THERE is an unwritten law in the * government service which stipulates that he who, while drawing a salary from Uncle Sam, makes an invention, shall demand no royalties upon it but shall dedicate it freely to the public. This unwritten law has not always controlled. It was much more often disregarded in the past than in the present. In the history of the government service there are a number of instances of men connected with it who have made inventions from which they have made great fortunes. These intances are, however, growing more infrequent all the time. They were always greatly in the minority. Of the 250 patents have been issued by the Patent Office to government employees, not ten percent have been kept from the public. The idea of profiting by his own invent111 has practically been given over by the government employee and the exercise of his inventive genius is now almost entirely patriotic. Yet this need not be true under the law. There is no law which stipulates that the government employee may not profit by his inventions, whether made on government time or in private. Should the government employee inventor see fit to demand the right to his invention there is no law which refuses him whatever profit he may derive from it. Court decisions in general practice take the view that when an employee takes out a patent the subject matter of which is in general lino of his employment, there is an implied liepuse of the employer to use the patent. Upon this basis a feeling grew that the government had a right to use the patents of its employees. This idea went still furtr, upon the theory that the public was the employer, and the practice grew up of giviiH UISC inventions freely to the public Tho Srfltary of Agriculture has gOW so far as to issue a general order in which he requires employees making useful in 1(11 tioJls to dedicate them to the puhli(,. 'his view of the matter has been generally aceepted in the government service. There aw many inventions that might ha\” liade tT ir originators wealthy that H v” thus hoen “ll[T(ndered. Thore are many “Ij'ers Llmt are luerely useful and f"'l I l lui ui('al to til” govnrUlHnt, iving it 1 thousands of dollars a year, which it a(,cepts from employeos and for which it recompenses them in no way. The Bureau of Corporations was some time ago asked by Congress for an opinion on the status of the inventor in the government service and the government's elaim upon his invention. That report stated that the present attitude of the government tended to discourage invention and held that government service would be improved if inventors were allowed to profit hy their patenis , being thus eneouraged to make inventions along the lines of their work. But this is not the present practiee. When a man in the government serviee to-day makes an inV(ntion he dodieates the free lise of it to tho government and to the people of the United Rtates. He has OIlO ehanee of making lloney out of it and that is through a sale of foreign rights. Neither practice nor publin opinion denies him this. It would seem that there would he little reason why a government employee inventor should take out a p aten t, if he is not to pr ofit b y it after all, hut h is ease is peculiar. = H e is usually a seientist, devoting his life to a given line of 1V0rk and to the s.,rvice of the Dublic. His inyontion has somethmg to ao WIth his work and with its effect on the public. Ho is anxious that the public should profit by his work. If his invention is of any value and he fails to patent it, there is the chance at any timo that somebody else may take OUt tho patent and collect royalties from the publin. Tbe actual effect of his taking out the patents and giving them to the government and to the public is to prevent some more mercenary individual from eolleeting royalties. These pltents are for the proteetion of the publie rather than for the protection of the patontee. Among Uw n o w e st of the patents that appear to be of great importanee to the people is that of waicrproof cement, for whieh btters patell t havo been ismed to Logan \. Page, direet.or of tho Office of Good Roads, Departm(mt of Agriculture. This cement is made by mixing oil with the ordinary cements. The prineiple also applies to mortars and coneretes. It produetS a eement that. in the first plaee, will hold water and may be used for such struetures as water tanks. Concretes that are otherwise easily penetrated hy water become waterproof. A lining of water- proof cement or concrete will make an otherwise porolls structure water tight. Last May streets W(r( constructed cf oil mixed concrete, one in New York city, one in Washington, and two bridge surfaces in Ridgewood, N . J. A few months ago a vault 105 feet long by 18 feet wide was constructed of this material in the TreaslIry Department. The top was a fat reinforced concrete arch and as suffi-| cient tests in bond had not been made, ordinary concrete was used to surround the reinforcement. After it had set, three inches of a ten per (Jent oil mixture was placed above. The vault has been perfectly waterproof undor very trying conditions. A large water tank, constructed in the good roads laboratory with a ten per cent oil mixture, is absolutely waterproof. Extensive experiments made with oil eonerete in basement floors have given excellent results up to the present time. No moisture enters tho walls of houses built of this waterproof. Water poured on a basement floor made of it wi!! roll up in globules instead of entering the cement. Col. Goethals is experimenting with it as a material for building locks. It promises to find extensive use in the building trades. Mr. Page patented his product and two methods of making it. The demand for the material already indicates that there would have been millions in the patents if privately handled. Dr. Marion Dorset, biochemist of the Bureau of Animal Industry, is a young scientist of great inventive genius. He it was who first found the germ that is responsible for cholera in hogs. This germ is so small that the most powerful microscopes cannot detect it nor can the most delicate filters remove it from water. Dr. Dorset, having isolated the bact(ria, invented a serum with which to combat it. The serum and the processes of manufacturing it were protected by patents. Hog eholera was causing a loss of $15,-000,000 a year in the United States. When the disease broke out in any locality it went on and on with no power to oppose it. But the serum whieh Dr. Dorset patented is an absolute antitoxin. He has repeatedly pravn its effects. He has, time after time, taken a given nlber of pilS, inoeulate< halt the llumhe), and put 258 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September 16, 1 gIl LEGAL NOTICES 1 ATENTS If you have an invention which you wish to patent you can write fully and freely to Munn&Co. for advice in regard to the best way of obtaining protection. Please send sketches or a model of your invention and a description of the device. explaining its operation. All communications are strictly confidential. Our vast practice, extending over a period of more than sixty years, enables us in many cases to advise in regard to patentability without any expense to the client. Our Hand Book on Patents is sent free on request. This explains our methods, terms, etc., in regard to PATENTS. TRADE MARKS, FOREIGN PATENTS, etc. All patents secured through us are described without cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. MUNN&COMPANY 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Branch Office, 625 F Street, “Washington, D. C. them all in a pen with infected pigs. All “ of those not inoculated always die and noo ! one that has boon treated IS affected. It is one of the most absolute antitoxins known to science. > When hog cholera now hreaks out in a 1 given locality, all the animals thereabout are inoculated. The outbreak soon wears f out for lack of material upon which to feed. An application of the cure with a , moderate degree of efficiency results in the . saving to the nation of $1.',000,000 a year, 1 and this amount would reach considerable proportions in even the span of one man's life Dr. Dorset is also the inventor 01 a secret ink used by the government in I stamping meats which have been passed ' upon by the government inspectors at the packing houses. There was formerly in use in marking these meats a tag tlmt was patented by a private firm. These tags were costing the government about ' $60,000 a year and were not nearly as ; effective as the ink which puts the stamp into the meat itself. Dr. Dorset's ink is not patented. The secret of its manufac-' ture can be more effectually kept through : not patenting it. The method of applying it to the meat and the devises used in 1 the process, however, are covered by a government patent and in this way the process is doubly protected. Despite the invention of a hog cholera serum, which saves the people $15,000,000 a year, and the ink which saves the department $60,000 a year direet, this young scientist receives but ${,500 as an annual stipend. He is the sort of man, however. who is more interested in his work than in money, and is entirely satisfied. J. W. T. Duvel is the government's specialist on grain standardization. It was in connection with this work that lie found there was a variation in the weight of grain from five per cent to twenty-five per cent, due to the amount of moisture it contained. Obviously this moisture content should be reckoned in selling grain. Dr. Duvel invented a moisture tester that is now in use in most of the elevators of the nation but from which he has never received a cent in royalties. The scheme for ascertaining the amount of moisture a given sample of grain may contain is based upon the possibility, under certain conditions, of boiling it off and then condensing it. A given sample of grain is carefully weighed. Then it is placed in oil that has a boiling point a great deal higher than that of water. It is heated to a temperature where the water in the grain goes off in vapor. This vapor is recondensed and earefully weighed. Its WeIgh t m proportI. On t 0 th e gram from which it came is the percentage of moisture in the given grain. With Dr. Duvel's device the test may be made in a very few minutes. The same princille, under another patent, is applied to a test of the amount of water in butter. Joseph L. Harley, an employee of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, is the patentee of a so-called “press register.” This device, when attached to a press, reeords every impression that is made from it. In the Bureau of Engraving and Printing there are five hundred presses that arc used in printing the money, and the postage and internal revenue stamps of the government. This registering of the number of impressions that are made from a given press serves as a check and precludes any possibility of printing money or stamps that are not accounted for. It has been in use by the government for many years and Mr. Harley has never received any compensation for it. C. R. McBlair, an employee of the Supervisi1g Architect's office, is the patentee of a photographic process which is used in duplicating designs made in that office. The Supervising Architect and Mr. McBlair have both signed a statement to the effect that from $5,000 to $8,000 a yeaI' is saved the government through the nse of this invention. Yet no royalties are paid to the inventor. Brig. Gen. William Crozier and Brig. Gen. A. R. Buffington, U. S. A., are the I patentees of a mounting for the great1 AT EN TS SECURED OR FEE 1 C IN 1 J RETURNEI PAT EH 1U ~ RETURNED Free reoOl·t as to Patentability. IJlusLrated Guide BOOk. anf \hat To Invent with List of InventiODs ianted and Prizes offered for inventions sent free. ' !eTn] . F VANS&CO., Washington, D.C. Classified Advertisements Ad verti8mg 1 i1 t1ds co lummn is 7) cents a lin e. No less than four nor tJore ,nan 12 Jin es ac ce nt ed . Co un:t: seven wor(i. til the linp. All orders m u st be accompanied by a rPIIJltTar:Ce· BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. YOUR FACTORY AT TULSA will command the Mid dLd West. Nctural '' as power on ly $2 to $5 H. Ps.. per vear. 26,000 pODulatgIOn. Ampla lab or, m acerlUl lt Great oU and cOdl fields. On large river. _our trunk railways. “Ixty three tlnving factoriel already. I' or further partlCulars write Industry. Bureau of Information, Tulsa, uklahowa. W AN' “lEN WITH MONEY to invesL in water power plants. Gdd, Silver. Copoer lnd Lead mtning. Minin8,s is a p avin g oasi ness. For further Information address Box 686, B oise. Id eaho, MA NUFA P TU RING I0O P P OR 1 ' UNtIIO' Y.-Ttae Walth am Bn Iidll1lg A 8I80Ciation lS in a posi ')on to erebCt a modern cemeut buildm* on line 01 I R. for manufacturer with proper financial bacKiu> who is desirous of locating in a tlrlviu' city. Apply to altham Bulng Assn .. HolliS E Dennen, rrreasurer, .aJth a rn. )ass. GOOD BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY. For sale, a well established bU8inesB, manufacturing and 8t lling a sppci ilty ra pid ly coning Int o g e neral use . A nice, cJ( an, interestiu! business Which can be expanded in defni l ely. No special manuf ac tur ing e xper ienc e necessary . sin ce p resent tIm' aained a . d re lia ble help can be retained. Thus is an exceptional opportunity for any young man who can command $15,001). AddreSS “ Pennsylvania,” B.>x 773, New York. FOR SALF OR ON ROVALTV.-Slreet car ticket hOlder Stronsr, simple and thoroughly effecrive. Cost Jess tia' 5 cents eaeh. Ior further particulars fddre8s Blekastad, Iarper. Wasb. DEAFNESS. 1RE D]AF HEAR INST AN1LY with the Aconsti-can. For pertonal URe. also tor churches and tbeatres. Specia l Illsrrum ents You m m:t hear befo re vou p lol r t-chase. Booklet frnee. General Acoustic Co .. 207 Beau lort St.; Jamaica, N. Y. Ctty. Paris branch, 6 Rue d·Hanovre. PATENTS FOR~SALE. ARTIFICIAt RAIN.-New system of irrigation com· bined WIth elecuified water, Belt and cheapest fertI1-izer. P .tented. Capital w anted t o e xp Jo it same or will work on re. )yalty basis. E . Olsson , 32 \V. 9. h Sr. m. N . Y. City. FO R ! A LE Patent for a pfrtect toy balloon. Some -thing new. Very e1l1ertJining and. instructIve for Children or adults. For furtner information address Balloon, Box 773, New York. CNlT'1D STATKS PATEN U FOR SALK-No. tOOl,-021. Automatic Mail Carrier. Ior further Intorma· tioa addrnss John Gronck, 1631 Buffner Street, PhIla-delphia. Pa. -FOR SALE. SALJSMAN MAKING SMALL TOWNS, just what you wut for a nocltet sideline. :omething new. snappy and catchy. Write for order b 8fc. 8tate territory covered. R. Dahne. Sales .gr .. 20-H S1ge1 St” Chicago, Ill. REAL ESTATE. CALl H ORNIA LAND. plamed and operated by ex-perts, is a splendid investment. Black tgS be:t of all crops. Write. Geralf sll J-' ruit Co., Newcastle, California. (.Packers Geraldson's Figs.) WANTED. LOCAL R!rRESE:J:lIVE =A:D.—Splftndid income asRured right man to act as our representative after learning our business tPoroughly by 'a;l, bormer ex:;rience unnecessary. AD wereq h ireis lione8:y, ability, ambition anl willingness to l :arn a lucrative business. No ;rlicitiii'i or 'ravelins. Th.'s is an exceptioo!i oppprtunity lor 'al(\in you[ s!ction to get int:' a Dig payina :usiness wlrhout capital andbeg O%e independent for lite. Irite a' once t.,r full partieulars. Ad dress E. R. Marden, Pre:., The NatIOnal Co-Oporativo Hea,I Js6ate Company, L 378 ?arden Building, Wasling. M ISCELLAN EOUS. "CAN 1: SCIENT1s'S Bf MISTAKEf!»;f t ;;nding H"oriM a s,lid bas .s tor lelvins theory ol vortex motion Matte r doe < not “hc 'ld “ to get er. . attract,” m. . repel,” act at any d Istance, or act withou t cc n-tact. No ·' potentiai” energy. Only one ullimate ele-menl, aether. Momentum (motio'l of aether. basis of all energy, (and phenomena); mv, true energy mea,ure. *' An Amazing Calculation:” peipetu'l motion (tbe l reti. ca l) e ased upun sys:em of levels. Orbital vortex motion gf aether lIrri;s earth. <ravi}r, a “p'ish” do1 P a m-phftt, ten cents, (com). C. c. Gates:l ){ola, 111. FRKF.;'mST1' ¥ ' O; PROFIT'' Magazine. Sond me your name and I will mill you this magazJ.Je absolutely free. Before you inVest a dol,lar anywheie—ge/\,"'” m:igazi-io it iis wt rt' $1' a copy to any man \bo integds TO inv;st n5 or f°;e per m0:h. Te1ls yo : how $1,030 cm grow to #22.rnb -how to judge different classes of invectments; the Real I:arning Power of your money. This ma£a:1ne six months free it you write to ·day. H. L. Barber. PubIisber. 42a. 28 'V. Jackson Blvd .. Chicac,. MAKE BIG MO:EY oneratine a Davdark Post Card Machine. Photo postal cards made and delivere (' on the spot in t>g nnutJs in the rpen street. No : ark room nec'ssary-it doe;n t rpquire an etlerienc; 8 d photOgranuer to make first cla8s pictrrre'? f? y: lb gross '°otitof 500 n©r cent. Writ? togay for free sample and :?.ogue. baydark speclalty Co: {prr' . Louis. MOTOROYCLEf CHEAP.-Send to· day for free cata· log ot lPW and used motorcvcles. Al,o motoOllcle RCa cessories and attachable mntor outfits for converting bicyclls into motorcycles. Shaw Manufacturing Company. lept. 24, Galesburg, Kans. ! twelve-inch disappearing guns, commonly J in use in the army. So heavy and so complicated are these devices that it costs $45,000 to manufacture one of them. The records of the Chief of Ordnance, however, show that a95 such gun carriages, embodying features covered by this patent, have been used by the government. No royalties, however, have been paid for this use. The letters patent taken out hy these army men state that: “We hereby dedicate to the government of the United States the free right to use, to make, and to have made in the United States for its own use, gun mountings embodying this invention.” This proeedure is somewhat unusual in the army and navy for, in those services there has . been a much stronger tendency on the part of inventors to insist upon profiting through their patents. B. L. Andrus, superintendent of the mail lock repair shop of the Post Office Department, is the inventor of a conical pointed grommet which is used extensively . in all the registered mail work and in ordinary mail sacks and pouches of the government. Officials of the Post Office Department admit that this invention would have been a bargain had the government bought it outright for $10,000. There are, in the Postal Service, a great •. many of these smaller inventions which are not applicable to any other use but which are of great value to that service. ' Many of these have been patented for the ' protection of the government against the i same action on the part of outsiders. The ' inventors have, however, received no ' profit from them. .1. K W. 'mey, of Hu) Bureau of Plant s Industry, is the patentee of a dey ice fo] ! < the automatic flling of all those seed * packets which members of Congress frank to constituents throughout the country. , l The use of this machine makes it possi?le t for the government to seeure competItIve | ^ bids for putting up seeds . The inventors . and owners of other practICable machmes i ( state that I. t I. S “orth $l.a2 a thousand a packets to do thIS work. ThIS machme c enables the government to save at least a three cents per thousand on Its packets. , As approximately a7,000,000 packets are } flled annually, the Tracy patent secured c a saving of about $a,700 a year to the t government. The inventor, however, in no way profits through this saving. Probably the most complicated machine that has ever heen in.nted by a governlien t emp1 oyee I. S one In use a t t lIe C oast and Geodetic Survey, and upon which f may be automatI'cally figured the time , and degree of maximum and minimum 'ld es at any tIme or p 1 ace. A very Important phase of the work of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is the forecasting of J tides and the making of charts recording w those forecasts. The computation of the i I jmo of high tide or low ebb for a given I a place is a very complicated process and “ ;here are nineteen different elements enter- a ng into the calculation. This tide pre- B dicting machine takes all those elements o into consideration and, with a single t operator, automatically gives the answer. C To produce the same result with the same t degree of accuracy without the use of the B machine would require thirty computers, working throughout the year. On a salary p basis of $1,000 each, there would be i expended each year in hiring these com- J puters, a total of $aO,ooo. William Far- p •eI was an employee of the Coast and s Geodetic Survey when, thirty years ago, s he devised this complicated machine. He i: reely gave his invention to the govern- r ment and never in any way profited from r t. Upon this machine the tide forecasts s have been calculated since 188a. h Such are a few examples of the hun- i dreds of patents that have been issued to r >eople in the government service and for c which they have received no remunera- r ion. That the law does not require their f lurrender to the government and that they p lave been none the less voluntarily given e iver, speaks volumes for the patriotism of ii ;ho men who are spending their lives in a the service of Uncle 8a11 on a fixed c salary. h Notes for Inventors Harvester Patents.-In a letter in rebuttal of tho Report, made by the Hon. A. O. Stanley, Chairman, and a member of the House Committee on Investigation of the United States Steel Corporation Mr. Edgar A. Bancroft, general counsel of (ho International Harvester Company, eonveys some interesting information on the harvester patents. “The knotting device was 'atented by Appleby in 1879,” according to Mr. Bancroft, “and there has been no radical change in the knotting device or in tI general tYPf of the self-binder since 1891. Inasmuch as thEre arc no patents on the essential parts of the self-binder in existence, a fifty million dollar corporation has this year put out 500 binders, the Minnesota State Prison has sold 650 binders and a well-known thresher company has made an experimental binder. The charge that the company furnishes no incentive to improvements in these machines is equally erroneous. On the contrary, it maIntains a large and active staff of inventors, experimenters and inspectors-far larger than ever existed before-at an annual cost of over $:50,000; and it has added many improvements to the machines, and has greatly increased their efficiency and durability." A Sailor's Invention.-Luke McNamee, of tho United States Navy, has secured a patent, No. 1,000,834, for a shock absorber for searchlights. The door of tho searchlight is cushioned by means of springs which hold the door out of contaet with tho body of the searchlight in such manner as to permit the pressure OIl ?ach sick of the door to be equalized and i<esorb the shcwks irwident to gun fire. Another Dedicated Patent. - Logan Wal-eI Page, of the division of good roads of ;he United States Agricultnral Depart-ment, has secured and dedicated to the p ublic a patent, No. 1,000,545, for a cement concrete and method of mixing nd preparing the same. The method sonsists in adding to an ordinary cement nd water mixture, a quantity of nonvolatile mineral oil. The oil is added before the cement begins to set and the quantity of oil used does not exeeed rwenty-five per cent of the cement. A New Biscuit.-A biscuit, having an nner mass of starchy and hrittle filaments lurr ? unded by a tough er cover.ng of glutinous filaments which have a bi.ding ionnectIOn m whICh the ends of the mner ilaments are secured, has been patented, No. 1,000,3;7, to Edward W. Anderson if Washington, D. c. Death of William D. Sargent. - William D. Sargent, who is said to have associated yith Alexander Graham Bell in the telephone matter, died on August 10th, /t his Rmmel' homo in Somerset, Pa., ;fter an illness of several weeks following ,n automohile trip from his ln ill Brooklyn. Mr. Sargent was one of the ld time telegraphers and a member of he United States Military Telegraph ^orps Society and was also well known in he financial circles of New York and Brooklyn. Destruction of Rats.-An East Africa ublication contains a description of a method of destroying rats, followed in ava, in which carhon bisulphide is em-iloyed. In earrying out the method a mall quantity, usually about half a tea-poonful of the carbon bisulphide is poured nto the rat hole and aftpr waiting a few moments to let the liquid evaporate, the mixture of air and vapor is lighted, a mall explosion rEsulting and fning the iole with poisonous gas, · killing the rats nstantly. Such a process practiced openly might be objectionable under some cir-umstances because of danger from fire esulting from the explosion and a field or invention appears to offer itself to irovide some form of fire-proof gun or xplosion chamber suitably formed to be nserted in the mouth of the rat hole and ,dapted to enclose the explosion and dis-harge th e reSUHl. g llOXl. OUl gas m. to th e i1 e. September 16, 1 9E SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 259 The Safe and Sane Way To Keep Blue Prints and Drawings Explaining how you can file your Blue Prints and Drawings Systematically; Index them for Immediate Reference in the new “ Y and E “ Vertical Blue Print Cabinet. The Permanent Solution of the “Lost Blue Print” Problem. you know how it is . If you use drawI. ngs, sketehes, blue prints, e I c., in your work, the “Search Party” illustration below tells a very familiar story. You want a certain drawing or map, we'll Ray; you saw it in your office just last week. You send a boy for it; he looks and ” The Search Party" hunts fwerywhere. You have a customer, or prospeet waiting, or perhaps your Chief has asked for the print. Anyway, important affairs hinge on the finding of it. You may go through the whole pile; lose time, temper, and maybe your Chief's respect for your managing ability, or a possible customer. After sweating blood for 20 minutes you may find it. And probably it is badly torn, dusty a nd frazzled. Even if it is in good co ndition, you couldn't find 1:t when you wanted it. If drawings are worth keeping they are worth keeping right. Why not keep them clean and flat and indexed so you can locate any one in a jiffy ? The Solution In the “Y and E” Ver-tical Blue Print Cabinet, shown here, you can file 700 to 1,000 prints, indexed for instant reference. The cabinet is dust proof; takes up but 3% sq. ft. of foor space. The front is pe r f ec tly 'Y an d E” Vertical Blue P rint Ca binet No. 430. carried in stock. Ta ble front when ex tended ca n be use d as refe rence sbelf or drawi ng board. It is dust oroof: drawings are kent flat. clean and smooth; indexed for quick reference. smooth and may be used as a handy reference table on which to examine contents or make memoranda or corrections. Its History Two or three years ago D. J. Burlingame, of Chicago, designed and patented a special cabinet for fling large prints in the Chicago Association of Commerce. Today we control the rights, and have changed and improved the cabinet until it is the finest on the market. It is truly the proper place for blue prints and drawings. See it and you'll agree. Drawings al'e filed in f'oorny manila pockets. suspended f!m the top. Imagine a big vertical file, and there you have it. The draw-i ngs are tlod in manila pockets which are like big vertical folders. They are closed half way up so prints are held in place, preventing torn edges, otc. Pockets are supported by strips of hard wood fastened at the top. Mighty handy. How to Index One big advantage of this cabim,t is the ease and facility of locating a drawing when filed. On the inner side of the cover are eight cards (printed both sides) held in permanent metal racks. Cards are ruled for easy writing of index informatipn, and each bears letters, A-B, etc. In stock cabinets the envelopes are numbered 1 to 20. If you are filing Mr. Brown's drawings in pocket 20, you'd write under B-” Brown-house drawings-20." What Could Be Simpler ? Contractors fle blue prints, rough drawings and sketches. Engineers fle their big prints and sketches. A 1't Stores fle prints, valuable sketches; in-dexbyartist's name or sub- The indexing is so easy, simple and coni ec t. venien t. Draft De]artments of Manufacturing Concerns file drawings and prints of machinery and other equipment; tho cabinet gives it quick reference. Chambe! of Commerce - Industrial departments fle city maps, sectional plats, etc. Advertising Departments, Advertising Agents can use this cabinet to file large photos and drawings. These cabinets are used in many other lines of work. If you have maps, drawings, print,, etc., to fle you need one, too. What One User Says Our “Y and E” Vertical Blue Pn:nt Cabinet is entirely satisfactory. For the purpose of-keep/:ng blue prints, maps and other papers free from dust and so indexed that they can be found instantly when needed, we don't believe this cabinet can be surpassed. W. R. HUMPHREY, Industrial Commissioner. The Chicago Association of Commerce. In a Nutshell 1-” Y and E” Vertical Blue Print Cabinet is dust - proof and air-tight. 2 - Will hold 700-1000 prints. 3-Contains 20 strong manila pockets, suspend-ed by two 1V0od pieces at top. 4-P rints are filed in pockets an d thu s k e p t clean, flat and smooth. 5-All Prints are carefully indexed by name or number, as preferred. 6-Any print quickly findable by referring to index on inside of cover. 7-Handiest known way of filing and indexing drawings, tracings, blue prints, sketches, maps, artist proofs, etc. 8-Widely used by architects. contractors, superintendents, engineers and dmughtsmen. 9-Cabinets are carried in stock in two sizes-No. 036 for drawings 40x36 or less, and No. 430 for drawings 44x30 or less-and in quartered and plain oak in “ Y” and “E” standard golden finisho 10-Cabinets of special sizes and in special finishes furnished to order. Estimates on request. (Advise drawing size and quantity to be filed.) Complete Booklet Free For your convenience, we have prepared a handy, pocket size booklet which gives full details and information about this handy cabinet. It is yours for the asking. Mail the coupon now. It is handy for immediate action. HANDY COUPON Send me your illustrated booklet on your Vertical Blue Print Cabinet, No. 2139A. Also, send me information about filing following records; City ..................State............. 260 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September lG, WIl Pierce y Boilers and l i lt Radiators There is another Wip te r coming. Does it mean furnace drudgery, exceSSIve coal bills and a shivery breakfast every cold snap for you? Don't blame the weather; don't blame the house; don't blame the furnace-it does the best it can. Instead, put In a modern, sanitary, adequate, economical, Pierce Heating Equipment-a steam or hot water system that is a success in over 200,000 homes. Pierce Boilers are built to meet every heating requirement. They save fuel, reqUIre little attention, cannot get out of order, and save their cost long before they have served their time. Your steam-fitter will tell you Just what Pierce Boiler your house needs, and the cost. Pierce, Butler&Pierce Mfg. Co. 256 James St., Syracuse, N. Y. Showrooms in Principal Cities Be sure to send for our HEAT PRIMER It's free and it's iust the kind of information you 0 ugh t to h a v e; presented in simple, non-technical language. Send for it. = There is a Pierce Boiler exactly suited to yo u r needs. This is the “Modern,” one of ZOO. styles. A safe, very brilliant, powerful, steady, white light. Is better than electricity oracetylene ^ and cheaper than kero-| sene. Every lamp Is a complete self-contained miniature light works. Clean—bright —odorless I —portable. Made in over I 200 styles for every pur-' pose. Fully guaranteed. . Catalogfree. Agents wanted. THE BEHT LIGHT CO, 87 E. 5th Street Canton, o. Your PATENTS aDd BUSINESS to ARIZONA I ncorporate Laws tile most liberal. Expense the lease. Hold llleetin2s. transact business anywhere. Blanks. By-Laws and forms for making slOck full-paid for cash, propeny or services. free. Presjdent Stoddard. FORMER SECRETARY OF ARIZONA. reSIdent 3eent for wallY tilOllsalld compani<s. Reierence: Any bank in Arizona. STODDARD INCORPORATING COMPANY, Bos 8000 PHOENIX, ARIZONA PHILADELPHIA M»*rA^b* Bt Same* fTY ?Sk< 11°V ^il.vV^. Walnut and 13th Sts, VVH^,'^ *-^ ,, ~***^V^* Ideally l oc at e d in the FXlapos;* ' \\ “ l r, 5 “ ' In) center of bosiDe,: Vff-\^ ^i^.'1l..-fl and social life ” VjsfiiJ \*C11 335 Rooms - 275 B a t hs *Sg T2fJa"M Room. $2.00 per day up 8BE rga|a | Room and Bath, $2.50 te*IJ5i'i!il. perday up M ,1 f » J B. 7i H WiWjTiT^f Suiles of 2 to 6 Rooms ^s i*«n RN LESS “.r iamous for it cu;,ine Eugene G. Miller, M?r. TELEGRAPHY SSS “.r hom e with OltlNIGHAPIl zliSM AU'OMmIC TEACHI ill halt \lsu.il lilre-tnHinl cost. Senil' you mes.age8 wlthont IlImt al1to- L : atically-pnsily hecome expert. Price $2.00. Cataloft·et. OMNIGR1 H t: «. CO. Dept. 16. 39 Cort1and St?eet, New yoik: Learn Watchmaking We react it tboruUHMy in uS many montris as It form:fly Took ye a: :; ugh 8 a:a[U witb tedious hpu:en: ticesnip. Money earted while studying. Pg 8itrons secured. Ea.sy terms. Send for catalog. lT. 1.0[S WATmlMAKING SCIIOOL. lt, Loul., Mo, USE THE OTHER SIDE OF THIS SPOT, SEE PAGE 259. C A HOME-MADE 100-MILE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH SET Read Scientific American Supplement 1605 for a thorough, dear deSCriptIOn, by A. Frederick Collins. Numerous adequate d,agrams accompany the text. Price, 10 cent, by mail. Order from your new dealer or JXCunn&Co., Inc., 361 Broadway, N.Y. DON'T Bil A GASOLINE ENGINE Until You Investigate The Temple Make. Its Great Advantages are: Ist-Lo:est Fuel Cost; pays for itself in Fuel Saving. 2nd-Delivers Steadiest Power Stream, adaptlOg It espeCially for operating farm machinery. 3rd-Easy on the machine it operates. 4th-Uses Gasol!ne, Kerosene or Gas. 5tb-Perfect Lubrication. 6th-Starts Easily and Qu: ckly. OCCUPYlOg mInImur space. 7t b-lt is the King of Portable Engines. No engine has so wide a range of use. Y ou W ill make n milta k e if y ou d o n ot 'rite for in for m ati on . W e m ake ! y to 5Y2 H. P. single cylinder engines; 6 to 20 H, P . tw o cylinder engines; 30 to 50 H. P. fou r cylinder engInes. Alll hea.vy duty. slow speed engines. For surety of operation and low fuel cost our engJOcs lead. ,emple Punp Co., ianufacturers. 439 We"t 15th St., Chicago, U. S. A. I'hls Is our 59th YLar. Testing Before Buying «('oJ/dwled I mm pout '/.) 1909-1910, in,8Si),217 pounds of silk were conditioned, and in the Lyons house 11,278,662 pounds. The moisture in silk varies with the climate and the morals of the seller. The normal amount is about eleven per cent. A moist situation can increase this three per cent or more. If in all the above stated American importations two per cent of excess moisture was paid for as silk. the loss to the buyers was over one million dollars. It is probable that all the conditioning houses of Europe receive as much as $500,000 for fees for services in thus examining raw silk. But und'ubtedly the largest patronage of the materials laboratories comes from the constructional industries. In these it is now quite generally recognized that the proper control of materials by specification and testing is a species of insurance upon the finished property. Considered thus the cost would be but one or two per cent of the material in place; but this percentage of cost is not charged annually as the fire insurance, but only once, and its beneficial influence endures for the lifetime of the structure. \oreover, a moral and legal value adheres in a work which, during its progress, has the reputation and proofs of being constructed only of carefully examined materials. Chance of faiiure from defective ma^ terial is reduced to a minimum, and if it does occur from other causes the possession of these proofs is invaluable. Not to be despised even by the fin:mcier are the esthetic values. In our own times architects in congested centers of population would seem to have entered upon an era that is un like any of the past, and one that has inaugurated a school of its own. Whether this influence will persist, whether it will develop into more noble and ideal forms, more lasting monuments, must rest with tne tephnologists who st u dy materials and adapt them for the use of architects, and also with the latter as they grasp and utilize the knowledge. If this is not done we shall have early ruin, discouragement, defeat and a return to the more undoubted stability, if not beauty and usefulness, of the stone age of architecture. Cast iron has been eliminated from our columnar structures; the steel used is carefully examined to insure the best Quality, and the covering paints are chosen to secure the best protective value. Stone, tiling and impervious substances are sough t for to protect the facades and roofs, but ;11 of these materials have defects which r(Reare' w;J] conquer if the demand becomes insistent enough to bring the rewards. When our laboratories of standards and of r 23 e ar ch founded by the government or by private wealth shall have bern in operation a longer time, and the observers more numerous and more skilled, ,hen international comparisons and exchanges of data shall be more frequent and general than now, the progress in these arts will be more rapid and beauty will spring from utility. We shall see these sciences which the aesthete sometimes considers of secondary importance really bringing abont a restoration of beauty This will be Jt alone by mere adornment and charm of variety cause.d by a wider choice of form and color, but most importantly by inspiring the pleasure that springs both from an impression of stability and grandeur and from contemplation of a work that harmonizes lightness with stability and fitness with gracefulness. Beauty, in fact, is a result we can long for and justly expect from these studi,s, not only beauty in architecture, but in the mural and sculptmal arts, in textiles and in most products of human skill and handiwork. Then we shall enjoy our surroundings the more, for, as RuskIn has said, beanty has b""' 8111)ointed by the Deity to be one of the elements by which the human soul is continuously sustained. Catalysis (Conrl1derl from pO(e 21R ) proportion of one to two, ani the interest on capital invested in the plant and in the materials locked up in the process is diminished in the same proportion. It is true that from the gain thus olli8ilwtl we must d(dUct (hi interest OI tll' eal.alytic material lockpd up in tl! process. Where this material is costly, as for example in the platinum contact prOCCSR for sulphuric acid, this item may be consider ab l e. In other instances. the chief advantage gained by the use of a suitable catalyz er-is greater simplicity of working and more compact disposition of the plant, or a higher quality of product. An example of this kind is the modern contact process for the manufacture of suIphuric acid, which gives direc t ly a pure acid of high concentntion in a pl an t rather more compact than that of the old chamber process, even though til careful purification of the gases required in the new process calls for quite extfmsive apparatus. It would require a special article to do justice to this most interesting and important process, which represents one of the most striking applications d catalysis that have occurred in technical chemistry within the J ast few decades. Tn a brief survey of the general field of catalysis such as this article is intended to present, it is impossible to go into technical details, but one brief digression may be permitted, to bring before the reader an illustration of a recent development in the techniqu( of thl contact process, especially as the jlrinciples in· j valved have been discussed in these pages in relation to operations in an entirely different field of appl'ed sci(nre. The contact process, as distinguished from the chamber process, produces anhydrous sulphur trioxide, which is not ordinarily placed upon the market as such, but is converted into sulphuric acid by hydration. To the uninitiated it might appear that this hydration should be the easiest of all operations, inasmuch as it is well known to the first year's student in chemistry that SO., possesses extreme av1dity for water. In practice. how8v(r, it. is found, that unless special pr(cautions are taken, when the trioxide comes 'n contact with the absorbing bath, dense white fumes of sulphuric acid m'st are formed, which are extrenly difficult ta condense. The r ea de r may recall Sir Oliver Lodge's experiments on the dissipation of fogs by means of electrical discharges. Prof. F. G. Cottrell of the University of California has taken up a line of experiment following in the steps of Lodge, with a view to condens i ng acid fumes such as occur in varir' -, industrhl processes, notably the sulphuric acid contact process. By the courtesy of Pr'lf Cottrell and the editor of the ,Tournnl of Industrial Chemistry, I am enabled to reproduce here some photographs of an experimental installation for the condensation of sulphuric acid mist. The first picture (page 248) shows the arparatus with the gases from a converter passing through it untreated. TIle second picture shows the effect pro r u e ed upon turning on tbe electric discharge. I '-'ill be observed that the precipitation of the acid mist is practically complete. The mystery which surrounds the true nature of catalysis is not hy any means a matter of purely academic interest. Technically it is felt in the furt that. there is little or no general systematIc method by which we can be guided in the selection of a suitable catalyzer for a given reaction. As the result of this, tbe discovery of such a body is very largely a matter of accident and good fortune. A rather striking example, which well illustrates C1is point, is quoted by Lrnnck in the description which he givps us of the evolution of the industrial process for the synthesis of indigo by the Ba-dische Anlin und Sodafabrik. In the course of this process, which represents one of the most remarkable triumphs of modern industrial chemistry, it is npccssary to oxidize naphthalene to phthalic acid. This oxidation at first offered difficulties. One day, however, a batch of the material q uit e unexpectedly yielded with ease to what appeared to be the usual treatment. The case seemed to baffle explanation, until finally the c a u se of the phenomenon was discovered in a broken socket, from which a small amount of mercury had escaped, and, mingling with the reacting substances, had produced by catalysis the effect desired, the rapid oxidation of the naphthalene by the sulphuric acid. We have spoken so far only of cataly· Scplculll(r I Ii, I D I I SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 261 m The am bit ion of every tire maker in the world is to some day make a non-skid tire as good and as popular as the famous NOBBY TREAD N N ever before in tbe bistory of motoring bas any type of tire acbieved such success. Everywbere, from coast to coast, Nobby Treads are replacing every ether form of non-skid tire or non-skid device in every possible kind of service. And it is because tbe big, thick, diagonally-placed knobs grip any kind of road, no matter how slippery. and do n/!K(/ulely prevent skiddi'Y( or drive-slipping. Nobby Treads are sold wherever UNITED STATES TIRES Continental Hartford G&J Morgan&Wright are sold. Four-fifths .of the host dealers thruout the country sell them. United States Tire Company Broadway at 58tb 51. New York Tires That Never Puncture Arf those cohered with Stanford Tirt Protectori, Tbey itt \\i: <••<'•- '••!•: \'-i-'-', •'•• fiat i!i” i !: ! bkxxwuaor 6*H the trouble. -u>e only OileR not responsible for nine·tenths of Them /ytr motor car tip-keep -not responsible for that constant UTeaSlness about the danger always lurking ahead. This year t h e Stnndnl'd NOll.Skill is n I,ig; feature. It enables the lilotor l':U· OWller to now pl' l plus lon-skid, wiLil Lnt httl! added expense, Standard Non-Skid Tire Protectors (or Pluin Treud if J:referred) f;h"s, nails, sharp stones !re past over, never reach ing YOlr tire. ' heS(' l'rOl",':dor.” Ht over any tirts, tIny treads :tn d are held tast by il l ttion pre!sl Ire r'oLc(toro ar e rn ,Je of fabric and nIbbeI', inll ou earih o f w hich a protector C'lt he t s :uisi:wtiol . II tirs could be m ade or mil ed;ds alu lh u ive satisi:('tion, llte n the rers wonl( l (ertainly ',ilopt same, but th i.' is kllllltt.hill; wll:' II h , l LT; ] '1” )” '” il lljlrfi('tieft hle. drite l'orb()okletlodal'. Standard Tire Protector Company 252 E. Market Street Akron, Ohio Stnudard T the o n ly knowi l m:Hle 'nd c'iI'e e-l!liH"- !ire ma sis by inanimate agencies. Of the g r e a t est importance in technical work and for. vital processes are the innumerable cases or organic cctalysis, or, as it is commonly termed, fermentation. For certain lower organisms have the power of catalytically bri n gi ng a bo u t v a r i ous chemical decompositions. Among such organisms we number some good friends, but a l so some of our most insidious foes. There are bacteria which act as scavengers, converting noisome waste products I not only into inorganic salts, but at the same time into p l ant food. Others assist certain plants in extracting from the air the inert nitrogen, “fixing” it in a form available to the plant. Bacterial fermentation produces alcohol for beverages and for industrial use. And so on, the list might be prolonged almost indefinite l y . Then there are those dread vis I itors, t he disease germs. that come upon us unseen. and, stabbing in the dark. I spare neither young nor old. They. too. | probably do their work by catalytIc action, producing deadly poisons withi] our body. In the triumph of modern medicine, the keenness of our natural eye has been so far increased by the as· I sistance of the microscope, that we can now discern these diminutive and terrible aggressors. We know something, too, of their chemical means of warfare, and are learning to fight them with their own weapons. Let us now return for a momen t to the case of t he crystal “germ,” which initiates the formation of the solid from the liquid, for instance in a body of supeT·cooled wLter, or in a supersaturat'd solution of Glauber salt. This case presents a special feature, to which attention has not so far been called: It is the prodllct itself which acts as catalyzer. or, in technical language, the case is one of “auto-catalysis.” This particular form of the phenomenon is of peculiar interest owing to its c l ose relation to a fundamental property Of living matter. This relation is clearly brought out if we consider side by side a simple case of i norganie auto'catalysis and a typical example or its organic counterpart. On the o n e hand, then, we have b e fo r e us. j say, a sUlwrsatnrated solution of Glauber salt; on the other hand, a vessel containing a sterilized infusion or other material suitahle as a culture medium” Each of these two systems i s quite stable if left disturbed, and will retain its character indefinitely under such circumstances. But, introduce a vestige of a Glauber salt crystal into the one. or a minute quantity of a suitable bacterial germ in to the other, and immediately a transformation sets in, giving rise in the frst to a growth of crystals, and in the second to a growth of living matter. Furthermore, just as the same infusion is capable of producing a variety of different organisms, according to the particular genl1 with which it has been inoculated, so a solution supersaturate'} with several salts will respond to each specific crystal germ introduced by the growth of the corresponding crystalline 1 substance. In one respe .t, however, the I two cases seem to differ: it is quite im- [ possible, so far as is known to·day, to cause the growth of l i v ing matter in a bacterial culture medium except by the introduction of a “germ.” Only life can give rise to life, within our knowledge. In the case of the crystal growth, it ii often a comparative l y easy matter, whcn no crystal germ is available, neverthe· ] less· to start crystallization, either by increasing the degre( of supersaturation of the solution (e. g. by cooling), or in some instances by mechanical agit3tion or analogolls means. The organic chemist, however, knows that there are substances which are very refractory in resisting all attempts to crystallize ' them. Thus for instance, it is a rather rare I occurrence for glycerine to assume the I crystalli7ed form even at very low winter temperatures. The distinction pointed out is therefore after all not so fund·'mental as may at first sight appear. For I a more detailed discussion of this very interest i ng subject of the analogy between crystallization from a supersatu!· ated solution and the origin of life, the reader may be referred to Ostwald's very stimulating series of lectures, published in English under the title of “Natural Philosophy,” For the sake of simplicity, and in or· | iPlMM§lMMM^lMMMIM§lMMMMM§lMMiM^MM!l H Is H m i m i m i 1 m 1 i n i i i m i i i 1 1 i n Is n m m n i i n i i m 1 Motor Truck Advantages HE man or firm that has a better delivery plant has an advantage. It -----isn't important that it saves money -that it makes a cheaper delivery-although if the right trucks are chosen, under most circumstances, it will be also more economical-but the important thing is, that the superior facilities supplied by motor vehicles gives their owner advantages—it outstrips competition-it serves the customers better. Live business men may no longer dodge the issue -motor trucks are here to stay-it's only a question of who will be first to grasp the opportunity in his line, or his town. The Advantages of the White Truck rSilHEN it comes to buying machines 111 tlie best machine is cheapest no B**l matter what it costs. Here's where White motor trucks score-everyone has heard about the white gasoline-engine design-' how it foreshadowed what is accepted now as the best foreign practice and what is rapidly becoming adopted in this country by the most aggressive manufacturers. Next, each White truck is as well built as the most scientific, modern steel alloys will permit. In addition, every piece of steel is heated-treated to make White trucks as staunch as a truck may be built. The long-stroke engine makes them economical in operation-makes them efficient-the kind you must recognize as having unusual merit. \hite trucks may be grafted into your delivery plant completely revolutionizing its capaciy-giving it vitality without demoralizing your present force. Any bright teamster can drive a White truck, it's so simple. May we send you a catalogue and testimonials of some of the world's largest users? The White Company 838 East 79th Cleveland IllMMMMlM^lM^imMMMM^lMMMMMMMMmMJirD 2(32 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September 16, lIH 1 Double Tracking The Bell Highway Two of the greatest factors in modern civilization-the telephone and telegraph-now work hand in hand. Heretofore each was a separate and distinct sys t em and transmitted the spoken 01 written messages of the nation with no little degree of efficiency. Co-operation has greatly increased this efficiency. The s i mp l e diagram ab ove strikingly illustrates one of the mechanical advantages of co-operation. It shows that six persons can now talk over two pairs of wires at the same tm e that eight telegraph operators send eight te le g r a ms over the same wires. With such joint use of equipment t:lere is economy; without it, waste. While there is this joint use of trunk line plant by both companies, the telephone and telegraph services are distinct and different. The telephone system furnishes a circuit and lets you doyour own talking. It furnishes a highway of communication. The telegraph company, on the other hand, receives your message and then transmits and delivers it without your further attention. The telegraph excels in carrying the hig load of correspondence between distant centers of population; the telephone connects individuals, so that men, women and children can carry on direct conversations. Already the co-operation of the Western Union and the Bell Systems has resulted in better and more economical public service. Further improvements and econolies are expected, until time and distance are annihilated by the universal use of electrical transmission for written or personal communication. AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY AND ASSOCIATED COMPANIES Oe Policy One System Universal Service There's a Carborundum Stone for Every Sharpening Need For the carpenter, the mechanic, the man-about-the-house, the boy in the manual training school, the housewife in the kitchen-Carborundum means sharper tools and better work. are on sale at hardware stores everywhere. If your dealer does not have them send direct. No. 107-F Round Combination Stone for Carpenters .... No. 108-F Oblong Combination Stone No. 78-F Knife Sharpener-Octagonal, Stag Handle, in neat box No. 131-F Sportsman's Stone -Round, in pigskin case with strap lor attaching to belt No. 149-F Pocket Stone in cardboard case . 1.25° 1.00 1.00 . 1 5 Sportsmen will be interested in the book-"How the Doctor got his Bull Moose"-A true story-it's free. THE CARBORUNDUM CO. Niagara Falls, N. Y. der to bring out more clearly the analogy of the crystal “germ,” we have chosen for our example a bacteri9l growth in a simple culture medium. The phenomenon of auto-catalytic growth is, however, of course, quite general in all living matter. Indeed, Woo Ostwald and T. B. Robertson have shown that the curve representing the rate of growth of various organisms closely resembles in character that calculated for a certain type of inorganic auto-catalytic reaction. Just how much significance is to be attached to this resemblance, is perhaps an open quest!on. Of the general auto-catalytic character of the growth of living matter, however, there can be little doubt. It “IS Impossl'ble I' a s h or t revI. ew 0 l this kind to do justice to the entire field here broached. Much has been written on catalysis and probably still m?re re-mails to be sa . d For a concIse 1-sume, replete with reference to the literature on the subject, the reader can probably not do better than turn to J. W. Mellor's very excellent little volume “Chemical Statics and Dynamics,” one of the series of text books of physical chemistry edited by Sir William Ramsay. It is the hope of the writer that enough of the subject has been presented here to give the reader a general idea of the nature of the phenomenon and of its important bearing upon a number of questions of the highest technical and vital interest. The Industrial Chemist. (Concludec! front page 249.) For analysis of iron and coal ; advantageous to lmow use of calorimeter. For analyses of miscellaneous matHials used in manufacturing work; position in research lahomtory. Man needed who is familiar with hpat treatment of steel and metallography of stepl. Chemist experienced in analyses of iron and steel and steel products. Young man well acquainted with food and fermentation analyses. For regular analytical work, inclusive of mining rescue a ppara tus work. Chemist to take charge of extensive salt works on the Pacific coast. Chemical engineer to design evaporating. distilling and condensing machinery and to superint('nd its installation. Chemist trained in beet sugar and agricultural chemistry. Much original research work. Thorough training rf'quired. Good chemist. strong, or good moral habits. for medi<'ine company. Chemist to do experimental work in developing commercial products. Graduate of some school of accepted stauding in chemistry ; analysis of oils, gums. rosins, petroleum products, pigments. coal, and hoiler water. Research later if man shows ability. Young graduate chemist for ceramic work. Must be an accurate analyst and able with proper a ssistance to do both chemical work and phYSical testing. Laboratory chemist. Work will be mainly it'on and steel. Man familiar with the manufactui'ing of paint. Experienced man for experimental worl, and lwrfection of processes. Assistant analytical chemist ; food and drug :nalyses. Several young chemists for routine work on iron and steel analyses. Instructor in mineralogy for university and analyst to department. Energetic chemist with working knowlpdge of electri<'ity witb good initiative and good chemical training. Chemist with knowledge of pharmacy, able to do analytical work. Demonstrating chemist wbo understands the use of liquid chlorine for bleaching. Several chemical engineers for factory. Bright young man with knowledge of chemistr.v and bacteriology. Chemist for research laboratory with, preferably. metallurgIcal tmlning. Chemist with some experience in manufacturing of uitre-cake and sulphate of soda. Experienc('d suga r-house chemist. Chemist for assistant in research laboratory. Assistant chemists in laboratory. Chemist well versed In the nitrating of cotton and the properties of amyl acetate. Chemist for analytieal tests and research work of a physical-chemical nature. Chemist able to kepp ordinary accounts and to serve aH uuderstudy to the chipf chpmist. Competpnt man need!'d to take chargp of manufacture of tahl0ts. salts. and hypodprmirs. Pbarmacputiral chemist to take charge of lahorator.v; able to make fluid extracts, elixir ta hlets. etc. Bacteriologist and analyst iu private laboratory ; to take charge of routine analvses. Chemist for investigntion in making wood “pirits of turpentine; well drilled in organic cllPmistry. Photomet,·\(> and testing gas ana Iyst. Chemist for cotton seed products and fertillz- These applications are for the most part for small men, and even so they do but constitute, probably, one one·thousandth part of the positions that are open to-day for competent men. And, even so, the 'bal! has but started to roll, It may b said, carefully and advisedly, "STAR” La ... LID. o :: ,!:: Attachment! For Foot I ATIIFb or Power LftlHES Suitable for flne lle(l1rlltt' “ork In tb:o:Pt air simp, garage, t:ol IMXIIH a!d hachlhe :h:p: Send for Catalogue 8I SENECA FALJS MFG. CO. 695 Water Street Seneca FaU•• N. Y •• U.S.A. THE SEBASTIAN IS-INCH ENGINE LATHE HIGH GRADE LOW PRICE Autom obile Builders, G ara ae., Repair and G ener. J Jobbine a Shops fnd this the ideal lathe for their wo rk. Cata log free. The Sebastian Lathe Co. 120 Culvert SI .. Cincinnati. Ohio For G unsml· tLs, T00I M a k ers, E xperimental&Repair Work, etc. F rom 9 -I. D. to 13 ·I. D. sWing. Arranged for Stee am or F oot Power, Veloci ped e or Stan-up Tr eadle. W. F.&J. Barnes Co. Established 1872. 1999 Ruby Street Rockford, I. Responding to the Call from the practical mecbaulc lor a Breast Drill tbat sball ecliuse all ex istmg Tools ot the . Iind, we are p1eased to intro . f ducetbe “A. J. W. CO." A8 8 EAST DRILL* wltb J'Gear Locking Dovlce . It has all the strWlg. us eful and practical D( ints of existing D rtUs. ana leal improvem ents added t h at are peculiar to Itself. Pric e. $5 ••) O. A. J. WILKIN !ON&CO., MACHINERY 184·188 Woohl"cton Street. BOSTON, MASS. $1.25 KNIFE FREE Agent' Outfit AGENTS Make $5.00 to $10.00 a day easy, selling our popular Photo Pocket Knives. 1002 profit. OverlOOO designs. Sell on sight. Emblems for all lodges, societies, churches, etc. New process Vanadium steel blades. Write today for money mining plan. Canton Cutlery Co. Dept. C23 Canton, O. Make. repairs Ieat and quick. Mends harness, shoes, can vas. Myers' Sewing Awl makes Lock Stitch • $1 prepaid. Big money for agents. t. A. MYERS CO •• 637UexlngloD Ave .. Chicago, 111. IFS FI1MF TflOIS SPECIAL IES, nNE TOOLS MACHINERY METAL SPECIALTIES INVENTIONS UOORE&CO., 1m d,ans.a&F^o - PERFECTED! MIH & I ^ « Experimental&Model Work Circular and Advice Free Gardam&Son, 80·86 Park Place, N. Y. Wm. =Tlf A KT'i'|«*r\ To manuf acture M ETAL WANTED SP ECIALT IES. 20 year. experience in making Dies. Tools and Special Machinery. Expert work. CompJete equipment. NATIONAL STAMPING&ELECTRIC WORKS Dept. 2, 412 So. Clinton Street, . Chicago, Ill. Models&Exp erimental Work INVENTIONS DEVELOPED SPECIAL MACHINERY • • • E. V. BAILLARD CO., 24 Frankforl Sl.,H. Y. THESCHWERDTLE SU »STEEL STAMPS LETTERS £ FIGURES. BRIDGEPORT CONN. ?O\J USE GRINDSTONES? If so we can supply you. All sizes mounted and unmounted. always kept in stock. Remember, WP make a speclaltyof sel ectin” slOnes for all special purposes. :end Jor catalogue “I." Theel,EVELAND STOXE (:O. 6th Floor. Hickos Bldg., C1evelaDd, O. MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOISTS save expense and liahllity incident to Elevators. Adopted by principal storebouses in New- York&B o ston IManfd. by VOLNEY W. MASON&( 0 •• IDC. PI·ovJderuce. n. I •• I. S. A. ItlBRlCATfSVo^ ANYTHING «tKK 118-124 Sorth CHntoo 8k' Veeder Counters to register reciprocating movements or revolutions. Cnt fnIl size. Booklet l· ree. VEEDER M FG. CO. 18 Sargeant St., Hartford , Conn. Clle/omel ..s. Oaomete••• Tachomet('R. Counters and Vin, CartiIO', Renresen ttd ill R ,eat Br ltaio by MARKT&Co., LIMI'I'I W . K City Road, Hnshur: S1. London: E. C; Fr.inrej by MABKI&n Co., LIMITI Wb, U'7 A ve nue Parm HllItier. faris; Germany, AU lnla n unKary Id SC3udlnav•IBu CouDtrle. LlDW. I.o,Wm lb Co .. Huttea StrB'8 17.U0, Berlin. « p1's. bJ September 1 6 , 1 9 1 1 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 26f Perfect Team Work of Perfect Units-that is what Wins the Typewriter Game. The L. C. Smith&Bros. Typewriter (Ball-Bearing, Long-Wearing) is a rare and unusual combination of mechanical features of superior excellence, each of which is designed, First-To do its individual work better than it could be done in any other way. And, Second-To work so smoothly and accurately, in conjunction with all others. that the completed result is just as perfect as the work of any individual part. That is what makes a good·working typewriter-it is what justifes the overwhelming verdict of 150,000 users in a ppr ov al of the L. C. Smith& Bros. Typewriter -it is why this typewriter does all kinds of work superlatively well without ntlachments and gives no disappointing results. Send for free descriptive matter today. 1. C. SMITH&BROS. /^-v > TYPEWRITER CO. (U; Branches in all large cities Head Office for Domestic and Foreign Business, Syracuse, N. Y., U. S. A. J Ma! APolara!us. t Grand Book CatalQgue. Over 700 engraving: :25c. Parlor Tricks Catalog ue, free. MAl'lNKA&co.. Mfrs., .!)3 Si:Ub Ave., New York MSS. Sold on Commission RCYl'!g, Criticising, typirjg. Publishers of novels and teadhlg Magn-ametor': Directen by successfUl author. Endorsed br leadil)g -aJ itors. Sat:sfied clients everywhere. Writ!l tor helpful booklet. LITERARY B U REA U , Inc., 830 Stephen Girard Bldg., Philadelphia MADE IN 4 STYLES THE HOLTZER MAGNETO CLOCK will saleguard your factory, by keeping your watchman awake. Makes indelible, indisputable records. Will reduce insurance costs. too. Send for bulletin 1552. The Holtzer-Cabol Elee. Co. Brookline, Mass . . Chicago, III. [BRIGHTEN UP ^'FICE^'BANK, SCHOOL or HOME h using WASHBURNE'S PATENT PAPER FASTENERS. 75,000,000 SOLD the past YEAR should convince YOU of theirSUPERlORITY. TladeO.K.Ma,t Mad. of brass, 3 sizes. In brass boxes of 100. Handlom •• Compact.Strong.No Slipping,NEVER! Al st_tioners. Send 10c for sample box 01 50,L^ aorted sizes. Illustr ated hooklet free. yBr XS T. O. K. Mfg. Co., Syracuse, N . Y. NO I B The Last Word in Check Protection Send for Booklet and Sample Check "T'HE SUN CHE CK W RIT ER is tne only m ach ine that p roduces T writing that cannot be alte red or erased in any way without .eteCtion. It g ives you Check Assurance without ad ditional detail or labor. ^ Your business is not safe with out a Sun Check Writer as the first raised check may cripple your business. THE SUN CHECK WRITER, 315 B'way, New York that in the immediate future and for twenty years the demand for works chemists will far exceed the supply. The revolution in factory practice that is proceeding is the most amazing in the whole history of American industrial development. The factory of whatever type that does not possess at least one works chemist will be an anomaly. The larger factory organizations are now rapidly establishing bureaus of research requiring the services of many chemists. It is as the heads, or chiefs, of such bureaus that men have some of the largest opportunities in contemporary industrial chemistry. Even to-day salaries of from ten to forty thousand dollars a year are being paid to chiefs of research. Equally attractive in opportunity is the profession of consulting chemist. One of the most significant features of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry that met two years ago in London was the presence there of consulting chemists whose incomes derived from specialized knowledge in practical chemistry were princely. The man who can make himself a supreme authority even in a very limited field of industrhl chemistry has limitless opportunities for achievement and of adequate reward. Still again, a chemist, neglecting both positional and consultative work, may work simply as an inventor. In the past, such a man was almost inevitably robbed. To-day as a general rule he receives equitable treatment, particularly if he comes of good scientific antecedents. Finally, as one of the most significant illustrations of the spread of scientific ideas in industry, there should be cited the establishment at the Universities of Pittsburgh and Kansas of the system of Industrial Fellowships. The University of Pittsburgh has recei"ed some eighty thousand dollars from various companies, the whole amount of which is to be expended in the next two years in salaries for chemist·investigators. In the University of Kansas some thirty-five thousand dollars have been involved. All this money passes out of the direct control of the donating companies for chemical investigation. The Technically Trained Foreman (Ooncluded from 1"ge 2,;.) stking machine, rOlling jack, glazing jack, buffing wheels, and measuring machine. Special rooms are also provided for finishing, drying and tacking. As will be noticed the equipment for this line of work is more extensive than the other. The reason fOT this is, that the National Association of Tanners are cooperating with the Institute in providing more extended courses in this branch of industry, which shows very clearly that our manufacturing interests realize the importance of this kind of education. By the middle of the winter term each student has worked in all of the model factories and has finished his instruction in dyeing; so that for the remainder of the year his time is devoted entirely to that industry in which he intends to specialize. Like all new undertakings this course of instruction has been sOUlewhat criticised, especially by those who have not taken the trouble to investigate the methods followed and the object to be attained. It has been said that it is nonsense to teach a young man a little about soap, a little about dyeing, a little about paint, and a” little about leather. This perhaps would be nonsense if It were all that the course accomplished, but such is not the case. Up to the time that the student begins to specialize it is not so much what he learns about any particular industry, but it is what he learns about operating typical machinery, handling men, assuming responsibility, and gaining self·reliance that counts. In other words, he is brought in touch with manufacturing operation, he handles material on a suffCiently large scale to produce something which has a commercial value. If through carelessness or failure to follow directions he spoils a lot of goods it means an actual loss in dollars and cents which in a factory would be very apt to cost him his job. That this method develops self confidence is evident by the pride and interest which each foreman, and his men as well, take in the product manufactured, especially when the product is of fine quality, and it is also How to Motor Anywhere Without Asking a (Question T ODAY a motorist can tour from one e nd of the United S tates to the other without asking a question as to route and without losing the road. It is Simple and Easy- There are today available a number of route books which give the correct speed indicator mileage at every landmark, railroad or change of direction. All of these route books which have been adopted as “official” by the Automobile Clubs (and most of the others) have been laid out with the Warner Auto-Meter, “The Aristocrat of Speed Indicators." Because exhaustive tests proved to the Road Map Makers that every Warner was just like every other, and that the mileage sbown by the Map Car Warner would appear on the trip dial of every other T arner that ever passed that point. Note How Touring With a Warner Works Out in Practice. We could easily fill this space with touring experiences, all leading up to the samf conclusion-hundreds of miles of absolutely unknown territory traveled without a single direction asked, even in the large cities. . couple will suffice. The first week in June a millionaire manufacturer of Davenport, Iowa, while in Detroit, bought a popular prieed car to “drive bimself.” 'ho frst time he ever took hold of a steering wheel was on this car, in the outskirts of Detroit. His lessons gave him the “'bug” to such an. extent that he determined to drive home to Davenport. So he bought an Official Route Book and a Warner and made the whole distance without asking a single question. At Every Direction the Warner and the Route Book Corresponded Exactly. A few days ago we met a Motor .nthusiast in Cbicago en route for San Francisco with his wife a nd SOD. He had never been more than a short distance away from New York before. He had not been compelled to ask a direction up to that time-nor will be the remainder of the distance. If every owner of a car could bave listened to bis enthusiastic eulogy of the Warner, they would never again be satisfied with an inferior indicator. An Exclusive Warner Refinement Which Adds Still Further to the Joys of Touring. All Warner instruments of the dial type (see illustration) have two resetting buttons for the trip mileage fgures. One resets the fig llres to 000.0 with a single turn. The other works on the tentbs of a mile only, making it possible to turn up any desired mileage on the trip scale This makes it possible to drive around the boulevards or through the parks at any point and then in a few seconds set the mileage back to correspond with the Route Book readings. Those who tour regularly will appreciate this refinement. Those Who Select Unreliable Indicators Because of Low Price are Missing the Big Joys of Motoring. 'he Warner was selected for surveying the routes in these different Route Books because unvaryingly accurate and reliable. Every Warner was found to indicate exactly the same as every other, No two indicators of other makes indicated the same. You should have a Warner on your car to interpret these routes for the same reason, if you do any touring. If you don't tour you are mi£sing the most fascinating part of motoring . WARNER ” The Aristocrat of Speed Indicators" T HE Warner can be secured through reputable Automobile Dealers in an y city or town in the United States. Warner branches are m aintain ed in all the principal citie s for the convenience of these dealers and their customers. Inquiry to Beloit or at our branches is invited for Warner literature. Free to Automobilists A vest-pocket “ Automobile ----------------------------------------- Expense Recordu tab i n - dexed for conveniendy keeping account of tires. gasoline oil, repairs, etc. Sent FREE for name and model of your car. Address S. C. ANDREWS, Booklet Dept., Warner Instrument Co., Beloit, Wis. Warner Instrument Company Main Offices and Factory 1184 Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis. Branch Houses Maintained at Atlanta Pittsburgh Boston Cleveland Kansas City Portland. Ore . Buffalo Denver Los Angeles San Francisco Chicago Detroit New York Seattle Cincinnati Indianapolis Philadelphia St. Louis Canadian Branch, 559 Yonge Street, Toronto, Onto (141 264 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Sf pttIll bel I6, HlI I j are not only correct, but they confer a fine air of distinction. Styles that are recognized as always r.ght -quality that is the finest' that can be put into a hat/ -splendid workmanship -these unite to give the tone that is appreciated by men I who know hat values. The favor in which these hats are held is not a matter of chance, but of merit. W hether you pay $3.00, .$4.00 or $5.00 for a vm$i£>*ri*J(a£, you are a ssured of getting the best quality that can be put into any hat at the price. ] You are assured of the money' s worth that only a great organization can give'assured of the styles that lead because created by the most artistic. skillful designers. . Satisfaction in the hat you wea r IS guaranteed to yol by the dealer in 9?n^zft>ud%rfw4f. It must be to your liking We stand behind him in this absolute guarantee. Prices, $3. $4 a'd IS. At your Jeater·s. or if he c a nno t supply you* --'' write for Fall and Winter Style Book A , and we will fill your order direct from factory if you indicate style wonted and give hat size. your hei6hf. weight and waist measure. Add 2Sc to cOVer ex p ressage . We are Makers of the Hawesvonfial Ji>* INCORPORATED “ Celebrated $3 Hat Factories: Dan bury, Conn. Niagara Falls Ontario, Canada Straw Hat Factory: Baltimore, Md. Offices and Salesrooms : 1178 Broadway New York 207 Washington Street Boston *No Metal Can Touch You S Are the universal }irl cllo;a. They are the handsomest and most durable Garters made and afford the maximum of comfort. co;;f There's a printed guarantee of satisfaction with e\ery pair. Look for the name PJRIS on every garter. A. STEIN & CO., CH ICAGO : Makers U. S. A. DON'T PAY TWO PRICES—| Save $18.00 to 52.00 on HOOSIER RANGES AND HEATERS "Why not buy the best when Myou can buy them at such low, un-Hieard-of Factory Prices? THIRTY “ DAYS FREE TRIAL BEFORE YOU BUY. Our new improvements absolutely surpass anythingever produced. rnnn.lin>RfMlY BS^** SEND POSTAL TODAY FOR rosier steei ^ 0UR FREE CATALOG AND PRICES. | HOOSIER STOYE FACTORY 251 State St. Marion, Ind. ROTARY PUMPS AND ENGINES Their Origin and Development An important series of papers giving a historical resume of the rotary pump and engine from 1 588 and illustrated with dear drawings showing the construction of various forms of pumps and engines. 38 illustrations. Contained in Supplements '109. 1110, 11'1. Price 1 0 cen t s each. For sale by Munn&Co, I nc ., and all newsdealers. S c h 0 0 I l nf or mation FRrr Catalog* of ;*!! boar-din;,* spools in V. S” Ailvl ree. Re. r lS.iL EL liable Ijiii^ui iiiniMiiiuvt] >>y the U, S. schools. Stale “"N:. AMERIC AN SCHOOLS' ASSOCIATIO W 41 Park How, 1EW yom\: 1:16 to 15 1Un.ouie temple, t:}IH'AUO nun Fils the fiire Ierfeclly-V\4>rii Shrink Always Springs Back io Shape UNDERWEAR is aneeessity-but Wright's Spring-Needle Ribbed Underwear is a luxury at the mod- j erate price of a neceJ.rit)'-$J. 00, $1. 50, $2 . 00, for shirts ( or drawers i $1. SO to $4.00 for union suits i at all dealem. WRIGHTS Spm^tf^ile Ribbed UNDERWEAR is a wonderfully elastic fabric, permanently “pringy. Fits any figure perfectly, and keeps its shape uuder the hardest usuage. Very durable. The Non-Stretching Neck (pat. appld. for) ensures neck will always I snug. Made in fine Egyptian cotton, all-w?ol, or cottol-:d-'oot, ill niOH* ,·,)io1s. All weights for :11 ,'easons. If not at your dealpl'\', itl lis llis: li:,me and we'll see you are buppiled. - - —I Write for hOOklet showing samples WRIGHT'S o diff erent fabrics. SPHINGr<"> NEEDLE WRIGHT'S HEALTH UNDERWEAR CO. 1,-g____-'\,l!j/c_______ lbkers of the iumom; \light's Health Tl- ' TRADE \^ WARK delwear (all wool. fle.eB-lined), amI WriKh'.\. DlPllCn IlitinCDVAfTAR :prin)-NHl,lltRibbed PndtrweUl, _ _EntlHJNUbKW _ 74 Franklin Street, New York gratifying to note the disappointment when the product is not up to' the stanu-ard, or the cost of prod uction exceeds the price received for the finished article. When the student begins to specialize, however, a differpnt condition obtains. and he then does learn, not a little, but VAry much about that particlllar industrv into which he hopes to enter for his life's work. It should be plainly understood that no school can turn out experiel'ed paint makers, or expert tanners, but that the training received so fits young men that they can readily adapt themselves to the conditions encountered in the manufacturing plant. Of the one hundred and two young men who have taken this course there are ninety-nine employed in chemical lines, of which number sixty are doing practical wo;k. Of the latter number seventeen are employed in tanneries, sixteen in paint and color works, and the remainder are scattered throughout other lines of industry'. These men hold positions as Managers, Assistant :anagers, Superintendents, Assistant Superintendents, Foremen and helpers. Although many of the graduates go into analytical lines we do not make this our aim, for We feel that that field belongs to the colleges and technical schools. The one great object which is always uppermost and for which we are constantly striving is to train young men for responsible positions in the factory, where by neason of their technical training they will be able to work more intelligently and in sympathy with the chemist, who under present conditions oHen finds it impossible even to try out his ideas in a practical way owing to the non-receptive attitude taken by those who have the practical work in hand. We are a nation of vast resources and if we wish to conserve them we must improve our factory ('onditions. .ot only must we have the trained chemist with his scientific and tedical knowledge, but we must have technically trained and intelligent workmen as well. The foreman who works by rule-of-thumb is no better than a machine, but the man who uses the brains which GDd gave him and knows what he is doing will not only make a better product, but will be capable of grasping the details of the technical points involved. It is the humble opinion of the writer that the time is fast approaching when all positions of responsibility will be held by men who have received a technical education, e,her in the university, eDllege, technical school, tDade school, or vocational institution, and especially from those schools which aim to emphasize the practical side of the tfchnical subjects they are endeavoring to teach; for then the foreman, the superintendent, and the chemist can talk in a language familiar to them all, and the details will no longer he shrouded in mystery. Oswego Serge -for men's attI. re depends not on fashIon , s whims. It IS a staple fabric and worn through all seasons. A serge suit IS part of every man's wardrobe. Whether the suit be custom -made or ready -to -wear, the sterling quality of Oswego Serge speaks for itself. Oswego Serge is made by AencaWoolen Company WmHWood. President. Oswego Serge IS made In a deep, rich Navy Blue and In Black. Oswego Serge is made of the finest wool and - quality considered - - priced low. Whether ordering a custom-made suit of your Tailor or a ready-to-wear suit of your Retail Clothier, insist on Oswego Serge. If unable to obtain Oswego Serge, send us the name of your Tailor or Retail Clothier, accompanied by money order or check for quantity desired, at $3.00 per yard, and we will see that you are supplied. Y our Tailor will do the rest. Samples furnished on request. Special Fabrics For Out -of -door Clothing TO MEET EVERY REQUIREMENT OF THE EXACTING SPORTSMAN, TOURIST OR MOTORIST F Clot. (Shade No. 6S) as an out· door fabric is ideal, because dust and wind proo f - sheds water - and being a beautiful shade of olive-green commends itself to the woodsmen; has been adopted by the U. S. Government as standard for the Forestry Department. Comes in several weights. Ouvauto (Jorh - a fabric similar to the above in weave - made in an attractive shade of hght brown and especially suited for riding and driving clothes, motorists' apparel, outing suits and raincoats. These cloths are highest grade, pure all wool worsted, closely woven, very durable and uniform in color. Samples of Forestry Cloth and Oi'Vautp (orh sent upon request. If you are unable to procure these fabrics from your Tailor, we will see that you are supplied upon receipt of price. When ordering specify fabric and nlber of yards desired. /j Cloth $2.7S; Ouvauto (OTt, $3.50 per yard. AMERICAN WOOLEN COMPANY OF NEW YORK AMERICAN WOOLEN J. Clifford Woodhull, Selling Agent BUILDING, - - - 18th to 19th St. 4th Ave., New York Order the f cloth as well ^ :” as the.clothes. JI '$ 266 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN September 16, 1911 The Haynes Goes Everywhere A ND the best part of it is that ever since 1893 the Haynes has been going everywhere tha t any au tomobile could go. Eightee n years of the history of auto-mobiling are built into the 1912 H aynes. This m eans a w hole lot to you who are considering the buying of your first automobile this year, or the buying of another to take the place of the old one that is worn out or isn't good enough. This eighteenth year of the Haynes car is a year of triumph for the pioneer American builder of automobiles. Last year automobile experts, and the public as a whole, declared the Haynes had reached the limit of quality production at a $2100 price. It was hard to figure how any Ire automobile worth could be put into a car at the price of the splendid 1911 model , but there is more in the 1912 Haynes, and the price remains $2100. The 1912 Haynes is not radically different from its recent predecessors. It is not radically better, but it does represent more all-'round value than anybody has ever before been able to put into a car selling at the Haynes price. The 1912 Haynes is a bigger car-120-inch wheel base: it's a ro o mier car-wider rear seat and more depth both in the tonneau and in front: it's a more powerful car-the 4ix5t motor gives forty to forty·five horse power: it's a safer car-larger brakes give one square inch of braking surface to every thirteen p o un d s of car· an d it is a snap pier, more stylish car-the whole car is finished in black with sev ente en h an d·rub bed coats of paint , and the trimmings are of black enamel and mcke!. The 1912 Haynes is now ready for delivery. You can see the new models at our branches and agencies, or we will send you a catalogue and name of dealer nearest you. The line is complete, meeting every demand-5-passenger Touring, 40 h. p., $2 100; 4-passenger, 40 h. p., Close-Couple, $2100; Colonial Coupe, 40 h. p., $2 45 0; 7-pas senger Touring, 5 0-60 h. p., $3000; 4-passen ger Close-Couple, S O-SO h. p., $3000; Model 21 Limousine, 40 h. p., $2750; Model Y Limousine, 50-60 h. p., $3800. Complete regular equipment for all models is of the very highest class. Provision is made for the installation of electric lighting equipment at nominal cost. Address HAYNES AUTOMOBILE COMPANY, Dept. E, Kokomo, Indiana NEW YOR; 1715 Broadway CHICAGO, 1702 Michigan Avenue The Wm. H. Bristol Electric Pyrometers equipped with the patented sectional thermocouple consisting of Fire End and Extension Piece arid furnished with Weston Electrical movements. Ca.alogu ed in 56-pag e illustrated Bulletin No, 130 which will be mailed upon request. See also new 64-page illustrated Bulletin No. 160 which is a condensed general catalogue of Bristol Instruments for pressure, temperature TBE BRISTOL COMPANY, WATERBURY, CONN. '''POROX'' Storage Batteries The best tor ignition and light. No Joss Ot f cur r ent. Absolutely reliable. Trar: fa rent lars a!: used forall batteries. 6 volt,61) ampere bonr ·battery. Price 8o£4.00. Send tTO catalQg'l ALBERT MULLER Hoffman Boulevard, Dear Hillside Ave. JAMAlCA, N. Y. BIG MONEY FOR YOU Selling our metallic letters for office windows, store fronts, signs. Any one csm put them on. Nice, pleasant business. Big demai everywhere. Write today for free sample and full particulars. METALLIC SIGN LETTER CO., 438 North Clark Street, Chicago HAMBURG-AMERICAN CRUISES to ITALY dnd EGYPT IN ADDITION TO OUR REGULAR MEDITERRANEAN SAIUNGS THERE WILL BE A SnPrial Trip by the sup erb t ran satlantic line r “Kaiserin August e Vic toria” Specai tip (25,00 0 tons ) to Madeir a, G ihraltar. R iviera, Ita ly, Egypt and the Nile. The largest and most luxurious i; : q steamer of the Hamburg-American service. Equipped | with Ritz-Carlton Restaurant, Palm Garden, Gymna-I sium, Electric Elevators, etc. \ Will leave New York, February 14th, 1912, arrivini at FUDCbal (Madeira), February 21st; Gibraltar, February 23d; Algiers, February 24th: Vilefranche (Nice), February 25th; Genoa, February 26th; Naples, February 28th, and Port Said, March 2d. Returning, the “Kaiserin Auguste Victoria” will leave Port Said March 4th for New York, via Naples and Gibraltar. Time for sight-seeing at each por t. To or from Port Said, $ J 65 and up. To and from all other ports, $ J J 5 and UP' HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 41-45 Broadway, New York Philadelp hia Pittsburg i Bton Ca St. Louis San Frani Science Chinese and Japanese Bells. -ConsuI S. L. Gracey, stationed at Foochow, calls attention in the Daily Oonsular Reports to the soft and smooth tone of the bells in use at temples and monasteries in China and Japan. The quality of the tone if due not only to the use of excellent material, but also to the absence of iron clappers. The bells are never swung, but are always suspended in a fixed frame, and are sounded by striking them on the outer edge with a wooden mallet. 1asuchika Shimose.-Masuchika Shi· mose, who invented the high explosive TO which the name Shimose powder was given by the Japanese navy, died on September 7th. He was professor of applied chemistry and was born in 1859. For several years he was superintendent of the ammunition departmeD of the naval arsenal, during which time he made extensive researches in connection with explosives. His compound was adopted in 1893 by the Japanese navy, and for his services a decoration and a-sum of money were granted to him. Facts About Mastication •. -The force required to crush an ordinary nut, such as one too often sees cracked between the back teeth, has been shown to be equal to a weight of more than 110 avoirdupois pounds, directly applied. The amount of saliva daily secreted by the average male adult is about 1% liters or 1.59 U. S. quarts. In thoroughly chewing 100 grammes of “Zwieback"-a kind of sweet toa,:e1 bread-^there is needed half a liter (0.53 U. S. Quart) of saliva; in masticating the same amount of ap-' pIes, only 1/25 liter or 2.44 cubic inches; that is, only 8 per cent, or about one-twelfth as much. A Shining Metal.-There is a legend among the peasants of Cornwall in England that at night there may be observed a faintly-shining mineral among the rocl:s brought from the mines. That this is not pure fancy has been proved by Prof. Strutt. A specimen of the mineral autunite, which is also found in Wales, was sent to him from Portugal because of its luminosity. He finds that it closely resembles artificially prepared salts of uranium, and that its luminosity is due to' spontaneous radio-activity. The light it sheds is stronger than that of nitrate of uranium. Upon parting with its water of crystallization the mineral loses its luminous property. The Size of the Oceans. -The Pacific Ocean covers 68,000,000 square miles; the Atlantic 30,000,000; and the Indian Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans 42,000,000. To stow away the contents of the Pacific it would be necessary to fill a tank one mile long, one mile wide and one mile deep, every day for 440 years. Put in fgures the Pacific holds in weight 948,-000,000,000,000,000,000 tons. The Atlantic averages a depth of not quite three miles. Its waters weigh 325,000,000,-000,000,000,000 tons, and a tank to contain thei .would have each of its sides 430 miles long. The figures of the other oceans are jl the same startling proportions. It would take all the sea water in the world 2,000,000 years to flow over Niagara, How We Ought To See.-Data have been gathered in Germany with reference to the distance at which persons may be recognized by their faces and fgures. If one has good eyes, the Grmans claim, one cannot recognize a person whom he has seen but once before at a greater distance than twenty·fve meters (eighty-two feet). If the person is well-known to one, one may recognize him at from fifty to one hundred meters. and if it is a member of one's family. even at one hundred and fifty meters. The whites of tbe eyes may be seen at from twenty-seven to twenty-eight meters, and the eyes themselves at seventy-two to seventy-three meters. The different parts of the body and the slightest movements are distinguishable at ninety-one meters. The limbs show at one hundred and eighty·two meters. At five hundred and forty meters a moving man appears only as an indefinite form] and at seven hundred and twenty meters-2,361.6 feet-the movements of the body are no longer visible. Septembel' U, 1911 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 267 let the Red Devil Water Motor DoYour Work 6.ilcl! lUotO, Improved construction, abtwiute1v perfect, runs your 'washilg lhine amI a hundred ot.ill thingso P,)Wer for small tools. % horse power ou %-ineli Pipe, 80 pounds Pressuri; 1 horse powe,. on 2-inch pipe, til) pounds pressll.e. New net priee, $5.00 clsh order. iek. No. 1492 4inch '3L Motors for grind· N^ i ug, polishing and j· llIng. Runs ','. will. l1:1chines, f uIS, botde washers I'rice with emery, 1 ft Iter[, silver po'ish at I,'\-, *«.00; Nn. 1498 iiji.l pullev only $2.50. J^-horse 80 p m nds pressure. 1 in prov e d cons ttultion. Speeds, 3,000 to i,OOO re,'olutions per minute. O nly fcientifically and lIlech:tnically perfect small water IIolor manufactHl'ed. P'tenten cSanstmctiol makes It possible. Trelllendotls output W:rrants the price. ioney bac k for any reason. CATAl OGUE WRI T E TO·DAY 6·lncn Bucket Wheel DIVINE WATER MOTOR. COMPANY Dept. 12. Utica, New York, U.S.A. J'o1 t h e na me of your local hardware tool dealer, we will sen d you free booklet on “Theo ry and Desigu of Water Motors." DI D Beachy have confidence in hi., earths Motor when he }ew ovrr Niafara Falls and under thE Brid EvervooJy knows be muse have bad absolute confidence. Arl YO U goinl to ba.re as much confidcllce in tbe m otor YOU are Ioinl to install in YOUR aeroplane ! You can't if it isn't a Curtiss. There's a reason for if. Acquaintance develops confidence. Wh) not start right? 5O H. P. 4 Cyt. Power Plant 40 H P. 4 cyJ. Power Plant 60 H. P. S Cyl. Power Plant 7S H. P. g cyl. Power PBnt ()n;j of these you will efeur-iHlIy buy. Get our proposition now. Prompt deliveries. 4TIETISS IHOTOI! COMPANY Hammomlsport, \. i'. Aeroplane Motor m ELECTRIC? msm SPECIAL MACHINES MO!ORS ynamo. Grinders Polishers ROTH ELECTRIC MOTORS 198 Loomis Street, Chicago, !lIs. .2 -»»” * CYCLE I AH rvZ—-------» .Catalogue M Free of Motors. Catalogue 8 Tree of Boats. ENGINES FROM 2 TO 40 HP. PALMER BROS., E^ES-KIROSENE gasoline, disUIIut«—any fuel Wt Cheapest Safest, Simplest, POWER for Electric Lighting, Water Systems, Vacuum Cleaner?. everything. Complete plans fur-^ niaheti, expert advice. Adapter! for basement6! -anywhere Women ca opera'e. Comes complete. Ten exclusive re vol at ionizing features. FREE TRIAL !{ obl l:<Ll iOll 1.1 1 1 $atistied I ·'U:l1'IUllee. li ffln w1itejo • ELLIS ENGINE CO. 52 Mullett SI. Detroit, Mich. 'RUS-CON STONETEX- A Liquid Cement Coating for Stucco, Concrete and Brick APPLIED WITH A BRUSH Uniform in color results. Absolutely dampproof. Prevents mould and dampness reaching inside. Weather resisting. Does not chip off, crack or peel like paint. Becomes an inseparable part of the wall. sealing all porc, and filling hair cracks, gIvIng “"-, arl"tic flat linish as hard as flint. Adds to external heallly and durability Write for Free Stone-Tex Color Card and Detailed Suggestions. Trussed Concrete Steel Co. 402 Trussed Concrete Building DETROIT. MICH. Aeronautics Fatal Aet'oplane Accidents in America. -On September 2nd Captain John J. Frisbie, one of the most daring and best of our aviators, fell to his death in Kansas while making an exhibition flight. Frisbie did not wish to make the flight, but he did so to pleaJe the. public. His machine, whirh was equipped with a Gnome Iotor, is said to have turned completely over when flying in a gusty wind. On September 4th. Alexander ]cLeod, of Winnipeg, Canada, fell from a Curtiss biplane while making a flight at Chicago. McLeod's neck was broken, and he was fatally injured. The Transcontinental F I i g h t. -The transcontinental flight for a prize of $50,000 offered by a New York newspaper, has drawn forth no less than eight entries to date. Besides Mr. Robert G. Fowler. the Wright pilot whom we mentionel l in our last issue, the \right aviators, Rodgers, Parmalee, and Atwood, and the Curtiss aviator, James .. Ward, are planning to compete in their biplanes, and Earl L. OVington expects to attempt the flight in his Bleriot monoplane. In addition to the above·mentioned aviators, Mr. James V. Martin expects to try for the prize in a new headless biplane of his own deSign, and Mr. A. V. Reybnrn, Jr., of St. Louis, has also entered. Mr. Ward is making the chief effort to fly from New York and win the prize. He will be accompanied by a special train containing an extra machine and plenty of spare parts. The indications are that there will be a lively cross·country competition for this prize before the month is over. Mr. Glenn Curtiss's Ideas on Aeroplane Developrent.-Glenn f. Curtiss has had more experience than any other man with regard to the naval aeroplane, and he has recently made a statement summarizing the points upon which the aeroplane needs improvement for military and naval use. He believes that the first requisite is the ability to fly under all sorts of weather conditions, especially in strong winds. His own machines have demonstrated their ability in this direction. as we have already noticed. The points of improvement given by Mr. CurUss are the following 1. Degree of safety when operated in rough weather. 2. Speed in altitude climbing. 3. Scope of vision of operator and passengers. 4. Facility for alighting on either land or water and rising from either at wilL 5. Factors of safety in d,sign and construction. . 6. Weight carrying. In addition to these. further credits should be given for siall extent of surface offered as a target, for ability of either occupant LO operate the machine without inconvenience, for speed in packing and unpacking, and for facilities in launching the machine from a confined space. Record Flights at the BO!ton Meet.- The Boston meet was brought to a close on September 6th after a number of record flights had been made. The chief of these was the l60·mile cr0SS country race for monoplanes, with a $10,000 prize to the winner, which was flown on Labor Day. The course was from Boston to Nashua, N. H., to Worcester. Mass ., Providence, R 1., and return to the aviation field itt Squantum. Mr. Ovington, on his Bleriot monoplane, and Arthur Stone on a Queen monoplane were the only competitors, while in a biplane race over the same course. Lieut, Milling, in a Curtiss, and Harry M. Atwood in a ·right. were the only competitors. Atwood carried his father as passenger, but only flew 12 Illiles before he was obliged to descend on account of Ilotor trouble. The same was the case with Stone, who only covered about 10 miles before he was obliged to alight. Ovington completed the course in 3 hours and 6 minutes, alighting at each of the cities mentioned. Lieut. MiIling lost his way before he reached Nashua and he was obliged to alight at Concord and inquire which way to go. Owing to this and other delays he did not finish the race until after dark. He was awarded the first prize of $7,500, his time for thf flight being G hours and 22 minutes. Another feature- or the mett was the willnillg of the ::·rile race ,t.o the Boston Light and hack twice over, by Grahame·White in h,s Nieuport in 27-35 1/5. This is the fastest time ever llll (k over this course. 'Fame Follows Where Everitt Goes The 1912 Self· Starting Everitt" Price, Fully EqUIpped, $1500 The New E veritt Models-The “Six", The .. Four” and the UThirty” Are Ready For Your Inspection At A Nearby Dealer's-See Them T HE recent announcements of the 1912 Everitt have literally amazed the country. The values offered are so ullllSal and unexpected that it is little wonder their possibility has been freely doubted. I t has even been said, bv some, that if such a car as the Everitt Chrome-Nickel Self-St arting Six could really be sold for $1850, no m an in his right sen ses would th ink of buying any other if he could g et an EverItt. Other manufacturers have frankly admItted thIS. They dId ^S not see how w w e could do it; they did not be . eve we 'ould do it. But the proofs are open to anyone. The affidavit> of famous steel-makers; an inspection of our factory; the record of the men behind the car-most of !ll, its own test, in your hands-show conclusively that these cars have really “ bridged the gap between the $1500 price and the $4000 quality." Chrome-Nickel Steel Construction To those who know anything of fine steels, no argument is needed to show the superiority of Chrome-Nickel. A Chrome-Nickel Steel car-as any engineer Can tell you-is about three times the usual strength. The new Everitt Six and Four-cylinder cars are built throughout of this incomparable material, making them well-nigh un-bleakable and unwearable in service. So far as known, these are the only cars, selling below $4000, in which this matchless steel is used to any extent. This material comes from two of the best producers of fine steels in this country-the Billings and Spencer Company, and the Crucible Steel Company of America, at a cost of nearly three times what “good automobile steel” commands. The affidavits of these two great concerns -showing beyond question that the Everitt is entirely constructed of Chrome-Nickel Steel-have recently been reproduced word for word in our public announcements. Every Desirable and Modern Feature ™ addition, these cars are provided with a Compressed Air Self-Starter which r»^w start.S the motor and pumps the liSjv tires. The wheels are big and ' l >£/ massive, and provided with L4*^ Demountable Rims. The de-sign is clean-cut and handsome, with all levers and door-handles inside . Fu ll equipment, with everything of the b est, is included. Except for size and num ber of cy linders, the new “F our” shown above, is practically a duplicate oj the “Six". Both these cars, wi th the famous “Everitt Thirty,” are beyond comparison from the standpo in ts of reliability and serv ice. We invite you to see these new models at your earliest opportunity. The brief specifications of the Everitt “Four-36” are as follows: Wbeelbase. 115 in.; Wheels and Tlr e s. 34 x 4 in.; H o rsep o w e r, 36; Demountable Rims; Honey· Comb Radiator; Long 5uoke Motor; Compressed Air Self·Statter and THe Pump; Chrome·Nickel Steel Construction Throughout; Top; Windshield; Speedomeler, and Prestollte included. Price. $1500. Metzger Motor Car Company, Detroit, Michigan Send catalog and name of deale, Sci. A·2. Running Water in the (ounlry Borne Without fel (ost A p,Ipiug engine costs you money for fuel ev«i milute it runs-a windmill runs only when titer wind-hotl CODstantty require repairs·. but, the Niagar a Hy draulic R a m tiolNt.iaalogllsly p umps W:itel' :4bo nrs a day, wlthout cost of fllel, year after rear without n"eesf:ty of re pairs . \ rite at o nce fO eatalogne AA anrl sniarant.eed AsHmatf. 0 (GARA HYDRAULIC ENGINE to. 75O Heed llldg., Phita. Factory. Chcslrr. l»:i. CRUDE ASBESTOS DIRECT FROM MI NES R. H. MARTIN, OFFICE, ST.PAUL BUILDING 220 B'way, New York. PREPARED ASBESTOS FIBRE lor Manufacturers Use LEARN A TRADE BETOR OWN BOSS Steady. big p aying: work if you-learn Eleeh'i(lll Work, rtniiib ing, Briclilaying1, Paint. ing ald Decoratim, by our prdtical' personal i'nstrlctione ; ctuaFk ta: place of bonks. \e help grai!uates to good positions. Easy payments. lo; Jiving :penses. Tools a"d mate:t:;s fiiniisi:od fr;e. Irite to-J!yior floN> catalogue COYNE NA'IION.Ul 'l'RADE S <IIOOljS 60 E. Illinois Strect Ulinlgu, Ill. E!!c!r!city in One Year Complete— Thorough —:r!tica· -Authoritati ve. No superflcials or non-essentials. Actual construction, installatiOn and test-j ng, Admits only young: men of character and stickability. Its _ grad uates are “m aking. g ood” aU largest and OIdes! over the world. Writ e for new Teaching Electrlcily Onl, illustrated ca,ta,logue, OpensSept.20 BLISS ELECTRICAL SCHOOL, 20 TAKOMA AVE., WASHINGTON, O. C. BUI WAJM RsrJOTAOU LINES The"GoldToPFeed" Keeps the pen point or nib wet with ink so that the pen writes the minute it touches the paper. ast;mdash;Thf apos;Screwdown Cap" The ldquo;Ladder Feedapos; Controls the flow of ink, supplying the exact amount necessary-no more-no less. This special feature makes it impossible for the pen to blot or skip and insures comfort and Cre i a vacuum around t h e mb so that it is impossible for the pen to leak no matter in what position the pen is carried "SWAN SAFETYrdquo; FOUNTPENS can be purchased at all stationers and jew elers in any part of the world where pens are sold . dollar;2.50, dollar;3.50, raquo;4.00, raquo;5. 00 and up. pleasure in writing. MABIE, TODD J ? Malden Lane. ;(\\. York lowbar;lowbar;lowbar; lowbar;lowbar;,,lowbar;lowbar;lowbar; 19middot;8apos;0 Uigh Holbolapos;n. London l2rdquo; Yor lhul(heapos;telmiddot;. Ptli". ldquo;ru""f.laquo; and ldquo;ydlUapos;v COMPANY 209 So. !tute Street. t:hicaeo k Street, Toronto