GARDEN railways are now quite the vogue in England and their popularity is extending to other countries. The diminutive rolling stock and permanent way fall naturally into two groups, viz., those which are too small to be regarded as anything but elaborate toys, and those which possess suff-cient po,er and stability to accommodate passengers ic freight. An impor t ant -event tn. tile history of garden railway engineering was the standardization ; of, Sages. Nfcw'-d.a,s model railway work Is based upon ,ec-ognized standards - “which ^tfanriot be altered. Ther. are four siriall gages, ranging from 112 inches to*2% inches,” and' six large gages ra.ing f.om 311 inches to 15 inches; Models prOuced by leading firms accommodate themselves to one or other of these gages, while amateur workers, for their own convenience, adhere strictly to the same standards. In each gage a multiplicity of accessories made to scale, such as stations, signal-boxes, bridges and level crossings. are obtainable. The smallest gages of alI are specialIy suitable for indoor work, but the 31/!- and 31-inch gages are both popular where outdoor railways are concerned, each having its own circle of votaries. Several elaborate systems in the latter gage already exist, the most notable being the “Great Holmwood Railway,” at Thorp, Norwich, the property of Col. J. R. Harvey, by whose courtesy we are able to reproduce the accompanying photographs. A brief description of this system will give the reader an idea of the possibilities for pleasurable occupation which a garden railway offers. The main line is a' continuous single track, 350 feet long, which passes round a lawn. The permanent way is laid on a brick foundation, about three feet from the gravel walk, in order to obviate the necessity for stooping when attending to the models. Tbe curves are all 14 feet radius, and there are gradients of 1 in 40, 1 in 60, and 1 in 70, the remainder of the line being level. Including sidings, there are some 600 feet of track, the laying of which necessitated the 474 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN November 25, iyi I use of 7,200 chairs and 10,800 brass screws. There are three through loops, eight sidings, four principal stations, three bridges, two tunnels, an engine-shed and turn-table, and seven running-sheds, five being 18 feet long, and two 8 feet long. There are two pits for firing up, one having the rails hinged to drop for r:onvenience in getting at the burners of the locomotives, also a tank with distilled water supply, and a romplete system of signals, points, and footlights. A “third rail” has been laid down over the entire system, so that the whole line is available for electric traction. The permanent way was ballasted with “blue billy” obtained from the local gas works-a wise preeaution against the growth of weeds. All the bridges which span the garden paths are so constructed that they may easily be lifted up. The steam locomotives of the “Great Holm-wood Railway” comprise a four-wheel eoupled outside cylinder bogie tender engine, a four-wheel coupled bogie ten-wheel tank-engine with outside cylinders, a four-wheel coupled inside cylindAr tank-engine, and a four-wheel shunting engine. The electric models comprise a tube locomotive fitted with a speeial design of motor by Messrs. Marshall&Wood, a four-wheel coupled tank·engine fitted with an Avery motor, and a Great Northern Railway single express engine, equipped with a motor in the tender as well as in the engine. The rolling-stock includes some forty odd vehicles, ranging from a platelayers' trolley to a mail coach and sleeping and dining saloons. There are open trucks, closed trueks, crane trucks, tipping contractors' wagons, goods and passenger “brakes,” ,'ith types of various other vehicles, all being fitted with pentral buffers, which are never found to interlock when the train is passing round curves. A speed of eight miles an hour has been attained on a measured length of this railway, while the locomotives are capable of pulling with ease a train of thirteen coaches. Another noteworthy railway is the property of Mr. G. S. Mitchell, of Sheffield. It has a gage of 71 inches, while the “inner circle” is laid also with a 3l-inch gage track to accommodate the owner's smaller models. The length of the main line is 439 feet, of the inner line 330 feet, while there is also a connecting line of 62 feet, and an engine-shed line of 110 feet. Upon leaving the shed, the locomotive passes down a steep gradient into a cutting four feet deep, from which over 100 cartloads of earth were removed. It then enters the 2,-yard-Iong tunnel, which is the chief engineering feature of the line, built, as it is, of brick throughout, on proper drums, with 14·inch side-walls and arch bricks for roof. The tunnel is properly drained, and the bank through which it passes consists of about 200 tons of earth. The line emerges near “South Junction,” the branch for the “inner circle,” which passes round an ornamental lake. A very perfect system of signalling has been instituted. Sixteem signals are in use, and all of them are duly lighted when the line is used after dark. There is a properly-equipped signal-box, and by obeying the ordinary laws of signalling and by codes of flag·signals-red and green lamps at night-and engine whistles, the safe control of the line may be achieved without the interchange of a word between driver and signalman. Mr. Mitchell's locomotives comprise a 3%-inch gage tank-engine, a 31/2-inch gage Great Northern Railway model, also a 71/4-inch gage “Precursor” locomotive, built from designs by Mr. Greenly. All the engines are fired with a mixture of three parts coke and one part anthracite coal. The rolling-stock includes a large double bogie wagon and a ballast truck, as well as a 3l-inch gage driving truck, with water and coal space, for use with the small locomotives. A few enthusiasts, with the necessary space and cash at their disposal favor the 9l-inch gage, with models made to a scale of 2 inches to the foot, that is, one·sixth full size. A photograph showing such an engine undergoing its “works test” is here reproduced. It is a scale model of the Great Northern Railway “Atlantic” locomotive No. 1442, which hauls the Royal train. When in full working trim, the model-the boiler of which is made of copper throughout, and fred wiith ordinary coal-weighs 950 pounds. In favorable circumstances it will pull a load of two tons, and travel at a speed of seventeen miles an hour. It may interest the reader to kno w that the cost of such a model, capable of pulling himself and his friends in specially·designed passenger trucks, would be about £300. The so-called light railways, with a gage of 15 inches, accommodate models built to a scale of three inches to the foot. When space permits, and when the additional cost is not a barrier, this gage will certainly be found to constitute, in practice, the ideal for a garden railway. This was the gage employed by Sir Percival Heywood when he constructed the famous “baby” railway an the Duke of Westminster's estate, at Eaton Hall in Cheshire. Roughly speaking the line cost about $6,500 per mile to construct, exclusive of the various buildings and other paraphernalia. It connects Eaton Hall with Balderton Siding, on the Great Western main line, some four and a half miles , distant, and is almost exclusively used for freight, though the rOlling·stock includes one passenger coach-an eight-wheeled carriage capable of accommodating sixteen persons-in which visitors to the Hall, including Royalty, occasionally travel. The trains on this railway carry, on an average, some 6,000 tons each year, and travel from 4,000 to 5,000 miles. The original locomotive of the Eaton Hall Railway is known as “Katie.” Her cost was £400, and she was designed and constructed by Sir Percival Heywood. More recently a locomotive of the “Atlantic” type, appropriately called the “Little Giant,” was tried on the line. This engine was constructed by Messrs. Bassett-Lowke, and proved capable of hauling 12 tons on a level at four miles per hour, and five tons at 15 miles per hour up gradients of 1 in 100. With 2% tons behind it on a falling gradient, it attained the enormous* speed of 26l miles per hour, equal to a scale speed of more than 100 miles per hour. In matters of detail, this engine and its duplicates represent the high· water mark of model engineering. The Eaton Hall Railway is not, of course, required to prove itself fnancially profitable; but the 15-inch gage is being exploited commercially at the present time. In November, 1904, a limited company, styled the Miniature Railways of Great Britain, was formed to operate tiny passenger systems. The first of these railways was built on the south shore at Blackpool. It met with immediate success, and has since been followed by similar railways in Sutton Coldfield Park. November 25 , 1 9 1 1 SCIENTIFIC AMERICA 475 near Birmingham, the International Exhibition at Nancy, in France, and the Shepherd's Bush Exhibition in London. More recently the company has laid down miniature railways in the Zoological Gardens and Park near Halifax, and in the grounds of the International Exhibition at Brussels. Among other notable garden railways is that laid down by the Rev. J. E. Preston in his vicarage garden at Julianstown, Drog-heda, Ireland. Mr. Preston has made with his own hands the sleepers, locomotives, carriages, points, and signals. He also prints and issues his own tickets The gage of the railway is 1 foot 9 inches, and consists of about five tons of rails, 14 pounds to the yard. Though “miniature,” it is large enough to carry its constructor and his friends round the grounds. Apart from the successes which these miniature railways have scored at pleasure resorts, no reasonable doubt can be entertained that, where land is available, they would prove equally profitable for the conveyance of passengers and goods from railway stations to outlying districts. Permanent way materials, which include steel rails-weighing 12 pounds to the yard- fxed to steel corrugated sleepers by tips and dogs, all necessary fish-plates, bolts, nuts, etc., including bending, and four sets of switches, would cost in the neighborhood of $1,800 per mile. To this must be added the cost of construction wlhich would vary according to the nature of the land over which the railway was laid. The approximate cost of an “Atlantic” type locomotive would be about $1,600. It remains to be said that the photographs reproduced on these pages give a genuine idea of the power possessed by these diminutive locomotives. Science Disastrous Typhoon in Formosa.—'Consular reports state that the worst typhoon experienced in Formosa for ffteen years swept over the island on August 31st. In the city of Taihoku, alone, over 2,000 houses were completely wrecked, ffty-eight people were killed outright, and twenty-nine others lost their lives in a railway bridge accident. The sugar-cane crop of the island was injured to the extent of 20 per cent, and the rice crop 15 per cent. Ventilation as a Protection Against Frost.-To the long list of the means heretofore proposed of protecting felds, orchards and vineyards against frost a new one has recently been added by M. F. Chavernac. Writing in Progrcs agricole et viticole, he points out the fact that frosts are not feared when the wind blows; he is thus led to suggest the creation of an artifcial wind by the installation of electric fans among the plants to be protected. He considers this plan applicable chiefy to vineyards, but also possibly useful in orchards. Sugar from the Nipa Tree.-According to Dr. H. D. Gibbs, of the Philippine Bureau of Science, the nipa tree-already so useful to the Philippines and the East Indies generally as a source of thatching, matting, cigarette wrappers, toddy, and an edible fruit-promises to revolutionize the sugar industry of the islands, as its sap yields a sugar of superior quality. Samples tested in his laboratory polarized at 96,8 per cent, a gain of 8 per cent over the highest quality now exported from the Philippines. While sugar made from palm trees (of several species) is no novelty, the product has heretofore been unimportant in the world's Iarkets. Agricultural Education in Korea.-One example of the enlightened policy of the Japanese in dealing with their new possession, Korea (now ofcially called Chosen), is seen in the great progress of agricultural education in that country. Since 1906 the authorities have established thirteen agricultural schools and ffteen model experimental farms, the oldest and most important being the station at Suwon (Suigen), which is excellently equipped and managed, and comparps favorably with some of the best institutions of this character in the United States. From this school there are 98 graduates who have taken the full three years' course, while 37 students have taken special shorter courses. A Spanish Polar E x peditio n. -Several recent occurrences in Spain have betokened an awakening, in that country, of interest in scientifc matters. Accordingly we are not surprised to hear that the Spaniards are planning an arctic expedition. The project was submitted to a recent m.,eting of the Royal Geographic Society of Madlid by F. J. Gisbert, who has had some experience in polar exploration, and a committee has been appointed to raise the necessary funds, which it is estimated will amount to $125,000. Senor Gisbert proposes to drift for three years in a trans-polar current-a la Nansen-starting from a point north of the Alaska coast, in 160 deg. west longitude, whence he expects to reach the Greenland Sea. Side trips are to made on sleds, in order that exploration may cover a zone of 100 miles on either side of the ship's position. The City of Dairen, formerly called Dalny, is said to be the most up-to-date town in Manchuria. H{re the Japanese are spending large sums annually on street, sewer and lighting improvements. Good hotels are maintained by the South Manchuria Railway (which is a semi-ofcial organization). This line now runs express trains four times a week to connect with the trains of the Siberian Railway; they are unsurpassed in the Far East, being equipped with Pullman coaches, dining cars, and sleepers. The railway also operates a twice-a-week steamer service to Shanghai. The wharves of Dairen are said to be the fnest in the Far East, vessels drawing up to 28 feet being moored alongside the quay.. The port is open the year round, as the ice that forms in the bay is never thick enough to interfere with navigation, During the year 1910 1,369 steamers entered this port with cargo, and 487 in ballast, their tonnage aggregating 1,637,719. Electricity Wireless Telegraphy in the South Seas.—Wellington, New Zealand, will soon have one of the most powerful wireless telegraph stations in the world, with a radius of action of 1,000 miles. The government of New Zealand also intends to establish medium-power stations at the Chatham islands, a small group 600 miles southeast of Wellington, and at Raratonga, in the Cook group. As the latter will be able to communicate with Tonga, New Zealand will be within reach of Fiji. Fender Chains fer Panama Canal Locks.—In order to pro ted the gates of the Panama Canal locks, heavy chains are to be stretched across the lock chambers to receive the impact of vessels which get beyond control. These chains will be raised and lowered into grooves in the masonry by means of hydraulic mechanism. The hydraulic system will be controlled oj solenoid valves, which will admit the water pressure to the cylinders. By using valves of this character, the chains may be controlled electrically from any desired central point Motor Trucks Need No Rest.-In a paper read before the Electric Vehicle Association of America, Mr. Hayden E'ames called attention to the fact that horse-drawn vehicles must remain idle for a certain portion of the day in order to rest the horses. A recent investigation showed that the teams of the different express companies in New York city were idle forty per cent of the total working hours, much of this idleness being due to the fact that the horses needed rest, and that the periods of loading the wagons had to be suited to these rest hours. The motor vehicle on the other hand requires no rest, and hence re quires no adjustment of the loading hours. Electrically-cured Meat.-Some time ago we described in these columns an electrical method of curing hams, which was discovered by a Cincinnati packer. He found that by introducing an alternating current through the pickling brine the hams could be cured in from 30 to 35 days, as against 90 to 100 of the ordinary method. A large plant in Cleve:and, Ohio, is now curing meat by this process. Ten 5,000-pound vats are in service. The current is furnished by a 100-kilowatt generating plant. The plant generates direct current for dse in various capacities, and a portion of it is converted into alternating current by means of a rotary converter, to provide the energy used in the curing vats. Resistance of Silicon at Various Temperatures.- Writing in the Physical Review, A. A Somerville points to the fact that the resistance of the majority of metals increases steadily with the temperature up to their melting point, at which point there is a very sudden rise in resistance. Silicon, however, ads very diferently. From zero to 350 deg. Cent. the resistance decreases gradually, and above this point, up to 50! degrees, it increases, reaching a value neaTly equal to that of 'rdinary temperatures. Above 500 degrees the resish!nce rapidly decreases again. This curious phenomenon was observed in a large number of tests, showing that the result was not due to any peculiarity in a particular specimen, but was a property common to silicon. Electrically-driven Road Roller. -A contractor in Independence, Kan., has had an electric road roller constructed for his use. The road roller is driven by a 10-horse-power motor, which obtains its energy through a fexible cable, 160 feet in length, connected to a transformer mounted on wheels. This in turn is connected with the supply system of the neighborhood, obtaining current at a voltage of 2,300 and slipping it down to 220 for use in the motor of the road roller. These fexible cables give the road roller sufcient radius of action for ordinary purposes, but when it is necessary to operate at a considerable distance from the only available transmission line, a temporary power transmission line is constructed very quickly. The cost of operating this roller in connection with the laying of brick pavements has been $6 per block. This amount covers the process of rolling the ground before and after the bed of crushed rock has been applied to it, and then rolling the brick after it has been laid upon the rock bed. The motor-driven roller weighs altogether 15,000 pounds. Aeronautics A Powerful Two-motor Monoplane . Some months ago, in competition for the Gould-SCIEN'FIC AMERICAN prize, the Queen Aeroplane Co. produced a twin-motor monoplane ftted with two 50-horse-power Gnome motors. Piloted by Arthur Stone, this machine flew at Nassau Boulevard, but came to grief at the frst turn. Short Bros., in England, recently built a two-motor biplane having the same equipment as the monoplane just mentioned, but it remained for a French engineer, M. Legrand, to bring out a biplane racer with two 100-horse-power Gnome motors. This machine was fown successfully by Camille Guillame at Juvisy on October 20th last. The Coanda biplane which participated in the military contest recently also had two motors and a bevel gear drive to the propellers. Rodgers Has a Bad Fall in California. -'rans-eontinental aviator C. P. Rodgers, after a week's rest at Pasadena, attempted to fy the remaining 2: miles of his journey on the 12th inst., and to land at Long Beach. He had gone but a few miles when he was forced to alight at Cobina Junction because of engine trouble. After making temporary repairs he few on again as far as Compton, where, 1 11 making a forced descent, he fell 100 feet, sustaining concussion of the brain, severely sprained ankles, and internal injuries. Rodgers' mind was a blank for thirty hours. He has since explained his fall as a result of sleepiness which overcame him when fying at a height of 1,000 feet. He attempted to descend, but when 100 feet from the ground became unconscious and lost control of the machine. Test of Vardman's Airship “ Akron. “-After a considerable de!ay, the frst test fight of the “Akron” took place at Atlantic City on November 4th. Manned by her full crew of fve, the airship maneuvered for more than an hour above the inlet at Atlantic City. A strong breeze arose, and the airship was progressing against it splendidly when Vaniman fell across the rubber hose connecting the motor with the radiator and broke it. Knowing that the motor was about to stop, Vaniman steered his vessel down he, on into the shallow water covering a mud fat. Not until the tide rose were the motor boats able to rescue the disabled airship. A 70-mile gale on the 12th inst. damaged the “Akron's” shed, but the craft itself was not injured. Vaniman has given up the idea of making the trip this year. Recent Aeronautic Fatalities.-By a strange coincidence of fate a parachute·jumper, a celebrated balloonist, and a well-known aviator met their deaths within a few days in widely d1versifed ways. When he cut loose from his balloon 3,000 feet in the air at Guthrie, Okla., on November 10th Samuel Hellar's trapeze bar broke. He managed to hang on until within 200 feet of the earth, when he fell and was killed. Edgar W. Mix, the American electrical engineer and balloonist, who won thfl Bennett Cup raCf in 1909, committed suicide by jumping overboard from a channel steamer on the 12th inst. Herr Pletschker, a well-known German pilot of the “Albatross” biplane, fell to his death at JohannisthaJ, near Berlin, on November 15th. His neck was broken. Robinson's Flight Down the Mississippi. -After a week's delay owing to stormy weather, Hugh Robinson, with his Curtiss hydro-aeroplane, ascended from the surface of Lake Calhoun at Minneapolis on the 17th ult., and started on his propOSed fight to New Orleans. With the wind behind him, he few no miles to Winona, Minn., in 1:28, or at the rate of 8) miles an hour, where he landed in the Mississippi river. In landing he struck a snag and damaged hil hydroplane float. On October 19th he covered 91 miles in 83 minutes--an average speea of 6F% miles an hour. His flight down the river was terminated at Rock Island, Ill., the next day, as the diferent cities which had given him guarantees withrlrew them when they found he would probably make the fight without. He set a new record in that he carried mail for over 300 miles and collected and dropped of letters at the various towns at which he stopped, His fight is the longest ever aecomplished with a hydro-aeroplane.