Shoe-pegs were invented in 1818, by Joseph Walker, of Hopkinton, Massachusetts. At least tho invention is attributed to him, though the evidence upon which this opinion is based is not to geather satisfactory. A shoe.peg is a little ufftir, but its invcntiou wa.s hy no means an unimportant eveut. It worked perhaps as great a revolution in a most important branch of industry as was ever efi'ected by a single device. Before its introduction the soles of ai l boots and shoes were attached to th! nppers b.v sewing; now, nearly nine y per cent of all tlie hoots and shoes manufactured are IleggOO. It has given birth I.lso to numerous other important inventions; pegging awls of improved form, rasps for cutting o3' the linris of tho pegs inside tho boot, pegging machines, which will peg on II sole almost before one can think about it, maehincs for cutt'mg, polishing, and bleaehing peg'!, etc., etc. h is within the memory of the writer that shoe-pegl were made by hand, The timber from which they were made was sawed into bloeks across tlw graln, of such a thickuess as would, whcii tlie block was split into pegs, make them of the right lengtli. Slabs. or bolts, tliin as the body ot the pegs wanted, were thclI s^>lit off by the use of long thin knife nnd a hammer; the.kiife .beinglike the instrument called a ' frOIo” by coopers and sliingle maker:s. The bolt or slab was next bevcli d on both sides of one edge. 'The slab thus prepared was next split into pegs one by one. Of course sucli a rnde method as this was destined to be snpplanted by a far more rapid aud perfeet one, and there is probably no article so well made and finished that is sold clicaperthan the modern shoe-peg. It is worthy of rcmark that tho samo principles are applied to their manufadul'e by the best ntoilom machinery, Ils were adopted in the hand method. The wood must he of some hard, closc.grained variety. which Eplits ensily. Hai'd maple ami l;irch are tlje favorite woods for this purpose ; birch, however, is, wo believe, the sboe^peg timber par Thc wood is cut into lengths of noont eight feet, lIud is sold by the cord, Itt throo or foiy times t-lio iirice ot the Mile kinds of timber cut into fiire.wood. The logs are received at the factory in the green state, and are worked up as wanted. The first operation is peeling oil' the bark, an ud:«3 being employed for this purpose. Tho logs aro next sawed into blocks across the grain, a little thicker than the length of “ peg. These blocks are placed on a planing machine aud the side which is intended for tile heads of the pegs is planed smooth. Tho blocks are now ready to be grooved. This is done very rapidly by 11 machine in which a cutting tool reciprocates rapidly across the face of the hlock, the block being at proper intervals of time carried along by feed rollers. After the Mocks have been grooved one way, they are agaiu grooved at right angles to the first grooves, aud both sets of grooves being V-sht:ped, the surf aces of tho blocks on onc side, now present II regular succession of quadrangular pyrs. mids, which are tlie points of the yet embryo pcgij. The next operation is splitting, which is done on machines operating very rapidly and with great preeision. The splitting knives on these lIluchines II.ro pivoted at one end,1\\id the ether end is madeto play rapidly up and down, the me- tion being similar to that of a shearshlado for trimming slieet iron. The pivoted cnd may bo raised or lowered so that the kniit; may only enter tlie wood 3S )ar as required, the object. being to not split tho pegs entirely apart, but to have tht m liang together at the heads. The blocks are fed to tit” splitting' knivos by fluted rollers, th' flutes of which f t the grooves in the blocks made by tho grooving machines. The blocks ;ire fed in with the planed side downward, nnd the splitting knife at cacli stroke enters tlio >:ood at tlie bottom of the V-shaped grooves with great iiceuracy. Thus tho splitting is done from the points towards the heads of tlio pcgs. When the block halt passl'(l through the splitting” m!l. cuine once, it is turned and fed through again at right angles tn the direction in which it was first fed through, and after this opcration the pet's are very nearly split opart, but they still hang together somewhat like 11. Bunch of split lucifer matches. The objoct of keeping them titus together is to enable them to be fed to the machines in amass. After the second feeding tin) block is forcibly thrown off the table of the spiitting mr.cuiiio 011 to the lioor, an! the pegs fall asundtjr. '1'ltc at this stoge nrc of different colors, some- whs.t rough on their sides, unseasoned and dusty. They are therefore dried it. a tumbler heated by steam pipcs, Vdcached with sulbhur fumes till thcy assume a uniform white color. run through a fanning mill to free them from dusl, nnd fnal- ly packed for market. The extent of tliis manufacture is much greater than would seem ul106!ibie to most j eoplu. It would seem at first, that if all the people in tlie world were shoemakel'!l, they niust overstocked with pegs. There ^ numerous Jactoj-ies in the Kastern Stales turning oiit from fifty to one hnudre.d busliels Ji.nd upmrd of shoe-pegs per day, stud still the ile. muml keeps up. Anything' in universal demand even if individ- nally the demand is small, must foot up large in tho aggrs- g'ato for thecivilized, world. Tlie New Englaud States manufacture the greater part of all tho shoe-pcgs raed, Germany, we arc irtformed. hciug one of the best customei,j. 'l'he Russian SixiiosHIon. We notice tliat n. resolution was unanimously adoptod by the Louisville Convention requesting Kx-Prcsideut Fillmore to appoint ll. delegation of six pt rsonsto attend the Russian Exposition in 1870, theso Commissioners to tako charge of all specimens that exhibitol'l in the United States may d esire to send, and they are specially instrncted to procuro thousands of samples of cotton from various States. The papers containing the report of this proceeding add that the suggestion came from Europe, and that a hundred thousand American specimens are asked for, to sliow the importance and tLe diversity of production in our country. A letter from Buon Osten Sacken, Consulate General of Russia to the United States, published in anothcr column, states that the Exposition is intended only for tho display of Russian products. \Ve invite attention to this letter, Before the Commis.sioners are appointed by tlio venerable Ex-Presi-' dent, it might 00 well to first; find out if thcy »ir” wanted. Letter Irom Dr. 1,tviii::;s«oiie. There can uo longer be any reiisor able doubt of the salciy of Dr. Livingstonc, and thcre cau be no doubt either. that if his life ;s spared to narrate tlie incidents of his last great tour in Africa, it will prove a most remaikaliie narration. The extracts front a letter ,'If Dr. Livingstoue, seiit I>y Dr. Kirk from Zauzibar to Sir Roderick Murchison, co.-naiu tho following information ; "Di. Livingstone hud traced 'I chain of lakes, connected by rivers, from the tracts south of tlie Lake Tanganyika to south latitude 10 degreento 12 degrees, and he conjt'ctmIII:! that these numerous connected lakes and rivers lire tlie ultimate southern sources of tlie Nile. “'hen he wrote he was about to travel nortlnvAVds to Ujiji, on th I eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, wh'erc he cxpccted to find some infomn. tion from home, of whieli lie had bccn cntirely depn'vcd for two ycars, as well as to receive provisions nnd assistnnce.” . OUI5 predict ions in regard to the effect of high-heelcd shoes upon kmn!o health have been verified. A French physician states that this lashion “ has produced distinct discases not only of the distorted loot, but of the body. As t to frame is thrown pernaneit ly into an unnatural position, itthe spine, and ns it. is l' question of balancing, nervous irritation sometimes occurs. Yonsce by lhe expression of the face how much a woman s^ors who has walked about or even stood in high.heeledi boots, Besides,, weliaveaccidfiiots from falls very frequently." Tartaric and Citric Acids. Tartaric acid,when pure, is in'colorless, inodorous, very sour crystals. It is soluble in two parts of water, and also in alcohol. The watery solution has no smell, is perfectly limpid, and is very acid. The speciiic gravity is 1'59 and 1'75. Heated on a piece of motal over thc flame of a lamp, it swells up, emits a very peculiar smell, and leaves a porous coal. The solution exposed to the air very soon mildews on the surface and turns to vinegar. The composition of pure anhydrous tartaric acid is; Carbon, 3(l'4.0 ; hydrogen, 3'02 ; oxygen, GO'58 parts in one hundred, but tho crystals always contain 11'84 per cent of water. Tartaric acid is manufactured from cream of tartar (bitar- trate of pelassa), which latter, as we have stated in a previous article, contains 70'18 per ceut of this add. The mode of its preparation is fully described in all recent works on chemistry applied to the arts awl manufactures. It is frequently adulterated by admixtures of cream of tartar, bisulphate ofpotassa or lime. These are readily detected follows; 1.The acid, if pure, dissolves without leaving the slightest sediment. 2.Alcohol must dissolve the whole/of the crystals, leaving no undissolved portion. 3.After calcination, lime can be detected in the ash ljy its effervescing if a drop of any strong acid be allowed to fall on it. 4.Sulphuroted hydrogen, sulphate of lime solution, or chloride of barium introduced into a solution of pure tartaric acid, will cause neither cloudiness, change of color, nor deposit. The uses of tartaric acid are many, large quantities being annually consumed in the manufacture d lemonades, soda wafers, and other sparkling drinks, “where it replaces advantageously the more expensive “ citric “ acid. It is also much employed by calico dyers as a special mordant. In conclusion we wiJI only mention that tartaric acid. combines with some other substances, forming what arc called “ tartrates “ and “ bi-tartrates,” many of which are valuable in the arts or in the practice of medicine: Tartaric acid itself, finds a place in the phamacopreia. Citric acid is found in the juices of many plants, hut in none is it mora plentiful than in the fruit of the lemon and its allies. In a pure state it forms transparent, scentless, rhombic crystals, which do nd alter by exposure, and have a very acid flavor. The specific gravity is Ui17. It is soluble both in water and alcohol. Dry heat soon destroys it. Citric acid is largely used in bleaching establishments and laundries for removing rust, and ink stains, and by the dyer for intensifying m any red colors. The best class of artificial lemonades and sparkling acidulated drinks and powdors are made from it. Accidental impurities arc, sulphuric acid anc salts of lead ; they arc not, however, of frequent occurrence. The “ trade” adulterations me with oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and occasionally sulphate of lime. 'Tartaric acid and oxalic acid, from their low prices and somewhat similar aspect and flavor, aro generally found mixed in proportions varying from 30 to 80 per cent with the commercial citric acid. For the detection of this adulteration, dissolve your sample in water and add gradually, stirring all the while, a solution of sulphate or carbonate of potash. If the citric acid be pure, no deposit whatever will show itself, but if it contain either tartaric or oxalic acids, a white crystalline precipitate oftartrate or oxalate of potash will fall to the bottom and tell the tale at once. Citric acid is manufactured from tho juice of lemons, limes, citrons, and other similar fruits. Lemon juice is frequently brought to market in barrels or in bottles from the warm countries where the tree prospers. It is used in its natural state for many domestic purposes, and also by the dyer in his profession.^ Lemon juice must be carefully clarified, as Jy neglect of this operation it 'will be sure to undergo fermentation and to acquire a very unpleasant odor and disagreeable taste. It is often largely adulterated by the addition of wafer, besides which, vinegar, sour grape juice, citric acid, muriatic acid or tartaric acid, and sometimes several of these combined, arc not unfrequcutly added to it. The detection of these admixtures needs the practical science of the analytical chemist.—IVswi IV/'k Mercantile Journal. Slyacintli Culture, Many of our readers just now will be thinking of growing that beautiful winter flower, the hyacinth. A few hints given by a correspondent of the Journal of Horticulture may prevent failure, and consequent disappointment, in not a few cases. He says; ” I annually grow about eighteen hyacinths in glasses, and inVa.ria'oly place them all in water at the same time. I have tried difierent times in the hope of insuring a succession of bloom, but it has happened that those placed latest in the glass were among the first. to bloon. I have also ceased to put the bulbs in the water so early as 1: used, and now do not think of putting them in till tlie middle or end of October. Fresh rain water is to be preferred, and the glass should be so filled that the water only j est touches the base of the bulb. Kain water should not be employed unless it is quite fresh, or otherwise it,, soon becomes pur rid , and causes the roots of the bulbs to decay. If there is DO alternative but to employ hard water, if it can be exposed to the action of the sua or external air for a time, so much the better. "My experience has taught mo that hard water used directly “fter it. is taken hom the well is apt to cause the roots to be come a mass of pulp, highly offensive, and fatal in its effects. Two or three lumps of charcoal placed in the glasses about two or three days before they are occupied by the bulbs, in order to allow of the charcoal becoming saturated and sinking to the bottom, will keep the water from turning rank, and prevent the necessity for its bemg often changed. Some of my best flowers have been in glasses, the water of which was not once changed. Place the glasses in a dark and rather cool situation until the roots have nearly reached the bottoms of the glasses, when they can bo brought to the light. ” A month or six weeks' imprisonment will bring the roots to this stage cf development. The most airy and lightest part of a sitting room, but as far from the fire as possible, is the best position for them. When the bulbs have been in the water about a week or ten days, the base of each should b3 examined, and any decaying or slimy substance removed. As the shoot of growth increases ill size, evaporation will take place, therefore the water should be replenished at intervals, care being taken that what is supplied is not lower in temperature than that in the glass. The foliage of tho plants should be kept scrupulously free from any dust or dirt; a small piece of sponge will remove this with but very slight trouble. When the Sower spikes begin to show themselves the glasses should he kept filled to the rim with water, as at tho point of flowering the bulbs absorb a great quantity of moisture." Monckhoven's Nciv Artificial Light. Dr. Desire van Monckhoveii recently demonstrated satisfactorily its importance before a meeting of tho Vienna Photographic Society, and delivered a lecture upon its mode of application. ()ne of the most intense lights to be obtained by oxidizing metals or metallic compounds at a high temperature, is that derived from chloride of titanium, or chl oro-chromic acid, when exposed to the action of an oxy-hydrogcn flame ; the light thus produced is of high actinic power, and capable of blackening chloride of silver paper to an appreciable degree in thirty seconds, the formation of titanic acid or chromic acid being brought about at a very high temperature. It is this description of light that has been chosen by Dr. M. Several kinds of oxy-hydrogen lights have been devised from time to time ; the Drummond light, ill which the flame acts against a cylinder of unslaked lime, but which requires the constant presence of carbonate of lime, and tlie surface of the cylinder to be continually changing; the Tessie du Motay light, in which the lime cylinder is rtjplaced by means of a compressed magnesiaor zirconla cylinder; and the Cariovaris light, consisting of small parallel pipes of hard charcoal moistened with chloride of magnesium. Of all these lights that of Drummond is the best, and by substituting for the lime cylinder another composed of titanic acid, magnesia, and carbonate of magnesia, a suitable illuminating power is obtained. A cylinder of this description, measuring- three centimeters (1 inch) broad and nine long (8 inches) lasts for three hours, and may be produced for the sum of threepence. Instead of hydrogen, ordinary coal gas is employed ; und for the supply of oxygen, M. Deville's method of obtaining' it. by heating a mixture ot calcined peroxide of manganese and chlorate of potash is employed. OS? ^^ O Hoosac Tunnel. The new railroad bridge across the Deeriield river, at the cast end of the lIeosac Tunnel, has been completed, and the rock from the tunnel is now deposited on the other side of the river. The work at the west end of tho tunnel progresses rapidly. Last week forty-three feet were completed, being twenty feet more tlian during any week under the State management. Messrs. Shanly&Co., are the contractors. The Burleigh drills are used exclusively at this tunnel, but with compressed air as the motor. The air is condensed three atmospheres, by means of Burleigh's air compressors, operated by steam power, and the condensed air is carried nearly two miles in an iron pipe hefora it operates upon the drills. The air which exhausts from the drills gives perfect ventilation within the tunnel. The progress made at the Iloosac Tunnel is nearly one third greater than at Mont Cenis, notwithstanding the supposed superior and the costly nature of the French machinery I II II-ijGCfr-—WWMBM* THE FIRST MAN WHO HAD CHARGE OF A LOCOMOTIVE IN THE UNITED STATES, turns out to be, not Nicholas Dariell, as stated on page 320, current volume, in an article copiod from the Mural Carolinian, but John Degno.n, 48 First street, New York. We had the pleasure of a call from Mr. Degnon a few days since, and he explained to us that he was the man who took charge of the BesS Friend on its way to Charleston, and that he ran this locomotive three months or thereabouts, meanwhile giving Mr. Darrell tho necessary instructions to qualify him for the post. The following year he executed a similar commission with a second locomotive. In proof of his statement, Mr. Degnon referred us to Horatio Allen, and other prominent engineers and manufacturers of this city. “ Honor to whom honoris due." GERMAN TINDER.—Amadou. punk, or German tinder, is made from a kind of fungus cr mushroom, that grows on the trunks of old oaks, ashes, beeches, etc. It should be gathered in August, or September, and is prepared by removing the outer br.rk with a knife, and separating carefully the spongy, yellowish mass that lies within it. This is cut into j slices, and beaten with a mallet to soften it, till it can easily i be pulled asunder between the fingers. It is then boiled. in a i strong solution of saltpeter,
This article was originally published with the title "How Shoe-Pegs are Made"