In the river bank of Zanesvjlle, Ohio, a fossil elephant has been discovered, the third ot the same species, in the same gravel bank within a few years past. It is in much better condition than the former two, and may, when completely exhumed, show almost the entire bones and frame of the huge monster, much beyond, perhaps, double the size of the living Asiatic or African elephant. The mo lar teeth, four in number, all that the species possess, were found in the jaws sound and unbroken, and two weigh twenty pounds each. The tusks were not in as good condition, one only being sound enough to bear moving.— This one eight feet in length, measures at its base, 26i inches in circumference, and at the point eight feet distant, where it is broken off, 184 inches in circumference, the whole length of which was probably 12 feet more. Well Sinking—Artesian Wells. (Continued from page 104 ) Figures 1, 2, and 3 represent a large shell; a a are two valves opening upwards to admit the bored material; this tool is employed in boring through sand or hard ground after it has been loosened by other tools. Figs. 4 and 5 show a small shell similar in principle, but somewhat differing in detail, there being but one valve and the edges ofthe shell cut square, instead of slanting. Both of these tools are worked with a compound of circular and ver tical motion. Figs. 6, 7 ,and 8 are dogs for suspendings the rods, to which are secured the boring tools. The latch, «, which opens 4 on • as a hinge, allows the projecting knob of a rod to enter, and when shut secures the same in its clutches ; the dogs can be suspend ed themselves by a rope. Various theories have been advanced for springs, and lower strata of water. There can be no doubt but all water deposits, how ever deep, are obtained and iurnished with water by percolation trom above, derived from rains ' or melted snows. These descend through porous strata, and are received into rocky chambers in hills and q)ountains, or are retained in sandt'and gravelly seams, which have a firm rocky or a clay bottom, which prevents the water from passing down fur- I A rni ther. In many situations there are boiling springs—that is,water boiling out of the ground with considerable force. This is an evidence of a pressure exerted on the water somewhere it must be by a column of water. the head of which is above that of the spring. Have any boiling springs ever been discevered except beneath some elevations 1 We know of none. In very dry weather, springs which depend for a supply from a niore elevated region, such as from neighboring hills, present unmistake- able evidence of their rainy origin, by often times drying up. This is sure to be the result in moderately elevated situations—in exten sive plains it is a standing fact. In Egypt, the land of no rain, are there any wells in situations where the water does not overspread and percolate through the earthy strata during inundations; if there be, and no mountains near or distant, that could send down an underground supply, then the strong est argument that could be produced against rain being the great source of springs, is thus presented. We have no pointed and particu lar information to clear up such a question. In those parts of the American continent where no rains fall, nothing but dreary wastes spread 'out in barren desolation. An opinion was advanced by Descartes, that the sea was the cause of springs, not rains. He asserted that it found its way into the bowels of the earth, and there, by central heat, was convert ed into steam, which escaped upwards and was condensed into water in the cold upper strata, and in that state was collected in in ternal reservoirs in the mountains, hills, and depths of the earth. This idea ol the cause of springs or fresh water being obtained in depths below the surface of the earth, has some plau sibility to recommend it, but not a single ex perimental fact, so far as we are aware. All wells which boil over the surface are Artesian in effect, whether bored or not; that is, the water is forced up by head pressure. In Williamsburgh, L. I., in the lowest part oj the city, these flowing springs have been ob tained by excavating a very inconsiderable distance. The supply, upon the principle set down, must depend upon percolation from a higher level, and as that elevation is built up on, and a great quantity of the water which falls is conducted into cisterns for domestic use, the supply for the springs below must de crease in proportion. The boring through strata by the tools.and machinery represent ed, is merely for the purpose of giving vent, like a valve, to the water-pressure exerted from a high column of water somewhere through the earth, like an inverted syphon. (To be continued.)
This article was originally published with the title "Fossil Remains"