The object of the device, of which the accompanying engravings are representations, is to furnish a hand barrow, superior to those generally in use, for mines, coal yards, railroad stations, gas works, founderies, farms, etc. It is capable i of turning very short corners, under perfect control, readily handled by one man, cannot be overturned by accident, and dumps its load easily. It has an additional advantage over the ordinary barrow in being shorter by the diameter of the wheel and the length of the barrow handles. Fig. 1 is the cart in position for receiving its load; Fig. 2 is the cart reversed for delivery. When loaded the weight is borne almost wholly by the axle which carries the two large wheels. The pivots on which the cart body turns in the net of dumping are directly over the small leading wheel which then receiv.es the weight. The load may be so adjusted that but a slight effort will be required to tilt it either way, to raise the front wheel in turning short corners done by bearing down on the handle at the rear or to deliver the load by lifting lightly on the handle. These barrows may be seen in use at the works of the Manhattan Gas Light Company, 18th street station, North River, and 14th street station, East River, New York city. Patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, March 16, 1869, by Wm. Farmer. For State and county rights, or further information, address Herring Floyd, 740 j Greenwich street, New York, or the patentee at the Manhat-tan Gas Works, 18th street, North River station, New York j city. i Sea Tunnels. ,Fnder-sea tunnels are attracting the attention of English en- i jfineers. In addition to the proj ected tunnel under the English Channel, between Dover and Calais, it is now proposed to unite Scotland and Ireland by a tunnel, running from a point on the north-east coast of Antrim, Ireland, to Glenstrone, Scotland, passing through the high rocky peninsula called the Mull of Cantyre. The total length of the tunnel is estimated at fourteen miles three furlongs. The ground through which it would have to be dtig, it is asserted, is exactly suited for tunnelling operations, and the sandstone for lining it can be had in any quantity on the Irish side. It is proposed to construct the tunnel for a single line only, the extreme depth being twenty-one feet, and the clear width at the level of the rails fifteen feet. Three lines of rails, to acconimodate wide and narrow gage carriages, however, are to be laid. The time estimated for completing the tunnel is about six years, and the cojjjst $21,250,000. To pay a dividend of five per cent, the road should earn $210 per mile per week. ------------------ a -------------------. Transmission of Power l y Hydraulic Pressure Sir William Armstrong, in a paper read before the Institu tion of Mechanical Engineers in England, states that he considered water in a pipe is preferable for many purposes to shafting, as it is perfectly controllable, and, being uniform in its action, communicates no shocks to the machinery. At present there about six thousand hydraulic machines in use in England, and it is in docks and establishments where there is much lifting, and loading and unloading to be done, that their use may best be seen. Twenty or more cranes may be working at once, unaffected by each other. At the docks at Goole, on the Humber, these hydraulic cranes lift barges containing thirty-two tuns of coal fairly out of the water, to a considerable hight, where they are made to tip their load all at once into a coal-ship lying alongside. Another use for hydraulic machinery is to feed blast-furnaces. These furnaces are now built so big and tall, that the labor of wheeling up the ore and fuel to the mouth would be too severe and costly. The hydraulic lift, when properly arranged, does it by the turning of a cock. By the same simple operation, large holes can be punched through thick solid iron. At Newcas-tle-on-Tyne, the water-supply, as it runs down one of the hill streets, flows through an engine, and prints a newspaper. In other parts of the same country, all the raising and lowering in the mines is done by water-power. Process for Rendering CasXcs impervious. The Cliemist and Druggist states that important result, which has long been aimed at, seems to have been most satisfactorily accomplished by the use of paraffine. Although introduced to the various trades interested only within the past month or two, a long course of experiments has been instituted, for the purpose of fully testing the efficiency of paraffine in rendering casks, vats, and, indeed, wooden vessels of every description, thoroughly impervious to air and moisture. The result of the investigation has been to establish fully the value of the process, which, we have no doubt, will shortly be generally adopted by brewers, wine-merchants, vinegar-makers, and others; while exporters, dealers, and consumers will all welcome a more perfect preservation of those liquids which are liable to fermentation, or become insipid by exposure to atmospheric influence. Many attempts have been made to secure these ends by means of soluble silicates, varnishes, etc., applied to the casks; but, from many causes, these have been, at best, but very partially successful. Paraffine, as most of our readers are aware, is a substance much resembling spermaceti in appearance, and possesses every requisite to fit it for the purpose required, while it also seems to be entirely free from all properties which would interfere with its service in this respect. The experiments which have been made with this substance in the preservation of meat, indicate its perfect power of preventing all contact of air, while its insolubility in water or spirit, its absence of taste and smell, and its freedom from all liability of cracking, give to paraffine a combination of advantages which can hardly be surpassed for the objects we now refer to. Paraffined casks, while retaining the safety and economy of wooden vessels, are in all respects of cleanliness and non-absorption, equal to glass. They wear longer, are much more readily cleansed, and preserve their contents in better condition than casks not so treated, and thus effect a considerable saving to firms who make use of them. We regard the process as one of considerable practical utility, as well as generally interesting. Descent of Olaciers. The Rev. Canon Mosely, in a paper published in the proceedings of the Koyal Society, comes to the conclusion, from mathematical calculation, that the weight of a glacier, together with the weight of any snow mass behind it, would not account for its peculiar descending motion at the slopes which are observed. The glacier moves not as a whole, but with different velocities in different parts. " It moves faster at its surface than deeper down, and at the centre of its surface than at the edges." Thus' it suffers constant disruption, and the parts are reunited by regelation, as Faraday explained. The displacement of particles one over the other in this motion is known in mechanics as sTiearing, and Mr. Mosely shows that the resistance to this movement is so great that the weight of the mass could notaccountfor its descent; and that some other force much greater, and producing internal molecular displacements, must come into play.
This article was originally published with the title "Farmer's Hand Dumping Barrow"