D. V. B., of a.—Place a pulley where you may on an upright shaft, you cannot gain power thereby. The power of a man is equal to raising 190 pounds 1 toot in a second, or 36,000 pounds 10 feet in ten hours. A. Y. McD., of Mo.—Most animal oils become thick at temperatures between 50^ and 32. Oil never could be employed as you seem to suppose, in thermometers. Alcohol, not mercury or oil, is used in the Arctic regions for thermometers. W. D. F., of iMass.—^Vheat is superior to corn for making starch. The process of manufacturing starch embraces peculiar machinery and apimratus. It would require drawings and a long description to convey to you a proper idea of it. K. A. D., of N. J.—The lightest and best anti-corrosive metal for sail hanks is aluminum, but it is too dear to use for this purpose. Galvanized iron is not suitable ; it would soon corrode at sea. Brass composed of half zinc and half copper, is the best we can recommend. James P. Hitchcock, of Homer, N. Y., wishes to correspond with some one engaged in the manufacture of coiled springs. E. A. H., of 111.—Centrifugal pumps, which are so common, are similar to circumferential vent water wheels, usually called "reaction wheels." J. McB., of Mo.—To harden the header of your nail machine, after it is heated red-hot, turn it face upward, slightly inclined, and let a stream of cold water fall upon its face from a hight of six or seven feet. By this method of tempering it will not be liable to crack, and it will be rendered very hard, provided your steel is of the proper quality. li. W. K, of Pa., and W. J. S., of N. Y.—We know that telegraphers employ means to conduct atmospheric electricity ' o the earth at stations, in order to prevent surplus charges fusing the connections and destroying theelecti-o-magnets. The correspondence to which you refer related to a "new" metal, not employed before, possessing peculiar powers for this purpose. A. li. P., of Ohio.—If you boil cloth in a solution of alum, and dry it thoroughly, it will be rendered partially impervious to water without obstructing perspiration. J. O., of N. H.—A narrow strip of tin fixed across the top of a lamp wick, or a piece of platinum or brass wire inserted in it, spreads out the Hame, and allows it more free contact with the oxygen of the atmosphere, thus producing perfect combustion and a brighter flame. The argand burner exhibits this principle in the moat perfect manner, by bringing the air in contact with both the inside and outside of the wick andliame. The answer to the correspondent referred to by you, gives the address of A. Pierz, this city. C. F. S., of 111.—A solution of sal ammoniac will not remove moles from the face. We are not acquainted with any safe solution that will effect this object. N. E. L., of Ind.—The brass-work of watches is not covered on the surface with a varnish ; nor is any substance put on the surface to give it the rich color you mention; it is the natural color of the alloy after exposure to the air. An oxyd of iron mixed with cast iron, smelted for several days out of contact with the air, renders the metal softer and malleable. We are not acquainted with a gold-colored solder that melts at a low heat, and is capable of being used in jewelry. James M. Goodwin, Bethel, Clermont co., Ohio, wishes to correspond with pump owners and manufacturers. G. F. S., of La.—It is indeed shameful on the part of boot and shoe makers to fill in under the sole with bits of paper, shavings, &c. The only remedy is to avoid the purchase of such shoes, and patronize your own shoemakers. " Haste makes waste." We should consider your chances for a patent on the saw teeth im-provement as very doubtful. Could judge better from a sample of your saw. C. B. J., of Mass.—There is no more power in a long, than in a short handle of a screw-driver; but the long handle admits of the operative applying his power in a superior manner. Money received at the Scientific American Oifice on account oIf Patent Office business, for the week ending Saturday, June 5,1858 :— H. N., of N. Y., $30 ; A E., of L. I., $55; G. E., of Pa., $25 ; W. M., of Iowa, $25 ; h. & S., of N. Y $15; J. C. D., of Ky., $25; L. R.. of Pa., $250; L. B., of Ala., $25; W. R., of Mich., $27 ; C. & N., of 111., $30 ; A. D., of N. C, $5; A C. R., of R. L, $30 ; S. F. J.. of Ind., $25; E. R., of Wis., $30; E. S., Jr., of N. Y., $30; S. C. C, of Mich., $25 ; M. C. C, of N. Y., $25; F. B. N., of N. Y., $125 ; J. W. W., of Ind., $30; J. V., of N. J., $30; W. S. T., of N. Y., $30; G. W., of Conn., $27; E. M., of Mich., $85; J. D. S., of Ohio, $30; G. M., of Mass., $30; S. R. W., of 111., $30 ; R. S. M., of Ohio, $30 ; D. II., of N. Y., $55 ; W. T. B., of Ohio., $30; A W. H., of Conn., $30 ; S. H. G., of Conn., $25 ; J. h. B., of R. L, $43; C. T. P., of N. Y., $460; A B., of Pa., $65 ; M. & C., of III, $25; G. E. C., of Minn., $27 ; T. E. McN., of Pa., $55; K. & P., of Texas, $30 ; J. T., of N. H., $25 ; P. T. T., of Vt., $30 ; G. W. B., of L. I., $30 ; 1. H. C, of Ohio, $27 ; E. M., of N. Y., $10. Specifications and drawings belonging to parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, June 5,1858:H. &S., of N. Y,; J. C, D., of Ky. ; G. E.,ofPa. ; S. F. J., of Ind. ; G. E. C, of N. Y. ; J. P., ofL. I. ; M. C. C, of N. Y. ; G. K, of Ind.; A. E., ofK I.; W. S. T., of N. Y. ; W. M., of loM^a ; W. R., of Mich ; A. D., of N. C,; G. M., of Mass. ; C. & M of 111.; G. W. C, of 111. . J. T- of N. h. ; S. H. G., of Conn. ; Z. C, ; of 111.; G. W., of Conn. ; I. G., of N, Y. ; A. B., of , Pa. ; B. H. W., of Mo.; S. C. C, of Mich.; I. h. C, : of Ohio; J. H. S., of Md,; F. B. N., of N. Y. 3 Literary Notices THE Yellow Feigate ; ob, The Two Sisters. By Clipt. Jamra Grant. "We have received from Dick & Fitzgerald, No. 18 Ann street, this citv, ti^ty cent novel bearing the above title. As we have neither the time nor the disposition to read novels current at the present day, we are therefore unable to speak of their literary merits. The publishers of the " Yellow Frigate" would not put an immoral work to press. Edinburgh Re view—Published by Leonard Scott & Co., 54 Gold street, this city.—The number for the present quarter of this—the i)arent of all the British Reviews—is worthy of its palmy days, when Sidney Smith, Hazlitt and Jeffrey were contributors. It contains an essay on the "Annals of Calif oi'nia;" a review of Edgar A. Poe'3 works, a very favorable one, and another on the "Life of George Stephenson," the real railway king. Besides these reviews, there are six others of equal ability on different subjects. The North British Review—Published by Ij. Scott &Co., No. 54 Gold street, this city—The Mav number contains an excellent review, entitled the "Philosophy of History." "Professor Owen's Works," and "Lieut, Maury's Geography of the Sea" are the titles of two very able articles. These are very interesting, and written with the usual brilliancy of the British essayists. Blackwood's Magazine—Published by Leonard Scott & Co., No. 54 Gold street. New York—The number for this month of this veteran and able magazine is a good one. It contains an able essay on "Food and Drink." The Eclectic Magazine.—The June number contains a very excellent selection of articles, the one entitled "Speeches of Lord Brougham," and the three on "Gen. Havelock." of whom there isalso a handsome portrait, being especially worthy of peimsal. Hunt's Merchants' Magazine for June contains two capital articles on ''Usury," and "Gold and its Effects," and, as usual, this valuable periodical comes laden to us with inf orma.tion of the most useful kind. It is published at 142 Fulton street. New York, by G. W. and J. A. Wood. Important to Inventors AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT SOLICITORS—Messrs. MUNN & CO., Proprietors of the SciENiTFic American, continue to procure patents for inventors in the United States and all foreign countries on the most liberal terms. Our experience is of twelve years' standing, and our facilities are un-equaled by any other agency in the world. The long experience we have had in preparing specifications and drawings has rendered us perfectly conversant with the mode of doing business at the United States Patent Office, and with most of the inventions which ha ve been patented. Information concerning the patentability of inventions is freely given, without charge, on sending a model or drawing and description to this office. Consultation may be had with the firm, between nine and four o'clock, daily, at their principal office. 128 Fulton street. New York. We have lately established a Branch Agency on the corner ot F. nnd Seventh streets, Washington (opposite the United States Patent Office). This office is under the general superintendence of one of the firm, and is in daily communication with the Principal Office in New York, and personal attention will be given at the Patent Office to all such cases as may require it. We are very extensively engaged in the preparation and securing of patents in the various European countries. For the transaction of this business we have offices at Nos. 66 Chancery Lane, London; 29 Boulevard St Mfu-tin, Paris; and 26 Ruedes Eperonniers, Brussels. We think we may safely say that three-fourths of all the European patents secured to American citizens are procured through our Agency. Circulars of information concerning the proper course to be pursued in obtaining patents through our Agency, the requirements of the Patent Office, &c., may be had gratis upon application at the principal office or either of the branches. Communications and remittances should be addressed to MUNN & COMPANY, No. 128 Fulton street, New York. The annexed letter from the late Commissioner of Patents we commend to the perusal of all persons interested in obtaining patents :— Messrs. Munn & Co.—I take pleasure in stating that while I held the office of Commissioner of Patents, more than one-fourth of atj. the business of the office came through your hands. Thave no doubt that the public confidence thus indicated has been fully deserved, as I have always observed, in all your intercourse with the Office, a marked degree of promptness, skill, and fidality to the interests of your employers. Yours, very truly, chas. mason. FIFTH EDITION-CATALOGUE CONTAIN-ing 250 illustrations of Mathematical, Optical and Philosophical Instruments, with attachment of a large sheet representing the Swiss instruments in their actual size and shape, will be delivered, on application, to all parts of the United States, by sending 12 cents in postage stamps. C. T. AMSLER, No. 635 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. PATENT AGENCY IN MEMPHIS, TENN. J. M. D. miller will act as general agent in introducing new or old patents in the Southwest. Address, with particulars, as above. MPI.OY1UENT-T0 sell a new and novel invention to defeat pickpockets. Write to DICKINSON & bate, Hudson, Mich. CliARK'S REGUIiATOR-from ten TO twenty-five per cent saving in fuel is guaranteed in the use of Clark's Patent Steam and Fire Regulators ; besides giving the most perfect regularity of power at any desired pressure, and no fear of explosions. Send for circular at 229 Broadway, New York City. E. R. pratt, Secretary. FIRST-RATE TENON 3IACHINES FOR sale low—Medal awarded by the American Institute, New York. C. P. S ward well, Lake Village, n. H. SURVEYING COMPASSES, SURVEYING Chains, Theodolites, Geological Compasses, Pocket Compasses, &c. A priced list mailed gratis. McAllister & brother. No. 728 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. VAIiUABLiE SCIENTIFIC WORKS-tred-gold on Steam Engine, complete 4 vols. 4to. $85. Practical Mechanics' Journal, April 1848 to March 1856, inclusive. 8 vols., cloth. $22. Holtzapffel on Turning, 3 vols. $14. Aide Memorie to the Military Science, by a corps of Engineer. 3 vols. 8vo. $20- Weale's Theory, Practice, and Architecture of Bridges. 4 vols, complete, half-bound, $49. Duggon on American Engineering and Bridge Building. 1 vol. folio, halt-bound. $15. Imported and for sale by wiley & HALSTED, 351 Broadway, New York. Books imported to order, and orders forwarded weekly by the steamers. Catalogues supplied gratis, and mailed on receipt of postage stamps. MATHEMATICAI. INSTRUMENTS, sep-arate and in cases. Tape Measures, Spy Glasses, Barometers, Rain Gages, Thermometers, Galvanic Batteries, Stereoscopes, Gyroscopes, Hygroneters, &c. MCALLISTER & BROTHER, 728 Chestnut st., Philadelphia. Our catalogue furnished gratuitously, and sent hS mftil fVfip. nf onarap.. SPECIAIi EXTRAORDINARY OFFER-Th e great fifty c e nt Pictorial Mon thly. The United States Journal commences its tenth volume with the July number; and determined, regardless of any outlay, to give it an immediate introduction into every neighborhood, we make the following special offer:— To any person who will send us two subscriptions ($1), we will present either a beautiful copy of Fleetwood's Life of Christ, containing about 500 pages, elegantly bound, and profusely illustrated, or we will present a splendid copy of Livingston's Travels in Africa, superbly bound and illustrated; or a copy of the ma.cnificent steel-plate engraving, " Signing ot the Death Warrant of Lady Jane Grey." The postage on the books is 24 cents each, and on the engraving 12 cents, which must accompany the order. If anybody is fearful that the above offer will not be carried out, they can deposit the amount and postage with their postmaster, to be forwarded by him on receipt of the premium and first number ot the paper. We will also send our catalogue of rich offers. J. m. EMERSON & CO,, 406 Broadway, New York. MAGIC LANTERNS-WE HAVE CAREFUL-ly availed ourselves of every additional improvement to the Magic Lantern, and have always on hand a very large assortment of beautifully executed sliders, illustrating the most prominent events in Sacred History, Temperance, Astronomy^ &c. A priced and descriptive catalogue sent bv mail free of charge. McAllister & brother, 728 Chestnut st., Philadelphia. MICROSCOPES-WE HAVE 'A LARGE Assortment of Compound Microscopes neatly mounted in brass, and packed in mahogany boxen, with a magnifying power varying from 35 to|l,000 diameters, varying in force according to the power or completeness. Also microscopic slides, thin glass for covering microscopic objects, marine glue, micrometers, glass cells and covers for injected preparations, &c. A priced list of Microscopes and Mici-oscopic Objects furnished gratis, and sent by mail free of charge. McAllister & brother, 728 Chestnut st., Philadelphia, Pa. "OEED'S PATENT PORTABIiE AND STAXtL TIONARY steam ENGINES, nnequaled lor simplicity, durability, and economy, Birkbeck's improved Steam Pumps, Portable Steam Saw and Grist Mills ; second-hand engines and boilers. Most improved machinery of all kinds, furnished by JOHN A. REED, No. 172 Broadway, corner of I\Laiden Lane, New York City. These machines have no rival.—[Scientific American. WHEEI.ER .fe WILSON'S SEWING MA-_ CHINES, 343 Broadvvay, New York, received the highest premiums awarded in 1857 by the American Institute. New York; Maryland Institute, Baltimore ; and at the Maine, Connecticut, Illinois, and Michigan State Fairs. Send for a circular containing editorial and scientific opinions, testimonials from persons of the highest social position, &c. MACHINISTS' TOOLS FOR SALE AT HALF PRICK—I will sell theremainder of tlie tools belonging to the estate of John Parshley at half price, if called for soon. Said tools are new, and in good order. They consist in part as follows:—One 16 toot planer. 10 hand lathes, 2 spliner drills, 13 No. 1 drills, 1 bolt header. 1 shaft straightener, plane centers and jaws, chucks, all sizes; also 8 of Foster's building block machines. N. D. SPERRY, Trustee, New Haven, Conn. BELTING AND PACKING - Niagara Falls Paper Manufacturing Co., Niagara Falls, April 20, 1858. United States Gutta Percha Co. : We duly received the Gutta Percha Belting ordered from you, and after giving it a thorough test the past winter, on our heaviest engines, constantly exposed to water, ice and oil, and making 140 to 160 revolutions per minute; and again on two of our largest "Gwynne Pumps," making from 600 to 700 revolutions per minute, they have given us entire satisfaction, and we think it decidedly th best belting we ever used, and you may look for our future orders as required. S. PETTIBONE. Treasurer and Superintendent. For sale by the UNITED STATES VULCANIZED GUTTA PERCHA CO., No. 66 Liberty street. New York. CIRCUI^RS WITH CUTS, ILLUSTATING steam engines and niacliinery for making lumber, shingles, staves, heading chairs, bedsteads, and wheat cleaning machinery, bran dusters, &c,, sent for a postage stamp, by applying to L. A. SPALDING, Lock-port, N. Y. FOR SALE—AN EIGIIT-IIORSE UPRIGHT engine,boiler and fixtures, second-hand, nearly new, all in good runnins order. Address H. B. MATHER, West Norwalk, Conn. SECOND-HAND MACHINERY AT VERY low prices for cash.—Steam Engines, Slide Lathe?, Planing Machines, Drills, Slotting Machines, &c,; also a variety of Mortising, Tenoning, and Sash Machines, &c., all warranted in good running order. Address CHARLES G. WILLCOX, 87 North Third st., Philadelphia, Pa. STEAM WHISTLES — IMPROVED PAT-terns manufactured by HAYDEN, SANDERS & CO., 306 Pearl street, New York. SLIDE liATHES, IRON PLANERS, UP-right Drills, Slotting and Boring Machines, Universal Chucks, and a large assortment of machinists' tools, at greatly reduced prices. Address CHARLES H. SMITH, 135 North Third st, Philadelphia, Pa. WOODWORTH PLANING l^IACHINES, ? ? Mortising, Tenoning, and Sash Machines, and a full assortment of wood-working machinery, at creatly reduced prices. Address CHARLES H. SMITH, 135 North Third st., Philadelphia, Pa. WOODWORTH PLANERS-IRON FRAMES to plane 18 to 24 inches wide—at $90 to $110. For sale by S. C. HILLS, 12 Piatt street New York. GLOVE R'S PATENT BALANCE IRON FOR Millstones, superior to anything of the kind now in use, giving the most complete balance, without difficulty, and in the shortest time. County, State, or individual i-ights for sale. Address J. H. GLOVER, Temple Hill, Barren co,, Ky. BOILER INCRUST ATIONS — WEISSEN-BORN'S Patent Incrustation Preventer serves the double purpose of preventing scale and acting as a heater, besides being useful as a condenser. STEWART KERR, (Engineer,) Agent, No. 17 Broadway, New York. PHILADELPHIA RIVET WORKS-MANU-facturera of the celebrated P brand. Boiler, tank, and gasometer rivets, of every diameter, length, and head. PHILLIPS & ALLEN. MACIIINERY—S. C. HILLS, NO. 12 PLATT street. New York, dealer in Steam Engines, Boilers, Planers, Lathes, Chucks, Drills, Pumps; Mor-ising. Tenoning, and Sash Machines, Woodworth's and Daniel's Planers Dick's Punches, Presses and Shears ; Cob and Corn Mills ; Harrison's Grist Mills: Johnson's ^ Shingle Mills; Belting, Oil, &c. STEAM ENGINES, STEAM BOILEKS, Steam Pumps. Saw and Grist ^lills, Marble Mills, Rice Mills, Quartz Mills for gold quartz. Sugar Mills, ^ater Wheels, Shafting and Pulleys. The largest assortment of the above in the country, kept constantly m Ignd by WM. BURDON, 102Front street, Brooklyn, HARIllSON'S 30 INCH GRAIN MILLS-Latest Patent.—A supply constantly on hand. Price $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. npHE W orks OF THE AUBIN GAS CO., X (General Office, Na 44 State st,, Albmy, N, Y.,) as now perfected, are adapted to all materials and localities, and are in successful operation in village?, factories, and private dwellings. For full information as to cost, probable income of public works, &c., apply as above. For pltius, &c., see Sciicntific American of March 13th. SECOND-HAND MACHINISTS' TOOLS-Conriisting of 20 Engine Lathes, 9 Iron Planers, 4 Upright Drills, Hand Lathes, Chuck Lathe, Gear Cutters and Vices, all in good order, and for sale low for cash. For particulars, addi-ess FRANKLIN SKINNER, 14 Whitney avenue. New Haven, Conn, MACHINE BELTING, STEAM PACKING, ENGINE HOSE,—The superiority of these articles, manufactured of vulcanized rubber, is established. Every belt will be warranted superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Steam Packing is made in every variety, and wan-anted to stand 300 degs. of heat. The hose never needs oiling, and is warranted to stand any required pressure ; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to mechanical purposes. TV.;cctions, prices, &c,, can be obtained by mail or otherwise, at our warehouse, NEW YORK RKLTINO AND PACKIN G COMPANY. JOHN IL CHEEYER, Treasurer, No. 6 Dey street, New York. Peck's PATENT DROP PRESS —FOR Jewelers, tin and copper workers, gun and other fordngs. &c., manufactured by the patentee, MILO PECK &iJO., New Haven, Conn. NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO.-Machinists' Tools, Iron Planers, Engine and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cutters, Gear Cutters, Chrtcks, &c., on hand and finishing. These tools arc of superior quality, and are for sale low for carih or approved paper. For cuts giving full description and prices, address '*New Haven Manutacturing Co., New Haven, Conn.' MACHINERY.-IP YOU WANT THE BEST Portable or Stationary Steani Engines, Wood-worth's or Daniels' Planers, or any other kind cf machinery for working wood for the least amount of money, address HARRISON FLINT, Danbury, Conn. 1;^OK SALE-A PATENTED IMPROVEMENT upon Letter Envelopes, by which the owner of the right can monopolize the manufacture. Address CHARLES PHELPS, Salem, Mass. ENGRAVING ON WOOD AND MECHANICAL DRAWING, by RICHARD TEN EYCK, Jr., 128Fulton street. New York, Engraver to the Scientific American. PAGE'S PATENT PORTABLE CIRCULAR SAW MILL, and Portable Steam P:ngiues and Boilers mounted on substantial wheels, ready to saw lumber, thrash wheat or gin cotton. Our Mills will saw from 2,000 to 10,000 feet per day. Address GEO. PAGE & CO., Baltimore, Md. WOODWORTH PLANING MACHINES— f ? Having over $40,000 worth now completed, I will sell, from this time henceforth, at a very reduced price, and am ready to construct any sizes not on hand at short notice. john H. LESTER, 57 Pearl st., Brooklyn, Long Island. LAP-\^TELDED IRON BOILER TUBES-Prosser's Patent.—Eveiy article necessaryto drill the tube-plates and set the tubes in the best manner. THOS. PROSSER & SON, 28 Piatt st.. New York. Oil: oil: oil!-for pailroads, steamers, and for machineiy and burning. Pease's Improved Machinery and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and will not gum. This oil possesses qualities vitally essential for lubricating and burning, and found in no other oil. It is offered to the public upon the most reliable, thorough and practical test. Our most skillful engineers and machinists pronounce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that is in all cases reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, after several tests, pronounced it " superior to a,ny other they have ever used for machinery." For sale only by the inventor jind manufacturer, F. S. PEASE, 61 JSIain st., Buffalo, N. Y. N. B.—Reliable orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe. VAIL'S SPEEDWELL IRON WORIiS, Morristown, N. j., manufacture Craig's Patent Double-acting Balance Valve Oscillating Steam Engines both stationary and portable, Knowles' Patent Muley, Portable, Gang and Re-sawing Mills, Sugar and Chinese Cane Mills and Sugar Pans, Grist Mills, Mill Irons, Rich's Water-wheels, Forgings and Castings. Orders for the above, and all descriptions of labor-saving ma-chinerv will receive prompt jittention. JOHN H, LTDGERWOOD & CO., No. 9 Gold street. New York. CORLISS' PATENT STEAM engine.-About 250, most of them from 40 to 400 horse power, are now in operation. On application, pamphlets will be sent (by mail), containing statements of responsible manufacturing companies where these engines have been furnished, for the saving of fuel, in periods varying from 214 to 5 years. Bailers, shafting, and gearing. CORLISS STEAM ENGINE CO., Providence, R. I. MOWING AND REAPING KNIVES OF every description manufactured by C. U, LAME, No. 407 Cherry st., Philadelphia, Pa. First premium awarded by the United States Agricultural Society for mowing and reaping knives. FOR SALE-RIGHTS IN TWO PATENTS FOR Steam Engine improvements, being a valuable variable cut-off, and practical direct connection of piston rods with crank, effecting great saving in construction and fuel. Interests given to capitalists. Inquire of B. ACKER^IANN, 710 Broadway, New York, PATENT OFFICE MODELS CAREFULLY made on scientific principles, at low prices, by H. SHLARBAUM & CO., 300 Broadway, New York, llef-erences at the office of this paper. ANOTHER WONDER-BALDWIN'S TUR-bine Water Wheel (represented in No. 51, Volume XII, Sol Am.,) gives from 75 to 97 per cent of power, according to the size of wheel and head employed. Usual sizes, with 4 to 25 feet fall, give 80 to 90 per cent. For information address S. K. BALDWIN ,Laconia, N. H,
This article was originally published with the title "Correspondents"