The use of some of the softer sorts of wood for producing fibrous pulp suitable to paper making is quite common, but the means of disintegrating the material and preparing it for the paper maker have not been altogether satisfactory. One consists mainly in softening the wood by steam and then discharging it from a gun or tube, it being blown into filaments by the force of the explosion. Others comminute the material by mechanical processes. The machine represented in the engraving is intended to produce the desired result in this latter way. It consists of a cylinder mounted on a frame, the cylinder being covered with a jacket of rasping, filing, or cutting material, formed by successive circles of steel or chilled iron segments as seen in the engraving. At one end of the cylinder shaft the power is attached, and at the other end the shaft carries a worm that engages with a gear turning on a shaft in bearings attached to the frame. On this gear shaft are two cams, or eccentrics, that, turning between jaws or struts of a sliding frame, give a gradual reciprocating motion to a hopper or receiver for holding the block of wood to be comminuted by the machine. The lower surface of the wood bears upon the rasping or cutting surface of the cylinder, and its gradual reclproea-tory motion insures equality of abrasion, without leaving the ridges which otherwise would correspond with the interspaces of the cylinder coating. A weight or spring, or any other suitable device, can be attached, if desired, to the block for the purpose of graduating its amount of pressure on the cylinder. Somewhat below the center of the rasping cylinder is hung a a smaller cylinder covered with card clothing or stiff bristles, and receives motion from the shaft of the main cylinder by means of pulleys and belt, as seen in the engraving, or gears; j the motion being in reverse of that of the rasping cylinder, and more rapid. This card-clothed cylinder is intended to remove the fluff or fiber from the teeth of the cutting cylinder, and to keep them clear. The material is deposited beneath the machine in any convenient receptacle. The fiber, as it comes from the machine, appears, underthe microscope, and also when tested by the touch, to be well adapted for mixing with other paper stock. It is neither sawdust nor coarse threads, but a floss-like fiber similar to short-stapled cotton or flax. Patent pending through the Scientific American Patent Agency. For further information, address Frederick Burghardt, care J. M. Burghardt, Great Barrington, Mass. Driving Reins for Horses Horses are excellent servants but bad masters; and, like steam, water, and all other powerful aids to man, must be kept under control to be useful instead of dangerous. Many devices have been contrived to control a vicious or frightened horse, but some of them are too complicated, and when, as is frequently the case in a runaway, the driver, as well as the horse, loses his presence of mind, the proper manipulation of the device s neglected until the mischief is done. It is evident that, in such cases, a simple rein, to which the driver instinctively clings, would be much better than any independent and complicated arrangement. Such is that shown in the engraving. Instead of the rein being connected directly with the ring of the bit, it is attached to the ring of the cheek strap, pass ing through the bit ring and connected to the junction of the throat strap and head brace, and so is, of itself, a portion of the headstall. The rein passes from this strap through the martingale ring, the collar guides, and the ferrets, as usual. The operation is easily understood. By pulling on the reins the bit is lifted against the corner of the horses mouth, instead of merely pressing against his lower jaw. The leverage thus exerted is so great, that even hard-bitted liorses may be held by the strength of any woman, or of a boy of ten or twelve years. It is simple and neat, and as it has no unusual appliances, is managed as easily as the ordinary driving rein, from which it hardly differs in appcaranc:. It costs no more than the ordinary style. Its operation can be easily under- stood by a reference to the engraving. 1 The patent is dated Aug. 11, 1808. Orders should be sent I to G. W. Barnes & Son, 315 Bowery, Xew York city, where I specimens may be Been.
This article was originally published with the title "Improvement in Machine for Making Paper Pulp, Driving Reins for Horses"