S. N. D., of N.—You are correct in regal'd to the convenionce of drawing up water In buckets with hinged valvus in their bottoms, to open and close by the pressure of the water. But you do not seem to be aware thnt such buckets "re old and well-known. " A Uorrcspondent"' sends us a sketch of a briek machine from Paducah, Ky., but fails to sign his name to hi. h,tter. If he will supply this omi.sion we will answer him by mail. G. B.D.,ofTenn.-We think that " MoseleysMechanics applied to the Arts," and HDr. Lardner on the Steam Engine," would suit you. Both can be procured from Wiley & Halstead, this city. The other books are hard and dry. R.H1 L., of Wis.—Tho be.t battery for galvanizing purpo;c. i. 8mee'.. You.can drill glass with diamond dust and a steel drilL P. C, of Mass.—Providing funnels with a vent tube at their sides to admit the e.eape of air or gas from ves,els into which liquids are being poured is not new or patentable. John C. Elder. of Datod Rouse, La., wishes to purchase a spoke-turning machine. F. A. F. of Mass.—We think that you could obtain ami.nthus at the store of any large philosophical instrument maker. W. H. G. of Mass.—The water of the o.ean Increases In den.ity as you descend and so does anything thrown into it; EO the relative density rcmain3 the same, and a cannon ball would sink to the bottom. U. M. K.. of Tex.s.—You propose to employ a number of springs tangent to the circumference of the wheel for the a)leged purpose of preventing the jolting of carriage.. It fe entirely impracticable to undertake such a system. It might do vcry well fora toy, but it wouid ncver do for loaded vehicles. C. H. .v., of Pa.—Robert L. Pell is Presilent of the America Institute. A letter addressed to the care of tile Institute would reach him safely. Ile ha. paid much attention to the artificial propagation of fish, and ia no doubt capable of giving you sound and meful advice on this subject. F. F. A of Pa.—In volume X. of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, we published a history of reaping and mowing machines, and if you fef er to it you will find several modifications of? the circular cutter, A recent patent by Stephen R. Hunter. of Cortlandt. N. Y., also employs a series of circular cutters. M. A. W. of ct.—We have examined a sketch and rough description of your plan for preventing the escaping sparks, &c., from locomotives from coming in contact with hou.es in the sides of the streets through which they travel, and so far as novelty Is concerned we believe it to contain sufficient to form a patentable claim. The objection to locomotives passing through inllllbited streets is not confined to smoke, sparks, &c, C8Cal)ing from them, but mainly applies to the danger to life. and the disagreeable noises and other Incon-veniencies they produce. J. C. R.. of Va.-The alkali will not injure the hide at all, and If you will put about two buohels of wood .shes into your lime with half the quantity of lime usually employed, you will make a much handsomer lcather and more durable, wit1 less handling. Z. Y. X. of Pa.—Professor Rodgers only meant that the stalactites which he had In that particular instance increased at the rate of one-tenth of an inch a yenr, but they may increase at a greater rate in different locali_ tics and under different circumstances. R. M. of Ind —In Vol. IX.. SOL AM.. you will find an engraving of the weighing and packins machine of N. R Harris & Co., of Philadelphia. W. M. P., of C. W.-We should think common glue tho best thing you could use to attach paper labels. G. S. P. of IIl.—The Idea of obtaining motive power hy atmospheric pressure is an old one. The same power you apply to the air pumps to produce the vacuum would be more advantageously employed, if applied directly to work the engine, as the friction of the oir pump causes an additional loss of power, and be.hies this, many other objections to your method might be stated. E. C., of Ohlo.—To cut files with a diamond is not patentable. C. F. A.. of Boston.—We cannot name SUCh a work as you want. Inquire of some botanic physician in your cit". T. E. M, of R. I.—A patent cannot be obtained ror a ship', rudder having the spindle passing through the ceuter of two blades instead of having the spindle at one side of a sinjle blade as I. the common custom. A. F,, of Me._We oannot inform you how to prepare the ergot or spurred rye. which has been recom-munded for consumptive patients. Physicians oUiht to he the best judg08 on these matter., Money received at the Scientific American Office on account of Patent Office business, for tbe week endlag Saturday, August 14,1858 :— K. & B.. of N. Y. $150 ; M. H. R., of Tenn. $30 ; J. W., of Ind., $30 : E. L. L. of N. Y., $25; F. R., of Mass., $30; D. R. K. of Conn.. $30; J. A., of Pa., $25 ; W. M of N. YM $30; A. H. of N. Y., $25 ; W. & J, of Conn, $30; J. C McD.. of Ohio. $25: J. C. DeW., oiN. J., $25; J. L.of Ind. $10; L. H.M.,of R. L, $30 : C. P. P., of S. C., $30; G. F. and M. J. of N. Y., $60 : oJ. C., of N. Y. $30 ; R. M. T, of Mich. $25; G.H. W.ofN.Y. $55; WW.,of Ct., $35L.& D., ofN.Y.,$25; A. W.,ofN. Y., fTO; W. P., of DeL. $25. ; J. F. B.. of DL, $30; c. D: M., of R. L, $31t ; T. S. B., Qf N. Y., $12 ; S. & E., of DL, $30; J. V., of III., $30 ; F. Y., of Ky., $30; W. P. A., of N. Y., $40 : B. T. S., of Ill. $65. Specifications and drawings belonging to parties witfc A thefollowingiaifcials hove been forwarded to tho Pat- ent Office during the week ending Saturday, August 14,1'58 :— H. & P., of Conn. : G. P. P., of R. I; J. C. D., of N. J: A. H.,of N. Y. ; J. A.K., of Mo.; W. W., of Conn.; A. W.,of N. Y. ; J. D. M., of M.... ; T. S. B., of N. Y. ; J. W. N., of Conn. ; R. M. T., of Mich.; W. P. A.. of N. Y. ; J. C. McD., of Ohio; I. H. T. of N. Y.; B. & HM of Maes. ; G. H. W.,ofN.Y.; W. P., of Del.; L. & D., of N. Y.; E. L. L. of N. Y. Literary Notices THE NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA—Volume III.— Bcam—Browning. D. Appleton & Co.. 340 and 348 Broadway, New York. Edited by Georgc Ripley and Charles A. Dana. In the gradual progress of this work the authors of the several artielcs seem more thoroughly to enter into the proper encyelopcedi a spirit—condensation ; anil have wonderfully succeeded in placing in a small space a great accumulation of facts. In such a work there is no room for comment or decoration, and all that is wanted is, thnt under every head or subject, there will be fOllnd ull the facts CODnected with that Bubject stated simply and without bias. The writer should forget hia individuality and style. and become the simple recorder of evenandtioneds and observations. Looking at this work from an utilltarian point of view. we think that Messrs. Appleton should be highly commended for is.umg parts at 25 cents, so that it will be in the power of every one to obtain it, and will enable every farmer and mechanic to have upon their shelves a condensed library of information that will be a lasting honor to the editors and a credit to the country. NOETH CAROLINA UNIVEBBITY MAGAZINE for Angust, published byt J. M. Henderson, Chapel Hill, N. C. This interesting magazine, which certainly docs credit to the young students brain. of North Carolina, contalns a very good essay on the " Lift* and Character of Samuel John8ton," anu a lively little sketch informing the reader " How Zibes got Kicked," together with many other articles of interest and merit.