To the Editor of Scientific American: On a rainy day the observing traveler will doubtless be surprised to find that every rain drop on the car window by his side becomes a miniature whirling vortex as long as the car is in motion at speeds above ten or fifteen miles per hour. The effect is most easily noticed when the rain drops have collected enough fine particles of soot to make their motion apparent. While the largest drops show the greatest movement, the rotation can be detected even in droplets down to one-eighth inch in diameter when the train is running at high speed. The direction of rotation for each individual drop is the same as that of the car-wheels, the cause of the motion doubtless being due to wind friction against the lower rounded side of the water drop. The pear-shape form of the drops, especially the larger ones, where the attraction of gravity for the mass gets the better of the surface tension, which tends to hold the spherical form, results in a greater rotational moment at the rounded bottom than at the thin, wedge-like top, so that the wind friction at this lower surface produces movement in the same direction as the car wheels below. O. H. C. Chicago, Ill. Metric Wire Gage To the Editor of Scientific American: From a very reliable source I learn that the Committee on Weights and Measures of the next Congress will report a bill doing away with our old-fogy system of having different-size measures for different articles. For instance, we have a large quart for berries, beans, peas, etc., and a smaller quart for liquids. In the matter of weight we have avoirdupois, apothecary, and troy, no two of which are alike. Equally absurd as the above is the great number of non-standard wire gages, none of which has a base that is get-atable as a starting point, and no two that agree thereafter. To overcome this “conglomeration” in gages, the writer some time ago designed one (for both metal and wire), that is standard throughout. It takes for its base the same angle (of one degree) upon which the metric system of measure- ments is founded. It starts at the apex of this angle for Its first member, and gives it as No. 0, which it really Is, for no substance, however small, can enter there. To locate No, 1, we measure along either side of the angle one millimeter; for No. 2, measure two millimeters from No. 1; for No. 3, go three' millimeters from No. 2, and so on ad1 infinitum. It will be noticed that each gage number indicates the number of millimeters intervening between that number and the next smaller one below, ' and that every number is of good commercial size. To illustrate its practicability, suppose a party in some isolated place had a piece of wire and wished to order more like it, but had no gage. All he would have to do would be to lay out an angle of one degree, insert his wire and measure the number of millimeters from its point of contact to the apex of the angle, then point off the gage numbers as above, and he has the exact size—a thing that cannot be done with any other gage made. The accompanying drawing plainly shows for itself. The engraved angle in the center is exaggerated for purposes of illustration, but it represents an angle of one degree, on one arm of which are millimeters, and on the other the gage numbers, engraved simply to show the principle of the system, while on its outer margin are the usual slots cut out for the different sizes, with the gage numbers at each separate slot, all of which is as simple as “rolling off a log." Merritt W. Gkiswold. Highwood, N. J. Twenty - seven - knot Armored Cruisers Urgently Needed for the United States Navy To the Editor of Scientific American: Having just read in your issue of July 22nd your most . interesting comparison of the United States and German navies, I would like to have your explanation of the policy of the United States navy, which omits the dreadnought armored cruiser type as found in the British and German navies, and of which type Japan is now said to be building more than the battleship type. With even one ship of the British “Lion” type, an admiral in charge of our ten dreadnoughts of the “Texas,” “Wyoming,” “Utah,” “Delaware,” and “Michigan” classes, could send his one 30-knot dreadnought to locate the enemy. Our light 24 to 26-knot scouts of the “Chester” class, and our 22-knot armored cruisers of the “Washington” classes, would obviously be completely at the mercy of British, German, or Japanese dreadnought cruisers of 28 to 30 knots speed, and it would be murder to send our good fighting men out in such ships. Would not these navies possess a great advantage on this account? How could our admiral “find the enemy,” and destroy' him when the enemy, by means of their dreadnought cruisers, would be able to keep in touch with the movements of our fleet, while our admiral would be in-the. dark? Ought not our next two ships to be of the “Lion” type, or at least one of them? A. B. Irvine. St. Marc, Haiti. [Our correspondent has placed his hand on a weak spot in the make-up of our fleet. For some years to come our annual naval programme should call for two battleships and _ two armored cruisers of the “Von der. Tann” type. Our “Chesters” (25 iinots) . and “Washing-tons” (21 knots) would be helpless In the presence of the 26 to 28-knot 12-inch gun armored cruisers of foreign navies. —Ed.] Foreign-built Dredgers Built to the Order of the United States To the Editor of Scientific American: There is announcement made that a Glasgow firm has just launched the United States dredger “Corozal,” built to the order of the United States government. The order was placed last August, and caused considerable dissatisfaction to United States builders. Only one Ameri* Building Character in a Writing Machine L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter (BALL-BEARING, LONG-WEARING) Every part of this typewriter is made as if it were the one product on which the factory's reputation must finally depend. Every part is designed to produce, bv itself and in conjunction with every other part (not only for the expert typist under favorable conditions, but for the ordinary operator under all sorts of conditions), the perfect work by which the L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter must be judged. Character is built into the L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter. It makes this typewriter the always dependable writing machine you want in your office. Write today for free i/lus/ra/ed booklets Branches in all large cities L. C. SMITH&BROS. TYPEWRITER CO. Head Office for Domestic and Foreign Business, Syracuse. N. Y.. U. S. A. *^=^^ PI AINFIFL1 ' * W&DiVlO&EY PLAINFIELD. N. J. ROTARY PUMPS AND ENGINES Their Origin and Development An important series ot papers giving a historical resume of the rotary pump and engine from I 588 and illustrated with clear drawings showing the construction of various forms of pumps and engines. 38 illustrations. Contained in Supplements 1109. I I 10, I I I I. Price 10 cents each. For sale by Munn&Co., Inc., and all newsdealers. Veeder Counters to register reciprocating I movements or revolutions. Cut full size. Booklet Free. VEEDER MFG. CO. 18 Sargeant St., Hartford, Conn. Cyclometers, Odometers, Tachometers. Counters and Fine Castings. Represented in Great Britain by Markt & Co., Limited, “ City Roaii, t'instuirj Square, London, E.C.;' France, by Markt&Co., Limited, 107 Avenue Parmentier, Paris; Germany, Austria-Hungary Lu and Scandinavian Loewk&Co. Huttew Strasse 17.20, Berlin. Countries by Caution to Purchasers of TOPS 8 a top mate ial of recognized high and unitorm quai.ty ana l:t product made onlyby us. Many unscrupulous dealers misrepresent as PANTASOTE cheap inferior materials to increase their profits at the purchaser's expense. To the average person these substitutes when new look somewhat like PANTASOTE. Dealers received these labels FREE with every yard, leav-ini ei ij enema for not using thera Unlike “Mohairs” and similar products PANTASOTE can readily be cleaned. it is not affected by benzine, gasoline or other cleaning fluids. 1” ibil respect it is absolutely unique and alone. Send postal for booklet on top materials and sample* j.THE PANTASOTE Cp: can builder made tender, and it was so much higher than the foreign builders offered to build for, that President Taft felt justified in vetoing the resolution of Congress prohibiting work for the United States to be done in foreign yards. The difference between the foreign bid and the one bid tendered by the American company that bid, amounted to almost $100,000. In other cases the government exercises its power and avails of foreign tonnage, rather than pay the American “scale” of freight charges. Annually several thousand tons of coal for the account of the government are transported from Virginia to San Francisco and Portland, Ore., foreign tonnage can be had to move it for sixty per cent of what the American-built tonnage charge. The government contracts with the foreign tonnage, and the coal is moved on the low rate. If an American company has coal to move from an Atlantic American port to an American Pacific port, it is compelled to use American tonnage and to pay the American freight scale. The government of the United States refuses to obey its own laws. The United States government shows that the navigation laws tend to extortion. The United States government compels the people of the United States to obey the navigation laws and to pay extortionate freight rates. Is it not time to consider the revision of these navigation laws, that have been in effect for over one hundred years, and which have practically driven us out of the foreign shipping trade and been the means of extortion and monopoly in the domestic? If the government of the United States refuses to obey its navigation laws, why should the citizens of the United States be compelled to? There is a remedy for this state of things; allow American registration for foreign-built American-owned tonnage, limited if necessary to foreign trade, and put all iron and steel and shipbuilding material on the free list. We will then be able to compete in building with foreign yards. As long as Iron and steel are highly protected, and as long as iron and steel made in this country is sold from $8 to $11 per ton cheaper to foreigners than to our home builders, we will be unable to meet the competition of foreign builders of tonnage. There is depression in United States trade. Many of our yards are on short time. We want a revival of our American merchant marine. The surest way to bring it about _ is to reform the navigation laws, and allow Americans the privilege of “free ships” the same as Great Britain and Germany allow to their people. Also we should break the monopoly that exists in the iron and steel trades by taking off all duties. Chicago, III. Charles Depesee. General Factory and Machine Shop Lubrication IT is a matter of common knowledge among well informed factory managers that the power loss due to the friction developed in the moving parts of machinery, is considerable. In the endeavor to reduce. this absorption of power experiments have 'been and are being made with types of roller and ball bearings. Lubrication, however, is a question just as important. As a consequence of the failure to appreciate the necessity for the investigation of lubricating problems and choice of lubricants, the possible saving in this direction is frequently very large. A considerable reduction in power can usually be effected by simply changing the oil. These reductions will in many cases be approximately the same as the substitution of roller or ball bearings for the ordinary type of bearing. This being the case, it seems advisable to consider the elements bearing upon efficient lubrication in a practical way and the necessities for the right quality of oil in the right place. When reductions h “ower to the extent of ten or fifteen per Cl in the driving of workshop machinery arlshafting are easily brought about by the '-e-establish-ment of oils or the use of more suitable lubricants, and when this reduction of power can in many cases be brought to The Warner Is the Official Road Map Speed Indicator THE WARNER was used in compiling the routes in the Automobile Blue Book, King's Official Road Guide and the dozens of Official Guides put out by Automobile Clubs and map makers. Note how this affects you— You tour unknown territory occasionally. You must depend on some reliable map or ask your way at frequent intervals with unsatisfactory results. Some people delight in directing Automobilists to take the worst roads or the wrong road. With the Warner Auto-Meter on your car the road map directions are easy to follow. It is impossible to go wrong. Where the route book says: “21.6 miles— four corners. Turn right at country schoolhouse; bridge over creek J4 mile away"—you will find the four corners and the schoolhouse just when the route book says—at 21.6 miles, no more and no less. Note this little human interest story which bears on this point-Early in June a car drove up to our Beloit factory. It bore an Ohio license number. The owner was driving. With him were his wife and two daughters. One of the first things he said, after introductions and greetings were over, was: “I had only had my car a week when we decided to drive from Columbus to Madison, my old home, in the auto. And do you know we haven't yet asked a direction from a single human being, relying entirely on our route book.” The directions came out right because the routes were surveyed—and interpreted—by Warner Auto-Meter. This case is only one of many which have come to our notice. There are conditions when touring becomes a nightmare instead of a pleasure. The different route book and map makers have themselves advertised the fact that the Warner was adopted by them as their “Official Speed Indicator,” because after testing all makes they found the Warner in every sense the sensitive, accurate, dependable and reliable instrument of precision we have claimed it to be. When an inaccurate and unreliable speed indicator is used to interpret an accurately surveyed map or route, disaster results. In .such cases where the route book says: “49.8—forks in road with big elm in angle. Take the left branch.” You are likely to find nothing in sight but open prairie or you may be approaching a four corners or small town. So you are lost unless you stop to ask questions, and this is what a route book is intended to prevent. The route book maker's principal tribulation is explaining to owners of unreliable speed indicators that their routes, compiled at a cost of thousands of dollars, are right and that no one using a Warner speed indicator to interpret them has cause to complain. A little Warner device which adds still further to the joys of Touring. All Warner instruments of the dial type (see illustration) have two resetting buttons for the trip mileage figures. One resets the figures to 000.0 with a single turn. The other works on the tenths of a mile only, making it possible to turn up any desired mileage on the trip scale. This makes it possible to drive around the boulevards or through the parks at any point and then in a few seconds set the mileage back to correspond with the route book readings. Those who tour regularly will appreciate this refinement. The Warner costs more than inferior speed indicators for a very good reason. Those who look for satisfaction on the bargain counter are certain to be disappointed. We have all had our lesson. Supreme quality is worth its cost. And— as in other things—the Warner is also the cheapest speed indicator obtainable if you base its price on years of service or miles of travel. It is a permanent investment because it remains as sensitive, accurate and reliable as when new for many years— or many hundred thousand miles. ^^T^HE Warner can be secured through reputable Automobile Dealers in any city or town in the United States. Warner branches are maintained in all the principal cities for the convenience of these dealers and their customers. Inquiry to Beloit or at our branches is invited for Warner literature. I; Free to Automobilists A yest -pock^ “ Automcjtuit: - Expense Record” tab in - dexed for conveniently keeping account of tires. gasoline, oil, repairs, etc. Sent FREE for name and model of your car. Address S. C. ANDREWS, Booklet' Dept., Warner Instrument Co., Beloit, Wis. Warner Instrument Company Main Offices and Factory 1208 Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis. Branch Houses Maintained at Atlanta Boston Buffalo Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland Denver Detroit Indianapolis Kansas City Los Angeles New York Philadelphia Indianapolis Pimaaelpiiitt ji. u Canadian Branch, 559 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ont, Pittsburgh Portland, Ore. San Francisco Seattle St. Louis Model M2, Price $ 1 25 Other Models from $50 to $145 See Catalogue 854 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 14, 1911 Cruises by Air and Sea D a i 1 y Passenger-Trips by Zeppelin-Airship “ Schwaben,” from Baden-Baden. Around the World. Cruises by the S. S. Cleveland (17000 Tons). First cruise leaves New York Oct. 21, 1911, the second from San Francisco Feb. 6, 1912. Duration 110 Days Each. $650 up (including all necessary expenses aboard and ashore). Orient Cruise by S. S. Victoria Luise(16500 Tons) leaving New York Jan. 30, 1912. Duration 78 Days. Cost $325 and up. Cruise to South America by S. S. BWcher (12500 Tons) leaving New York Jan. 20, 1912. Duration 80 Days. Cost $350 and up. F:«,«. S- S Moltke (12500 Tons) leaving New York ) 28 Days Five Jan. 23, Feb. 24, 1912. f $150 and up. to f he S. S. Hamburg (11000 Tons) leaving New York ) 21 Days W me > Feb. 10, March 7, 1912. f $125 and up. Tnjf” by S. S. Moltke (12500 Tons) leaving New York } 16 Days lndles March 16,1912. [$85 and up. To Italy and Egypt. Special cruise by S. S. Kaiserin Auguste Victoria (25000 Tons) leaving New York Feb. 14, 1912. Leaving New York weekly by Prinz Steamers (5000 Tons) Connecting with Peru, Chili, to and from Panama II to 25 Days. $70 to $125. To the Panama Canal Cuba, Jamaica. Hayti, Colombia, Costa Rica Send for Illustrated Pamph/et of All Cruises HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 41-45 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Prnladelphia, Boston, Pittsburg, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco PARIS GARTERS NoMetal Can Touch You Are the universal firs/ choice. They are the handsomest and most durable Garters made and afford the maximum of comfort. There's a printed guarantee of satisfaction with every paii. Look for the name PJlRIS on every garter. A. STEIN&CO., Makers CHICAGO : : : : U. S. A. D Just listen to this. There is a little plaster which holds a bit of soft wax—a wondrous invention called B&B wax. This little plaster is applied in a jiffy, and the pain of the corn stops instantly. But that isn't all. That bit of soft B&B wax gently loosens the corn. In two days the corn comes out. No pain, no soreness, 110 inconvenience — no feeling whatever. The callous simply separates itself from the toe, and the trouble ends. Five million corns annually are removed in this way — removed by Blue-jay plasters. Get a package — end yours, too. Don't temporize with corns. A in the picture Is the soft B&B wax. It loosens the com. B protects the corn, stopping the pain at once. C wraps around the toe. It is narrowed to be comfortable. D is rubber adhesive to fasten the plaster on. I5cand25c per package Blue=j ay Corn PI ast ers (8) Also Blue-jay Bunion Plasters. All Druggists Sell and Guarantee Them. Sample mailed lree. Bauer&Black, Chicago and New York, Makers of Surgical Dressings, etc. as high as thirty or forty per cent, it is very evident that the investigation of this subject is worth considerable time and trouble. Because a good quality of oil is bought by the purchasing agent of a company it is not always true that this oil is used to the best advantage in the works. As an example: If an oil similar to a high class dynamo oil is bought by the pur chasing agent in large quantities for a general machine shop and, aa frequently happens, a considerable portion of this oil is mixed with either cylinder or black oil—to suit the operator's idea of what he imagines is the proper compound for general lubrication of machinery—the mixture is not at all adapted to the work which it is made to perform; and (if the original oil is being mixed with cylinder oil, as is sometimes the case) the cost is greatly in excess of what it should be, and the efficiency of the oil as a general lubricant is considerably impaired, even though the cost has been increased. It is impossible here to make any statement as to the use of different classes of lubricants for certain purposes, as the conditions of speed, pressure, class and arrangement of machinery, the devices employed for the lubricating, etc., have considerable effect, not only upon the oil which can be used but upon the character of oil which is most efficient for the work. It may be stated, however, that the use of light oils is possible only where special mechanical devices are arranged for the purpose of lubrication or where the shafting has the proper ring oiling bearings, etc. It is also true, as a rule, that floor machinery cannot be lubricated satisfactorily with the same oil that is used for modern shafting. Floor machinery itself can very well be divided into three classes, each class being lubricated with a different oil. In the lubricating of plants of a general character it is customary to use grease or solid lubricants for some purposes. In some cases greases can be used with economy, but an excess of grease will act against the actual economy of operation on account of the increase in power required to overcome friction of the parts where the grease is used. It is invariably the case that grease will require the development of more power than necessary where oil is being used, and the only features that commend grease as a lubricant are its greater cleanliness and the fact that less attention is required in the lubrication of the various units. Where bearings have some mechanical fault of construction or alignment, or are roughly fitted, or where it is not worth while to produce a proper fit, they absolutely require grease as a lubricant; but even under these conditions such bearings can be lubricated in some cases more cheaply by the application of heavy cylinder oil. In considering the efficiency of lubricants for general purposes, the fact that grease will reduce the bearing temperature of an improperly constructed or mechanically imperfect bearing should - not be taken as indication that the same results will obtain from the use of grease through the entire plant, where probably almost every other bearing is in good condition. It is very frequently the case, however, that grease is placed in a shop for general lubrication on account of just such a misconception from its work upon an imperfect bearing, the imperfections in the bearing not being taken into consideration. The fact of the matter is that the reduction of the temperature in this case which follows the use of grease in the bearing is the result of a special con- . dition and does not illustrate the general applicability of the material. The amount of oil required to provide proper lubrication in order to reduce the friction loss as nearly as possible to a minimum is so small that if it were possible thus to reduce the amount used the oil accounts of every company would be cut in half and in a number of cases possibly a large reduction would be undertaken. The high oil accounts as a rule are due to the waste of oil. In order to reduce this waste and bring it down to a proper proportion of the amount of oil necessary for the lubrication of the machinery, etc., it is absolutely necessary that appliances should be installed which will enable the "STAR" ^ For Foot w or Power Large Line of Attachments F°” LATHES Sllftiiblo for flim iternrate work in lh<> repair slid p. iiarji^e, tool room and machine slio)). Send lor Catalogue 11 SENECA FALLS MFG. CO. 695 Water Street Seneca Falls. N. Y., U.S.A. SEBASTIAN LATHES 9 to 1S Inch Swing High Quality Low Prices Catalog Free THE SEBASTIAN J.ATHE CO., 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati, O. WORKSHOPS of Wood and Metal Workers, without steam power, equipped with BARNES' Foot Power MACHINERY allow lower bids on jobs and give greater profit on the work. Machines sent on trial if desired. Catalog free. W. F.&JNO. BARNES CO. 1999 Ruby Street Established 1872. Rockford, Illinois Improved Combination Lathe for mechanics, model makers, experimenters and amateurs. Hollow steel spindle. The foot motion is of the improved grasshopper type. Circular saw has iron saw table perfectly adjusted. Guide and slide move to and fro readily, and are always true to the saw. Slide may be set at any angle. $45, $50, '$55 and 1)60. A. J. WILKINSON&CO. Machinery, etc. 184.188 Washington St. BOSTON, MASS. MODELS immmsTGHKmiiL. Makes repairs neatH and quick. Mends harness, shoesT canvas. Myers' Sewing Awl makes” Lock Stitch. $1 prepaid. Big money for agents. C. A. MYERS CO., 6374 Lexington Ave.,Chicago, III. 1ES, FINE TOOLS ^ftERY 1ETAL SPECIALTIES ^en^ONS 00RE&C0., K&htt PERFECTED, METAL SPECIALTIES Models&Experimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY ... E. V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankfort St.,N. Y. ^yS=f°WANTIFn To manufacture METAL j^g- “ t\.i\ 1 CU SPECIALTIES. 20 year, experience in making Dies. Tools and Special Machinery. Expert work. Complete equipment. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS Dept. 2, 412 So. Clinton Street, - Chicago. IIl. | Magical Apparatus. Grand Book Catalogue. Over 700 engravings 25c. Parlor Tricks Catalogue. free. MART1NKA&CO.. Mfrs., 493 Sixth Ave., New York LEA RN TELEGRAPHY MORSE and WIRELESS at home with OMHIGKAPII AUTOMATIC TEACHER iu half usual time—trifling cost. Sends you messages without limit auto-s$ Catalogfree. OMNIGRAPH MFG. CO. Dept. 16. 39 Cortlandt Street, New York. MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOISTS save expense and liability incident to Elevators. Adopted by principal storehouses in New V ork&Bost on Manid. by VOLNEY W. MASON&CO., Jnc. Providence. ]{. I.. U. S. A. Experimental&Model Work Circular and Advice Free Wm. Gardam&Son, 82-86 Park Place, N THE SCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. »STEEL STAMPS LETTERS&FIGURES. BRIDGEPORT CONN. IIIBRICATISVo"? Anything _ 118-134 Norlli Clinton &U CH.BES lYa CQ fttSS^f £USA ?Su USE GRINDSTONES P If so we can supply you. All sizes mounted and unmounted, always kept in stock. Remember, we make a specialtyof selecting st ones for allspe-cial purposes. .send Jor catalogue “I." Tbe CIjEVELAND ISTONE ()O. 6th Floor. Hickox Bldg., Cleveland. O. STILL ANOTHER OF THE "RED DEVILS" (Same make as famous “Red Devil “ glass cutters) This Self-Feeding Chain Drill, No. 2012, will drill Iron, Steel, Slate or Marble eajzly with a common bit brace. If your dealer hasn't it, send us $2.00 and his name. We prepay delivery, one only, at this price. smith&HEMENWAY CO. 150 Chambers Street New York City More' Than a Million Men' I Will Read this Advertisement Many thousands of whom will be interested enough to write for our new Catalog No. 10 of Men's High-grade Furnishings in colors. Ready Nov. 1st A work of art—the most beautiful catalog of men's wear ever published. Every article shown in natural colors—Neckwear, Gloves, Hosiery, Shirts, Reefers, Mufflers, Handkerchiefs, An absolutely matchless selection—all in colors —newest sty 1 e s — newest effects — at prices that must prove a revelation to the purchaser. A ny article ordered that does not prove even more than satisfactory may be returned and money will be refunded at once. No. 120—This beautiful Four-in-Hand Scarf, made from excellent quality soft silkin every conceivable color, sent prepaid to any address in United States or Canada for $ 1.00. Add 5c to your remittance for insurance. SlctTvit, Mich- Sleep Out-Doors In Your Own Room This FREE Book Tells You How —you may receive the benefits of out* of-door sleeping at all seasons— lha face only coming in contact with the crisp, on t-door ai r— the hody enjoy tajjp all the comforts of a warm room. Walsh Window Tent Provided with awning and screen to protect sleeper from drafts. storms. cold or insects. Instantly adjusted to any window without nails or screws to mar woodwork. Every oe with one. If not at your dealers,! write for free book—What Fresb Air Will Do. Recommended By Eminent Physicians Satisfaction Guaranteed CABINET MFG. CO. ,^£R-'i_ 305 MaioSt.,Quincy,Ill. '-J^-LJHC The Second Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes By FRANCIS A. COLLINS Author of “ The Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes." A HELPFUL AND FASCINATING BOOK FOR EVERY BOY. Over 100 illustrations from photographs and working drawings. Price, $1.20 net : postage 11 cents. Published by THE CENTURY CO., New York Outdoor Sleeping If you want full benefit from fresh-air sleeping you must have a Jaeger Patented Camel - Hair Sleeping Bag. Also use a Jaeger Sleeping Hood, Jaeger Nightshirt, Jaeger Bed Socks, and fresh-air sleeping becomes a luxury as well as an invigoration. Please call or rite for particulars. Dr. Jaeger's S. W. S. Co.'s Own Stores New York : 306 Fifth Avenue, 22 Maiden Lane. Brooklyn: 504 Fulton St. Boston: 228 Boylston St. Philadelphia : 1516 Chestnut St. Chicago: 126 N. State St. Asenfs in a// I'r^u-.ipalCities. proper care to be exercised in the use of lubricants. The installation of the gravity feed system, of appliances for catching the waste oil as it comes from the bearings, etc., so that this oil can be cleaned and re-used, the use of ring oiling bearings, pad lubricators, sight feed pressure pumps and pressure lubricators are all necessary for the elimination of the waste of oil and the consequent reduction in the amount paid out on account of lubrication. If the gravity feed system be employed, the oil can be used indefinitely, and, besides the economy secured from the reuse of the oil, additional power economy is obtained from the fact that a large amount of oil can be used by flooding the bearing and consequently securing a good free film of oil between the su rfaces which assist in the efficient lubrication and reduction of temperatures. All devices which are installed for the purpose of saving otherwise waste oil require that the oil used for lubrication shall be excellent in quality. A poor quality of oil will not stand continuous use without entirely breaking down and consequently defeating the very purpose for which it is to be used—that is, the reduction of loss by frition. A great many shops, while they are heated during the working hours in winter, are apt to become cold during the night, and in order to provide efficient lubrication- under these conditions the oil should be of such a character that it will remain fluid during cold temperatures. Under these conditions it is necessary that the oil shall have a (low) cold test, of at least 25 degrees above zero, in order that the lubrication be effective. The science of lubrication is a very intricate one and the problems .to be handled are so many and varied, involving as they do the mechanical conditions of the plant, the physical and chemical characteristics of the oil and the partly physical and partly chemical action arising from the conditions under which they work, that it is impossible to do more than state these one or two general points in an article of this kind. In fact it is necesary for effective lubrication that this matter should be handled by a man who is expert in both the theory and practice of the science, otherwise even the most effective devices employed for the purpose of saving the waste oil and allowing efficient lubrication will be of little avail in the actual reduction of lost power by friction. Practically the only people who have had a large and varied experience in the science of lubrication are the experts employed by the large oil manufacturing companies who have had the opportunity of gathering data regarding the condl-tions presented in practically all the variations poss-ible, and are therefore constantly accumulating information showing that the systematic and careful study of lubrication has resulted in a reduction of the lost power and consequent expense in the operation of machinery, and in further reductions in the amount of oil used; to the benefit of users of power of all kinds ; and in addition to this fact such a study has resulted in the production of oils better suited for the purpose of lubrication from a manufacturer's standpoint, so that the continual tendency is to provide possibilities of further reduction of the loss due to friction in moving parts of the machinery and other apparatus. The Business Side of Aviation (OonclMded from page a novelty and are rapidly becoming a necessity. Even special clothing for< aviators is now being made, leather being a t:avorite material. Numerous kinds of map cases, portable buffets, helmets, searchlights, and horns are offered specially for aeroplaning. There is also much done in France in the manu “acture of instruments for aeronautical work, speedometers, recording barographs, altiscopes, sketching cases and specially mounted compasses. Coincident with the large trade in aeroplane supplies and in aeroplanes themselves, there has arisen a large number of firms in France, acting as aeroplane brokers, receiving orders and transmitting them to the manufacturers. Dealers in second-hand machines arid supplies arE) also, springing up, but their field is Oswego Serge is a staple year-round fabric for men's wear, a Serge-at-its-best, which — owing to its dependability — has been produced year after year in increasing quantity by the AmencanWoolen Company Wm.N.Wood. President. Oswego Serge grows in popular favor, possessing those characteristics which appeal to well dressed men, and stamp serge as the fabric of universal wear. You seek style, fit and finish. Let us speak for Oswego Serge — a masterpiece of the loom, possessing wear, feel, hang and finish. Made of finest wool, and — quality considered — priced low. In order to be sure of the cloth when ordering a custom suit from your tailor, or a ready-to-wear suit from your clothier, insist on Oswego Serge. If unable to obtain Oswego Serge, send us the name of your tailor or clothier, accompanied by money order or check for quantity desired at $3.00 per yard, and we will see that you are supplied. AMERICAN WOOLEN COMPANY OF NEW YORK J. Clifford Woodhull, Selling Agent AMERICAN WOOLEN BUILDING 18th to 19th St. on 4th Ave., New York 356 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 14, 191 1 Pierce Boilers and Radiators There is a Pierce Boiler exactly suited to your needs. (This is the “Spence"one of 200 styles <v; Can You Put Your Finger on Any One of a / \ Hundred Thousand Records in a Minute? sectional cabinet, holds 10,000 letters, 15,000 cards, 14,000 vouchers. (S.HELP For the For the Forthe For the For the For the For the For the General Manager Sales Manager Advertising Manager Credit Man Superintendent Purchasing Agent Bookkeeper General Filing Dept. Wrt(e 'lit,; tells 'Us your 11119 problems; we «hW help you. (Return this Coupon) REALLY, now, can you? A filing system is eithera money-saver or a money-loser, a time-saver or a time-waster. Your system is one or the other. If your files go wrong every few days—look out. Do they enable you to get classified information —cross footings, monthly totals, annual compari sons, percentage comparisons, and that sort of thing, as well as all the every-day facts of your business? You need this information about your business. Y and E” service goes with all equipment we sell. This service is hased on principles oj efciency. It tends to decrease operat i n g expenses, means better cultivated prospects, quicker turn-o v e r s, greater output, better informed decisions. "Y and E” ' filing cabinets afford the widest variety of arrangement for filing correspondence, orders, bills, stock records, purchase records, pro s p e c t s, quotations, credit data, etc. We have systematized over 480 lines of bus i-ness, and are thoroughly familiar with the very best in modern filing practice. Send for “Y and E' ' helps for your business. Mail the coupop Vawmanand FrbeM fg.Qx 448 St. Paul Street, ROCHESTER. N. Y. £ron^ne” (look us up) New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago Los Angeles, San Francisco. A few dema b/e territories are open for enferprtsiwo .ealers. still very limited—a second-hand aeroplane is a dangerous investment at best. Even the profession of the law is called into the aeroplane field to a great extent the number of flourishing patent attorneys giving an indication of the amazing number of patents applied for. The model aeroplane also plays its part in the industry and many model manufacturers sell several hundred of these toys at prices ranging from $1.50 to $20, Gliders. motorless aeroplanes, are also manufactured and sold, especially in England, where “gliding” is becoming a hobby. The number of corporations applying for certificates in various States, although only a few survive, gives a further indication of how active the field of aviation is becoming from the business side. The Art. It is not only in the trade and manufacturing of aeroplanes that a large volume of business is found. Activity of another kind, but of equally great importance exists in the cultivation and practice of the art of flying. A large number of men are employed by private individuals to fly their machines for them, and many manufacturers have a regular. staff of expert birdmen to test, exhibit and instruct others on their machines. Few persons appreciate the actual cost of flying and what it means to keep as delicate a machine as an aeroplane in perfect order. Atwood in his great St. Louis-New York trip, is said to have made over $6,000 in prize money. It is understood on good authority that this failed by a large margin to pay his expenses. To keep an aeroplane in perfect trim two or three trained mechanics are required. The wages of these men are $30 to $35 a week each. and often more. A Burgess-Wright aeroplane of the kind used by Atwood requires four gallons of gasoline an hour in flight, the gasoline costing about 20 cents a gallon. Oil. motor accessories, spare spark plugs, etc., also cost a considerable amount. The aeroplane, itself, practically used up in this grueling campaign, cost $5,000. In addition Atwood has large expenses for rents of fields and hangars, as well as damages to property, and in his own traveling expenses, his manager's salary, etc., are found other sources of expend- i iture. The grand total amounts to well over $8,000—a rather expensive way to travel. At the recent aviation meets many of the contestants suffered heavy financial losses. In most cases. however, the losses fall on the manufacturer who supplies the machine and who employs an expert to handle it. The earnings of some of the aviators at the recent Boston meet are: Oving-ton, $11,782; Milling, $6,200; Sopwith. $6,022; Grahame-White, $5,224, etc., down to Ely, $150; and others with no winnings at all. At Nassau, Sopwith won $4,850, while Atwood and Lieut. Arnold won only a few hundred dollars. There are other sources of revenue, however, in the actual flying of aeroplanes. Passenger carrying at $25 to $50 a bead is becoming customary in this country. In England- and France, regulation booking offices have been opened where reservation can be made. The price is from $10 upward. ! Manufacturers and aviators also make a considerable charge for instruction of pupils. In France, $150 is the usual price for a full course. If breakages are to be' included, the Voisin Company charges $500. At many aerodromes in En gland. where their location seems to be definite. hangars and the privileges of the field may be rented at $500 a year. The rent of the hangars in. France is about the same. The business of aviation is thus growing apace and the possibilities that are offered in the flying fleld for the development of industrial enterprises can probably be as little conceived of at present, as could the future of railroading one hundred years ago. A Landsman's Log (Concluded trom page ) row, 'in til, in the case of vesse Is such as the “Michigan,” which carries a lofty Carry This Gun DECIDEDLY unique Watch Fob. Metal gun inserted in stitched leather holster — exact miniature of the weapon of the “gun-fighter” of the West. A Striking Novelty Be among the first to show this new idea in Watch Fobs. Make-friends on sight. For sale by all up-to-date tobacconists, newsdealers, druggists and novelty stores. Mail us twenty-five cents (coin) and we will send you one 01 these unique fobs by return mail. Floe for $1. cha rges paid. Alamo Leather&Novelty Company Dept. S. A. 425 Avenue D • S AN ANTONIO, TEXAS BilMJUQ A brilliant, steady light, cheaper than kerosene, brighter than electricity or acetylene. No grease, dirt nor odor. Makes and burns its own gas. Over 200 styles. Lights instantly. Every lamp guaranteed. Used in every civilized country on earth. Agents wanted. Write for catalogue and prices to-day. THE BEST LIGHT CO. 87 E. 5th Street, Canton, wimwnmm > O. SPLENDID CHANCE Prominent German Specialty Machinery Manufacturing firm with established New York connections. desires to either handle, manufacture or sell for European markets, few additional American Patent Articles, Devices or Clever Practical Inventions (irrespective of any particular branch) on royalty basis or against outright purchase of patent rights. First class connections. best manufacturing facilities and a articularly strong Selling Organ-ce Italy and Russia.withan established successful ten years record of similar operations, offer any meritorious invention widest scope and quick profitable returns. European New York representative will consider propositions and enter negotiations Only after detailed written particulars by thoroughly reliable and responsible parties are given under. Apes. Box 7.73, New York City. Your PATENTS and BUSINESS in ARIZONA Incorporate Laws the most liberal. Expense the least. Hold meetings, transact businessanynhere. Blanks. By-Laws and foiois for makingstocic full-paid for cash. property or services, free. President Stoddard, FORMER SECRETARY OF ARIZONA, resident agent for many thousand companies. Reference: Any bank in Arizona. STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Box 8000 PHOEN^ ARIZONA The University of Chicago UA.._ Gorres{>ondence-Study Dept.. HOM E STUDY 19th Year Uof C.(Div 9 )Chicajo.HI. offers 350 clasa-room courses to non-resident students. One may thus do part work for a Bachelor's degree. Elementary courses in many subjects,others for Teachers,Writers, Accountants .Bankers. Business Men, Ministers. Social Workers. Ltc. Begin any time. % STUDY LAW High-Grade Instruction by Correspondence Prepares for the bar. . Three Courses: College, Post-Graduate and Business Law. Nineteenth year. Classes begin each month'. Send foi catalog giving ru}.s for admission' to the . bar of the severa 1 states. Chicago Correspondence School ofLaw , 506 Ueaper Block, Chicago as 'Tabloid First-Aid /t\—L=^rt f^s Ready-for-Accidents outfits for motorists, aviators, travellers, home, farm, workshop, camp, etc. Complete, reliable and portable. Of a// Druggists, or write: BURROUGHS WELLCOME &: Co., 85, West SSrd St., N.Y, SALESMEN WANTED Trained Salesmen earn from $1,200.00 to $10,000 a year and expenses, Hundreds of good positions now open. No experience needed to get one of them. We will assist you to secure a position where you can earn good wages while you are learning Practical Salesmanship. Write today for full particulars, list of good openings, and testimonials from over a thousand men we have recently placed In good positions. Address Nearest Office, Dept. 221 National Salesmen's Training Association Chicago New York KaniasCity Seattle NewOrleans PHILADELPHIA Walnut and 13th SII. Ideally located in tbe center of business and social life 335 Rooms — 275 Baths Rooms $2.00 per dav up Room and Bath, $2.50 per day up Suites of 2 to 6 Rooms Famow Jor its cuisipe Eugene G Miller, ^ Mgc. October 14, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 3.57 For the safety of the individual and the nation SMITH&WESSON Superior Revolvers 4 4 I Stockbridge St. SPRINGFIELD MASS. BRIGHTEN UP Your Stationery in the OFFICE, BANK, SCHOOL or HOME iy using WASHBURNE'S PATENT PAPER FASTENERS. 75,000,000 SOLD the east YEAR should convince YOU o/| itheirSUPERIORITY. Trade 0. K.Malk IMade of brass, 3 sizes. In brass boxesof IOO. Handsome.Compact.5troiig.No Slipping .NEVER! flHB All stationers. Send 10c for sample box of 50. ^^^A ssorted sizes. Illustrated booklet free. f (k^^V The O. K. Mfg. Co- Syracuse. N. Y. ^ N9 I bJ Keep your house at the temperature you want it — without any work or worry in doing it. The Je wellHeat Controller guards your coalbjo —and your health a t the same time. It saves you many tiring and needless steps down to the heater to close or open the drafts. This clock assures a warm house in the (TRi; morni no — yel keeps it coo! over-niflftt. ..IfVfELL i~"§K HEAT CONTROLLER runs tbe heater automatically. Just place the Indicator at the temperature desired. The Jewell automatically opens and closes the drafts whenever necessary to assure an even ternperature. Guaranteed mechanically perfect for 25 years Applied to any system of heating—steam. hot water. or hot air heater. Get your Jewe// dealer to install it in your home on 30 days' free trial. and you'll be convinced you will want it always. Write for the name of tbe JEWELL dealer 10 your town. We'll send it, togetber witn .a. copy of our valo able aod interesting booBlet,"Tbe House Comfortable." JEWELL MFG. CO., 128 M^Tr*' superstructure, the effect is that of a many-storied hotel. Ship beyond ship. over miles of water. stretches this floating city of twelve thousand souls. The thousands of incandescent lights become millions as they are reflected from the ever-restless water of the Chesapeake. emulating in numbers and beauty the flashing myriads in the over-arching dome of the autumnal night. The “stern realities of war” seem very far' removed, as I drink • in the quiet beauty of the scene and catch the . strains of well-remembered music faintly heard from a band on some distant ship. The mood was deepened when a message came to the captain and the ward-room mess that night. inviting the officers to a moving-picture show—of all things in the world! But there it was; the screen hung between a 12-inch turret and the whaleboat davits; the machine at the taffrail; the crew crowded picturesquely on one side of the screen, the officers seated forward on the opposite side. It was an audience that in size would have comfortably filled an average theater; for decorum it would have matched any house on Broadway. The pictures were largely reminisc ent of those western plains and mountains from which so many of these fine young sailormen had come. Certainly there was nothing to conjure up in that quiet hour the sights or sounds of war—and yet—once—the glint of the lantern light flashed along a pair of 12-inch rifles that stretched their black forty-five feet of length ominously above the screen. “Yes.” 1 thought, “these a re perfectly consistent with the restful scene that flickers on the canvas below. Guardians of the pea?e they are—pledges that 90 millions of people, peace-loving and prosperous. are determined that their peace and prosperity shall endure through the years to come, unbroken and unassailed! An Opportunity for the Farmer in the United States THE profitable cultivation of basket willow in the United States is an opportunity that should not be overlooked by farmers who are anxious to add to their income by the cultivation of a crop on land that is now lying idle. Basket willow, like a number of other farm crops, is one Qf the smaller opportunities so often lost sight of in the general desire to grow crops on a large scale with the thought that there will be corresponding large returns. American farmers are apt to overlook the combined results from many small crops that can be handled with comparatively small expense. European farmers keep a strict account of these, and in the aggregate often reap a rich reward for their thrift. The demand for basket willow as an article for manufacturing basket ware and furniture is constantly growing. In this connection it is interesting to know that the United States is a very large purchaser of basket willow rods from France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and Austria, while there are millions of acres of waste or undeveloped lands in this country capable of producing enough basket willows to supply the world. There is an annual importation of approximately one million pounds of basket willow rods ready for the basket-makers' use. Approximately four times this amount is imported in the form of manufactured basket ware and willow furniture. The total value of this material is about $300,000. which might as well be paid to the American farmers if they knew how to grow the crop successful! y. That the growing of basket willows is a profitable farm crop may be seen from the figures of yield contained in a United States Forest Service circular entitled “Practical Results in Basket Willow Culture.” An acre of well-managed basket willows, calculating the yield at 3,000 pounds of dry sap-peeled rods at 5 to 7 cents a pound, will give a net profit of from $75 to $135 per acre. Th'1 cost of cultivating and harvesting basket willows is variously estimated. at from $50 to $75 an acre. Of course. the above figure of yield is above the average for the United States, but even if the crop should be only two-thirds of that ob -talned on the experimental farm at Ark-ington, Virginia, the net profit would still be far better than that of most other farm crops. What Would it be Worth to You If, by a series of swift key-strokes, you could verify your postings in a lew minutes each day ; And by the same means extend and check all incoming and outgoing bills in a small part of the time it takes to do it mentally ; Figure inventories with fractions, single and chain discounts, two or three times as fast; extend piece-work payrolls, prorate costs—all accurately with one machine ? YOU CAN DO ALL THIS AND MORE WITH THE Easy to learn. rapid, durable, accurate: invaluable as an assistant in every department of accounting. FELT&TARRANT ADDS if^rmi DIVIDES MVLTIPLIE3 T"|»Nyi SVBTRACT5 One firm alone uses 181 Com plo • meters. Try one in your office at our expense. MFG. CO. Write for booklet “Rapid 1708 N. Pau/ina Street. C/V/CAGO, ILL I Mechanical Calculation “ bt* guud to your skin and wear WRIGHT'S Spring-Needle Ribbed UNDERWEAR Fits any figure perfectly, y et always springs back to shape. Very springy and elastic. Holds its shape indefinite!y and outwears ordinary underwear. Can't shrink. The best-fitting, best-wearing and best-looking underwear made. “The Spring is the Thing.” The Non-Stretching Neck (pa tent applied for) always hugs snug. ^ AH weights for all seasons. Made"' in wool. fine Egyptian cotton. or cotton- and-wool. m variouscolors. Htgbest quality at moderate' prices—ffil.OO. iJ.l.50. S2 00 for Sbirts and Drawers: S1.S0 to S4.00 for Union Suits. If not at dealer's. send bis name and we'll see you are supplied. Write for booklet showing samples offabrics WRIGHT'S HEALTH UNDERWEAR CO. ff WRIGHT'S MARK *mtQ UNDERWEAR n t ii iO n I e w unl?;.Vt. lit. I 74 Franklin Street New York GIVE HIM 15 MINUTES A DAY And He Will Teach You “ How to Address Meetings— Make After-Dinner Speeches— Propose Toasts— Tell Entertaining Stories— and all, without fear and trembling. Every professional and business man is frequently called upon to speak in public. Political meetings, fraternal gatherings. dinners, etc.. make insistent demands upon him, and afford endless opportunities and requests for appropriate speech. Are you able to appear to advantage upon such occasions ? Can you “say youi say “ in earnest, concise, and convincing language ? Grenville Kleiser's Personal Mail Course in Public Speaking Actually Teaches You How Simple ? You can carry a lesson in your pocket until you get it into your head I The Cost ? There's a special class being formed now which will save you /our-fi/fAs of the regular cost. A postal brings full particulars. Be sure and mention this publication and address FUNK&WAGNALLS COMPANY, Dept. 278, NEW YORK f] An Easily Made High Frequency Apparatus CAN BE USED TO OBTAIN EITHER D'ARSONVALOR OUDIN CURRENTS. A plunse battery of six cells. a two-inch spatk induction coil, a pair of one-pint Leyden jars. and an inductance coil. and all the apparatus required. most ol which can bemadeathome . Supplement No. 1618. Order from your newsdealer or from Munn <S Co., /nc.. 361 Broadway, N. Y.. You Get the Correspondence You Want Without Delay From a MULTOPLEX CAhNet Quicker than it takes to tell it. your clerk can locate the folder containing the correspondence you want. and get it to your desk. This greater efficiency in correspondence fi l i n g is due to OUR patented adjustable METAL DRAWER PARTITIONS Which Keep Contents Upright and Easily Accessible — Prevent folders sagging and crowding together, — Permit more rapid filing. —Save file clerk's time. — Make locating correspondence easier. — Prevent misfiled and lost, crumpled and lorn lettets. — Permit you to fill drawers full without iheir becoming crowded — Make a big saving: in cost of inside equipment. Noeuide cards are needed and.lighter weight folders can be used. Write For Our Book, “Faultless Filing" In 80 many wavs will the Multopiex Cabinet save you money and give you greater tiling efficiency tbat it demands your in vestiii!'atiOD. It bas tbe most important improvements made la filing cabinets for maoy years. We buve merely outlined Its good poiDte. Get our book and know all about it and our pateotea ebeck Hie system—tbe Oe:<t everdevised. W rite today tnentioniDg the name of your rirm aDd you r capacity, CANTON MFG. CO. 1382 E. Second Street. Canton, Ohio 358 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN October 14, 1911 The Most Famous Train in the World 20thCentury Limited Saves a day either way between New York or Boston and Chicago Lv. NewYwk 4.00 p.m. Lt. Boiton 1.30 p.m. Ar. Chicago A.55a.m. MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES Their Design, Construction and Operation THE APPLICATION OF AERODYNAMIC THEORY WITH A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION AND COMPARISON OF THE NOTABLE TYPES By CROVER CLEVELAND LOENINC. B. Sc., A. M., C. E. A new and authoritative work, covering the whole subject of the Aeroplane, its design, and the theory on which it is based, and containing a detailed description and discussion of thirty-eight of the more highly successful types. It is a thoroughly practical work and invaluable to anyone interested in aviation. l2mo. (1)x8l4 inches), 340 Pages. 278 Illustrations. Attractively bound in cloth Price $2.50 net, postpaid An illustrated descriptive circular will be sent free on application MUNN&COInc., Publishers /. 361 Broadway. New York Fire Chief CROKER says g. r9heDAHLSTROM PRODUCTS - At the international Municipal Congress and Exposition, (fhicago, September 29th, Edward F. Croker, Ex-Chief of New York City's Fire Dept. who spent 27 years in the service, 12 years as chief, said: F we ate to better conditions, we must realize that 'fireproof' is not 'fireproof' as it is understood today. The literal definition remains, but many crimes have been committed in its name, . • There is but one principle to fireproof construction irrespective of the kind of structure. To have fireproof buildings, architects and owners must throw aside precedence and eliminate the use ot combustible and semi-combustible materials in their construction. ” .... If there were still an absolute necessity lor its use, if it could not be replaced with steel, as it has been in many modern constructions, it would then be well to attempt to conceive ot something better. I am opposed to the use of wood in any form in fireproof buildings and the law ought not to permit its use. ” . . . . Tome there is a fascination about steel interiors. It constantly emphasizes the absurdity of fire-fighting, for how can fires rage if they have nothing to feed upon ?” _ Interviewed, Ex-Fire Chief Croker said: “ You are at perfect liberty to use my talk partially or entirely and apply it to your products. I have watched your development since you first originated cold drawn steel interiors with great interest. I have nothing more to say. My address and the fact that my private residence will be equipped throughout with The Dahlshom . Products is as strong a recommendation as I can make." DAHLSTROM METALLIC DOOR COMPANY Executive Offices and Factories : 27 Blackstone Avenue - JAMESTOWN. N. Y. Principal Cities g-r-Pire Cro*er'( address has lJeen dl'me Coynes*ma; b e Aad ” ftutftttmgff A 6 TAeg Siou/d Be' * (fte etiminatwn iJ a t t comfewWie'fe mac'.rials *” tmitdtngn. A CVTy may fie/ad yoi 1;)t:(/e, 6 cents. ikiM fitr it. Branch O//ices fn> a// Copyright. 1911, by the Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co.