk three feet below the bed of the river, from. which it flows out of the dam through a channel constructed in the river bed. - HI Canada has during the past twelve months built 1,514 miles of new railroads; and in addition has 3,011 miles in various stages of construction. The most important undertaking is the building of the Grand Trunk Pacific, the eastern division of which is being built by the government, and the western division by the Grand Trunk itself. The government's division extends from Moncton, N. B., to Winn ipeg, a distance 0 f 1,834 miles. Of this mileage 864 are now under construction, but no work has so far been done on the remaining 970 miles. The Canadian gov-ernment in giving out contracts for the work on this line is working from centers from which access can most readily be had to the entirely undeveloped country through which much of the new transcontinental line will pass. The Grand Trunk plans to have about 550 miles of the line west of Winnipeg finished this year, and to complete the entire prairie division running from Winnipeg to Edmonton, a distance of 790 miles, within another year. One of the most interesting features of the new line lies in the fact that a very low-grade line has been found through the mountains west of Edmonton, Alberta. Describing this part of the line, the London Times, after pointing out that several passes through the mountains were carefully surveyed, says: "The Yellowhead was eventually chosen, and in November, 1906, the government approved the decision. In this pass the company has obtained a maximum gradient through the mountains, against eastbound traffic, of four-tenths of 1 per cent, or a total rise of 21 feet to the mile for the entire distance. The maximum gradient against westbound traffic, for the entire distance from Edmonton to Prince Rupert, is almost equally favorable with that in the opposite direction. It is no greater than five-tenths of 1 per cent, or a total rise of 26 feet to the mile. In crossing the mountains only one summit is encountered, and the maximum altitude of this is only 3,712 feet. Without going into detail, it is worthy of mention that against this one summit of 3,712 feet encountered by the Grand Trunk Pacific in its passage through the coast mountains there is no other road in America which does not encounter from two to six summits, some of which exceed 8,000 feet in height; and no road has hitherto succeeded in finding a route without encountering a summit of upward of 5,000 feet. The total aggregate ascent overcome against eastbound traffic by the Grand Trunk Pacific is 6,990 feet, that against westbound traffic being 6,890 feet. Other roads have from 15,987 feet to 34,003 feet, and from 15,305 feet to 34,506 feet, respectively. As against the maximum gradients of 21 feet against eastbound traffic and 26 feet against westbound on the Grand Trunk Pacific are gradients of from 106 feet to 237 feet and 105 feet to 185 feet, respectively, on other roads." hi For rolling over uneven ground, a land roller is now made in two or more sections. with a flexible connection which Yields to the inequality of the ground, a feature which is very desirable for some classes of work. This implement will roll a dead furrow and a back furrow as well as level ground. Another feature is that it has a seat which is adjustable, so that it can be placed behind the rollers, to prevent serious accident in case the driver should be thrown from his seat. The innovation is a welcome one where it is desired to utilize the services of a boy. 36 Scientific Uses of Incense. The burning of incense, a practice dating from the remotest antiquity to the present day, is without doubt one of the most remarkable, interesting, and universal customs of mankind. The popular occidental supposition as to the usage of incense is a most erroneous one. For instance, in the Catholic Church it is considered by many as forming merely a part of the religious ceremony; again, that the Oriental burns incense for no other purpose than to elaborate his idolatrous symbolism. The origin of this mistal{en impression is obvious. According to the anthropomorphism of the devout Oriental, what is good and pleasing to man is likewise good and pleasing to the gods. Therefore, he burned incense to the Deity. The sinuous ascent .of the smoke slowly heavenward soon suggested to his poetically florid imagination a visible symbol of the essence of prayer arising to the gods in purification of his soul. This signification finally overshadowed the original purposepurification of the air and prevention of disease. On this supposition that the burning of incense was merely an idolatrous practice, the Christian Church was adverse to the custom. Later, upon learning of its real purpose, its use was incorporated into the service. It was thus used in the churches as a deodorant in the time of Charlemagne, if we may believe the quotation from the "Benediction of Incense" given by Martene: "May the Lord bless this incense to the extinction of every noxious smell." The mention of incense in the records of the ancients is interesting. In the Old Testament we find its use made a part of Mosaic legislation. Aaron burned it when he offered a sacrifice for the sins of the people. (Num. xvii, 11-12.) A formula for incense is given in Ex. xxx, 34-38, naming four ingredients. Tradition adds seven more, and Josephus states that it contained thirteen; one a secret herb that caused the smoke to rise in the form of a date palm, and known only to the family of Ablinas. In the remote year of 2500 B. C., Pharaoh Sankhara sent Hannu, an Egyptian nobleman, at the head of a naval expedition to the holy land of Punt to obtain the odoriferous gums used in the preparation of incense. "Punt," now authentically identified with modern Somali, Africa, still produces these precious ingredients. Incense was used by both the Greeks and Romans from their earliest times for the purpose of deodorization in their temples and places of public con gregation. Representation of the censer and its ornamental tripod with the graceful, curling smoke of the incense gained a place in their art. Mention is made of incense in the ancient and sacred Zend Avesta of the Zoroastrians and in the cuneiform of Nineveh and Babylon. To-day it is used throughout India in the form of "ud-buta" (benzoin light) and it is authoritatively stated that incense was anciently introduced into China and Japan by the Brahmans In consideration of the fact that incense, as a deodorant and preventive of disease, has been used succel1Sfully in the Orient for thousands of years, it would seem strange that it has received so little attention in the West, where science has made the general public fully aware of the dangers of infection. True, modem chemistry has produced many powerful, efficacious disinfectants, but all have the objection of offensive smells that render them unsuited for use in the home. The burning of incense containing sandalwood and frankincense releases volatile oils that act as mild but perfect disinfectants and deodorants for the home, yet at the same time permeating the air with a delightfully soothing perfume. Apart from its religious signification, incense is now universally used in the Orient as a deodorant and purificant of the air in temples, public buildings, and residences. The cleanly Japanese, who removes his shoes before entering the home to prevent the introduction of infection, has grown remarkably proficient in the preparation and use of incense. It WOUld, therefore, seem that the Occidental who does not even take this precaution should at least avail himself of the pleasant preventive as used by the cleanly Jap. m - Arctic exploration is as fascinating to-day as in the days of Frobisher or Hudson. The Pole itself still preserves its secret, and the lure of fame tempts many men to endeavor to solve it. Several of the suggested methods of progression show the wide change of plan since the days when whaling ships endeavored to force their blunt bows through the ice. An expedition is projected in which dog-sleds will be superseded by an amphibious automobile boat, designed to travel either on land or water. Mr. Wellman still expects to achieve success t;,rough his balloon; and Capt. Amundsen proposes to utilize a team of polar bears. In addition to these, Dr. Cook, at Etah, is awaiting a favorable moment for a dash northward. Robert E. Peary and E. V. Baldwin both expect to start again; and similar word comes from Capt. Joseph E. Bernier of the Canadian exploring expedition, who is at present returning from a journey in the far North. The Brltisb Patent Ad Amendment. In 1902 the British Patent Act was amended to provide for a limited examination concerning the novelty of the subject matter of patent applications, to make provision for the grant of compulsory licenses when patentees failed to commence the manufacture of the patented invention in Great Britain, and, in certain cases, to revoke patents because of non-manufacture when the grant of licenses would not satisfy the demands of the British trade. These amendments have now been the law of Great Britain for five years, during which time they have been carefully construed, with the result that further amendments have been suggested to carry into effect the changes which Parliament had in mind when the previous amendatory act was passed, and to introduce new features in the British Patent Act, the need of which has been impressed on practitioners in the prosecution of patent applications under the amendment of 1902. As it is possible in Great Britain to file a provisional patent application before the details of the complete device have been worked out, inventors often proceed in that way, and, within six months, complete the case by filing papers in which the invention is precisely defined and claimed. When, in his experiments, the inventor finds that such material changes are advisable as to enlarge the inventive act, it is necessary for him to file a second application, as he would endanger the validity of his patent by attempting to include the neWly-invented features when the first application is completed. This limitation has suggested three of the amendatory provisions which will be found in the new law. It is provided that where two or more provisional applications are filed on inventions which are cognate or modifications one of the other, the applicant may, with the consent of the Comptroller, file one complete application embodying the features of the several provisional cases. The appiicant may also file papers completing a provisional application, with the assurance that if the Comptroller should decide that new inventive matter is included which is not mentioned in the provisional papers, he may post-date his application as of the date of the filing of his complete papers, or he may file a divisional application on the new features bearing the date of the filing of the complete papers, and permit his first application to proceed with the features which are common to the provisional and complete papers. Should it be held that the Comptroller has erred in permitting an applicant to include in his complete application features which are not men tioned in the provisional papers, under the amend ment, the validity of the patent cannot be attacked on that ground. Provision is also made for the grant of patents of addition, which are exempt from the payment of taxes, carrying out the policy indicated in reference to completing provisional applications. The Comptroller is. authorized to refuse to grant a patent when the invention claimed is wholly and specifically claimed in any specification to which the examination has extended. Among the other important sections in the amendment are found provisions which authorize the Comptroller to restore patents which have become void because of the non-payment of prescribEd fees, and which authorize the sealing of patents aiter the expiration of the period prescribed in the principal act. To the previous amendments, in reference to the manufacture of the patented invention in Great Britain, has been added a section authorizing the Compo troller, after the fourth YEar of the term of a patent, to revoke patents where it is shown that the manufacture is carried on exclusively or mainly outside of the United Kingdom; but from the wording of the law it is evident that this remedy for the non-manufacture in Great Britain is only to be relied on in extreme cases. The decision of the Comptroller is subject to review by the court. On the whole, the amendment is in the interest of inventors, and it should encourage them to take advantage of the opportunity to protect their inventions in that great industrial and social field embraced within the limits of Great Britain. The new act will go into effect on January 1, 1908. - Copyrights. During the twelve months ending June 30, 1907, 123,829 entries for copyright were made at Washington. These included not only books and magazines, but photographs, newspaper articles, musical and dramatic compositions, and other items. More than 31,000 musical compositions were entered; rather more than a quarter of the sum total. Of books; 16,651 were entered, and 16,672 photographs. The office received $84,685 in fees. According to law, two copies of a copyrighted article are delivered to the Registrar of Copyrights, to be filed in the Library of Congress. On October 15 two aeronauts ascended from Bordeaux in France, and no trace of men or balloon has been found. It is supposed the balloon drifted out to sea. A short time ago a British military balloon was similarly lost. Aeronautical Notes. That the United States has not overlooked the possibilities of military ballooning is evidenced by the fact that one was in use in the Spanish-American war. For some time the authorities have been content to watch the experiments of other powers, but it is probable that soon an appropriation will be made for constructing a large dirigible balloon. An aerostatic corps has recently been organized by the army signal service corps, under the command of Capt. Charles De F. Chandler. It is proposed to locate army bal loon headquarters at Fort Omaha, and a contract has bean placed for a plant there to supply hydrogen for the army balloons. This will be shipped compressed in cylinders to various pOints, where balloon drills will be held. It is probable that a second station will be built, on or near the Atlantic coast, and a third one near San Francisco. A report that Count Zeppelin's airship has been sold to the German government is denied by the Count himself. He states, however, that the balloon shed has been sold to the government, to be used as a harbor for military airships. Other harbors will be constructed at Kiel and Strasburg, and it is reported that the German government has commissioned Count Zeppelin to build an airship capable of carrying 18 passengers and having motors of 285 horse-power. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, who is experimenting in aviation at his country home in Nova Scotia, has completed a machine built on the plan of a kite, and expects to test it in a few days. He says: "We are nearly ready to put a large machine into the air, and it is possible that within the next week or so we may fly the machine as a "kite, with a sandbag the weight of a man. If the experiment is successful we shall place a man in the machine without a motor and allow him to glide down to the water from an elevation. I think it wiser to begin by raising him into the air in the machine blown as. a kite and towed by motor." On the 25th ult., after witnessing some maneuvers of Gross and Parseval airships, Kaiser Wilhelm is said to have remarked that he was very hopeful of the future in aerial navigation and that he has a firm belief that there will be further successes in this line. The Germans have advanced to the stage where they now have special field guns for shooting directly upward at balloons or airships. The German Emperor's optimistic view of aeronautical matters augurs well for the success of the Wright brothers in disposing of their aeroplane t.o the German government. Our own government should take steps immediately to forestall any foreign nation getting this invention. Now that the usefulness of airships and aeroplanes is coming to be realized by our military authorities, they should make every effort to secure for our government the only aeroplane that is known to have m'ade a long-distance flight anywhere throughout the world. Cable reports from Paris record the fact that on the 25th ult. Mr. Henry Farman made more than fifteen flights across the military parade ground at Issy les Moulineaux. These fiights ranged from 100 to 300 me ters (328 to 984 feet) in length, and it is estimated that the machine rose to a height of from 10 to 12 meters (32 to 40 feet). The machine rose readily and seemed to be under good control. It also alighted without shock and without any darage being done to it. Japanese Vegetabb Milk. In a recent number of a Japanese journal a Mr. T. Kalajama described a process for the manufacture of a vegetable milk, the properties of which would render it highly suitable for use in tropical countries. The preparation is obtained from a well-known member of the leguminous family of plants (namely, the Soja bean), which is a very popular article of food among the Chinese. The beans are first of all softened by soaking, and are then pressed and boiled in water. The resultant liquid is exactly similar to cows' milk in appearance, but it is entirely different in Us composition. This Soja bean-milk contains 92.5 per cent water, 3.02 per cent proteine, 2.13 per cent fat, 0.03 per cent fiber, 1.88 per cent non-nitrogenous substances, and 0.41 per cent ash. Kalajama added some sugar and a little phosphate of potassium (in order to prevent the elimination of the albumen) and then boiled the mixture down, till a substance like condensed milk was obtained; this "condensed vegetable milk" is of a yellowish color and has a very pleasant taste, hardly to be distinguished from that of real cows' milk. However, it stin retains the aroma of the Soja bean. It is recommended as a cheap and good substitute for condensed cows' milk. ' It is stated that a company has been formed to develop the rich asbestos deposits of the Minoussinsky district in Siberia. The deposits, it is said, are easy to operate, and are situated in an inhabited region, and only about eight miles from the Yenissei River. This will be the first exploitation of asbestos in SI, beria.