THE Swiss Federal Railways have recently added to their rolling stock several hospital cars, which are intended for the conveyance of sick and invalid travelers, and whose equipment represents the most modern development in this direction .. The cars are placed at the service of private parties, and being intended especially for long journeys, they are fitted out with all the technical equipment to adapt them for travel over the various European railway systems. The hospital ,ear is built as a four-axle corridor carriage with two bogies, its length between buffers being 63% feet and its total weight in working order 41” tons. Not only is it fitted to travel on all standard-gage railway lines of the Continent, but it is designed also for transfer on the Scandinavian and Sicilian ferry-boats. In addition to the brakes ordinarily in use on Swiss railway lines namely, an automatical Westinghouse emergency brake with a braking cylinder of 8,800 pounds normal piston pressure, combined with a Westinghouse regulating brake there is provided a Hardy switching vacuum emergency brake with two cylinders of 3,080 pounds lighting power each which are designed for automatic working as well as for direct manipulation. As French railways still use emergency chains for safety couplings-the hose couplings of the two Westinghouse brakes being located between the chains -three pairs of Westinghouse braking hose had to be arranged at each end of the wagon. The brake can also be controlled by means of a hand-wheel from each platform. In each compartment in the car and also in the passage, there is a safety brake, with one handle for actuating both the automatic Westinghouse brake with the Signaling whistle and the electrical interconnection signal of the Paris-Orleans Railway 01 the automatical Hardy brake. In addition each wagon is fitted with the Prud-homme electrical inter-connection signal of the French' and Belgian Northern Railways, the alarm bell line of German D-trains and th\ holders for the alarm cord prescribed by Austrian railways, Ten signal holders of different designs had to be put in so as to comply with the special regulations of each of the railways on which the car is intended to. travel. , The car is heated by steam circulating in smooth tube radiators with Wilhelm regulators in general use on the Swiss Federal Railways. In order to insure a satisfactory gradation of heat, a radiator with Jenkins's regulating valve is provided in the Sick-room, A hot air heating installation on the Pape-May system serves to heat up the car when stalled or before starting or wnen traveling' Jines not equipped with steam heating. All the various compartments of the car are electrically lighted on the Brown, Boved&Co, system the total candle-power being 272. The dynamo driven through belt transmission from one Q1f the car axles in conjunction with eight accumulator batteries of 1,600 watt-hours each, also supplies ele<trical energy for various apparatus with which the cir is equipped. The'sick-rooJ, .hich is located in the middle of the carriage, and .the adjoin ing .lavatory, are ftted up aseptically in 1he same manner as up:t,oitte hospital rooms,'"-ill the 'Yalls, ceilings and foors, as well 1S the furniture: being readily washed ard '.disinfected;. while all the angles of the, walls and ceiling arc rounded off and any joints covired (ver with smooth nickel-plated metal rods, The walls and ceilings are painted with white enamel and simple decorative patterns. Extensive use has been made of glass, porcelain, marble and nickel-plated metal. The floors are lined with inlaid linoleum, The sick-room contains a good bed with iron frame and steel mattress and a removable nickel-plated lifting device. The horse-hair mattresses are made in three parts to facilitate disinfection;' ' chest of drawers fitted into the wall contains several changes of bed linen. The sick-room further cont a ins a bed-table with adjustable plate, and iron cabinet, with marble plate and enameled case, an upholstered easy chair with iron frame and washable leather lining, and a divan also coated with wash8ible leather, the hinging back of which can be used as emergency bed, after covering it with horse-hair mattresses. In addition to a drop-light, tnere is provided a portab'e electrical wall and table lamp whose light can be cut off by means of an inclosing shade. An electrical heating pan serves to heat the bed. There is, of course, the usual electric bep call, for the nurse, and a wall fan for ventilation. The sick-room is accessible from out- The sick-room of the hospital car. CARRYING THE SICK BY RAIL side through broad folding doors in the side-walls, through which the invalid can be brought in on a stretcher or Sedan chair. AdjOining the sick-room are the quarters for the attending physician 9r nurse. The furnishings here inc t de sleepiqg ,accommodation, and an upholstered se at c6ated with washable leather; f urt her a folding table .and ,a metal and plate glass cabinet for medicines ' surgical instruments dressing, etc. A first-class compartment for the patient's relatives or friends is attached, this also being equipped as a “s,!eeper." The seats are lined with bright gray cloth to match the carpet. All metal 'arts throughout the carriage are. nickel-plated. The kitchen is equipped with an ice-box for food and drink and to store ice for medical use; there is a marble topped table and a fire-clay sink on nickel brackets wIh self-locking water faucet. Under the ldtchen table there Is a small chest of drawers for polishing utensils and on top of the Ice b(x a crockery cabinet in which the kitchm linen is abo kep:. The kitchen is operated electrically, its arrangements comprising two quick-acting radiators with C:udan suspension and a roasting pan. Both the wall and ceiling are lined viith sheet-iron and painted with bright enamel. Over the kitchen as well as the lavatory are arranged water tanls of tl;med copper plate, containing a total of about 1,000 liters of water, ttus providing an ample water supply. These water tanl(s can be fed directly from the roof or from underneath through a pressure conduit. The baggage compartment can be heated and contains a folding bench for domestics, A special lavatory is provided for general use. The passage a'so contains an upholstered hinging sent for domestics. All the sliding doors of the carriage run cn ball-bearings. Four carriages of this type, constructed by the Schweizerische lndustrie-Gesellschaft of Neuhausen, have so far been placed on the tracks. The Completion of Hann's “CHmatology “ H OFRATH Prof. Dr,d Julius von Hann, the venerable an : vener ated Aus-trian meteorologist, has just published the third and final volun:e of a revised and greatly enlarged edition of hi5 “Handbuch der- KEmatolcgie:' The frst edition appeared in 1883, the second in 1897, and the first volume of the third edition, just completed, in 1908. Although dealing with a subject of universal interest, viz., the climates of all parts of the world, this work has for many years enjoyed the position of being sui generis. Since the appearance of Voeikov's “ “Klimate” der Erde,” in 1887, no other work discussing this subject in detail has appeared, in any language. The climatologists of the world appear to have recognized that Hann was better able than any one else' to handle the subject adequately, and hnve left him the undisputed master of the field. His manner is encyclop8dic. Reading omnivorollsly. and writing with nnflagging industry in sp'tc 01' advanc:ng years, he has produced a digest of nearly all the' existing literature of climatology and climatography; a fitting companion-piece of his “Lehrbuch der Meteorologie” published in 1901, and in a more condensed form in 1906, The “Klimatolo-gie,” like the “Meteorologie,” is, however, more th:1n a digest; it is al20 an indispensable bibliography, as it contains thollsanc s of references to the literature on which it is based, Moreover, these references are not confined to scie:Jtific literature; popular boo1:s of travel, for example, have been laid under heavy contribution. An English version of Hann's unique work is sorely needed. In 1,903 Prof. Ward, of Harvard, published an admirable translation of the first volume of the second edition; rut this deals only with climatology in general, not with the c!i:ates cf particular countries. Niagara and Victorna TITHAT is the true :parison bt;:en the power Africa? «*£*** ,. ™Ori. »” ,. so»» The answe'” is that the flow at Niagara varies b2tween 62,000,000 and 104.000,000 gallons per minute; that at Victoria is as low is about 5,000,000 gallons in August. The mean aVaila'e drop at Niagara is 160 feet and at Victoria 380 feet. Hence, while the minimum Niagara flow repreSEnts about 3,000,000 horse-power, the Victoria flow in August represents only 580.000 horse-power, and, accepting the statecents of local authorities that in November the flow at Victoria drops to only 2,500,000 gallons per minute, the ninl-mum hor se·power there can be o.nly about on e-ten th of Niagara's minimum. The ma::lmum of V:·:tOl'ia il not given,
This article was originally published with the title "Hospital Cars of the Swiss Federal Railways"