The members of this order, which embraces one-fourth of the insect population, are mapdibulate, obtaining what little nourishment they need chiefly by lapping the nectar of flowers with a long tongue which passes through a proboscis like mouth. The anterior wings are larger than the posterior; and in flight the pairs unite by a series of hooks on the edges. The larvae are very imperlect, and usually supported by the neutral part of the race. They are best developed in warm climates, where some species attain two inches in length and three by the wings. Their life never exceeds a year. Their instinct and locomotive powers are remarkable; and here we iind contrivers that do not fall far short of intelligent beings. The last segment of the body in the females is prolonged into an organ, which in one division, Aculcata, is a sting connected with a poison reservoir; and in the Tenebrantia, an instrument for boring a place for their eggs. In the former, the abdomen is joined to the thorax by a slender peduncle ; in the latter they are closely jointed. The former contains the group ot Diggers, called Sand and Wood Wasps. They delight in the hottest sunshine, and burrow the sind by brushes or wood by strong mandibles. The ants form another family of this section. Though our species are harmless, some exotics rival the scorpion in sting and bite. In felWiW theirlnlls are often 100 feet in circum- stories, each finished in 7 or 8 hours, containing saloons and galleries, with vaults supported by buttresses and pillars. The mason ants use clay ; but the carpenters build with sawdust made into papier mache. As warriors, they exhibit true myrmidonian valor; rival cities like Rome and Carthage pour forth their myriads to decide the late of their little world. As slave-dealers, they sally forth to pillage negro formicaries. As darymen, they pasture their milch kinethe Aphidesand milk them by patting the abdomen with their antenna, which are their instruments of speech. As emigrants, colonies go forth to "settle, the blacks carrying their masters, and forming roads by means o( formic acid which they eject,as Hannibal cut the Alps. Theirstrength is wonderful; two or three will drag a young snake alive. The males and lemales are winged; the neuters tend the grubs. To one tribe medicine is indebted for a valuable styptic. Wasps have their wings folded when at rest. The cells in a vespiary sometimes number 16,000, peopled with30,000. .The females found the colonies ; the males are the scavengers; and the workers control domestic affairs. A native of Cayenne builds its nest ol a beautifully polished white pasteboard ; but a greyish paper is generally used. The hornet (a dangerous insect) is of a larger genus, and its nest is often of the size of a half peck. Of the melliferous division, the clothier-bees envelope their nests with wool; the carpenter-group bore their cells'out of solid wood ; the masons build with artificial stone, and the upholsters line their domicils with boquets. The hive of the social bee is a miniature city, divided into streets composed ol houses for magazines, habitations, and palaces, constructed on the most exact geometric principles, of a material which man cannot producemysteries which have puzzled philosophers from Aristomachus to Huber. The cells are hexagonal, with a pyramidal base formed of three rhomboid plates, whose angles are 109 28' and 70 32'. A moderate swarm consists of 12,000, and is laid in two months , 5376 weigh a pound. In a populous hive, the thermome-;er ranges from 92 to 97, and at swarming rises at 104. Each individual makes abou 4 excursions daily, and from 40 to 120 respirations per minute. The apartmentts are ventilated by rapidly vibrating their wings Humming-bees (improperly called " Humble") live under-ground in societies of_50 or 60, and draw food chielly from clover. O the Sawing Hymenoptera, the family of Gallflies are armed with teeth at the extremity with which they enlarge slits on the oak or fig, and the tear issuing from the wound increases till it forms a covering for the eggs, in the shape of an excrescence. The nuts from Aleppo, containing more tannic acid, are ol more value in the manufacture of ink ; these are prickly and of a bluish green color. Some resemble beautiful frnits, and are eaten in the Levant. Others are hairy, some like mushrooms, artichokes, or flowers; and are ot all sizes, from a pin's head to a walnut. The apples of the Dead Sea are the product ol another species. The ovipositor ot the saw-fly resembles a hand-saw, and its larvn? a caterpillar. Ichneumons feed on honey and deposit their eggs in the bodies of other insects. Over 3000 species are found in Europe alone' The Chalcids are of a brilliant metallic here and generally leapers. The Chrysids or golden-tailed Hies are often found running in the sunshine upon walls. iv. ORTHOI'TF.RA (Straight-winged.) This order includes all insects which masticate, and have two pairs of wingsone en- in their incomplete metamorphosis, and the softer covering of their bodies. They are carnivorous or omnivorous, terrestrial, and bes( developed in the torrid regions. In the family Cursoria, the legs are fitted for running. The earwig frequents dark and damp places and does much injury to fruits and flowers It sits upon its eggs with all the maternal instinct of a hen. The cockroach is a troublesome insect, infesting beds, pantries, clothes-chests, c. It avoids the light, has an offensive smell, and small wings. The foreign insect (represented in the last figure) is sometimes called the walking-leaf, from the adaptation of its color to that of the leaves about it; but ottener, the praying mantis, from its common posture and solt modesty. It is, however, very cruel and voracious, having a long narrow body and powerful fore legs ; they fight one another like infuriated hussars, and are the game-cocksof the Chinese. When alarmed they produce a noise like that ol parchment rubbed together. The Phasma or walking-stick has a very long round body, which, when young, is usually green. The tribe Sa/latoria are leapers, and deposit their eggs in the ground. Grasshoppers are herbivorous, have slender appendages, and do not swarm like locusts; their wing.covers,when :losed, are roof-like, and their musical powers are such the Spaniards cage them. A hi-leous looking species from the south of Europe and Africa is devoid of wings. Of crickets, many burrowin the ground, most are noc-:ainal, and few can fly. The house-cricket is most noisy in the night, fiddling a shrill note ay rubbing its wing-cases against each other. [t flies like the woodpecker. The chirping )f the field tribe is sharp and stridulous. An-)ther species presents the structure and habit )f the mole; it does great injury to roots, especially those of sugar-cane. Locusts chiefly nhabit Africa and the south of Asia : what ire so called in America being cicadrc; they ire generally of a brown color, about three nches in length, having a head liko a horse, ;wo feelers about an inch long, dark eyes, strong jaws acting like scissors, a greenish :orslet, and delicate wings, laying 40 oat-like eggs, and leaping 50 feet. An army of them is an inevitable fore-runner of famine ; so immense sometimes as to reach 500 miles, so compact as to eclipse the sun, and the rushing of their wings is like the sound of a mighty cataractbeing audible six miles. In the work of destruction they make a noise like flame driven by the wind, and the effect ol their bite resembles that ol fire. From their pu-trifying carcasses arises pestilential death, which, in Italy in 591, carried off a million of men and beasts. They are sold as eatables in the bazaar of Bagdad. Languages ot* India. A work on the Geographical Distribution of the principal language of India, and the feasibility of introducing English as a common language, by the Hon. Sir Erskine Perry, late President ol the Supreme Court at Bombay, who has returned to England, alter a sojourn in India, of twelve years, has been lately issued in London. He is a profound Orientalist and a European scholar, and has visited the various nations he describes ; his views, moreover, are those of a statesman. India, through its whole extent, as now measured by geographers, contains in its computed population ol a hundred and forty millions, at least as many languages and nationalities as Europe. According to Sir Erskine. there are two great classes, the northern and southern; the first consists ol seven tongues and ten dialects; and the second of six languages without any dialects. The origin of each is curious and historically instructive. But the most remarkable portion of the essay, is the inquiry, whether the common medium oi intercourse amongst the educated minds of India, cannot be accomplishedand the English be rendered that medium. The author argues in the affirmative, with full knowledge and confidence, and the time may yet arrive when the English will be the common language of all America, Australia, the Isles ol the Pacific, and the whole East Indies. Graduating Machine. We have received three very neat small measure scales irom jvjuniiuei Hude, u( Westport, Mass., the divisions of which were laid out and executed by a machine invented by his father, Samuel Hodge, of Patterson, N. J. The machine will divide any given number of equal divisions in any given space, and make the lines of any degree of fineness. The machine appears to be a good and ingenious one.
This article was originally published with the title "Entomology"