This improvement is designed to enable persons having the old style of iron works with puddling furnaces to compete successfully with the new processes. It consists in applying in a bath of meltod cast iron a box or vessel with one open side preferably at the bottom, and composed of any suitable substance, such as cast iron, green wood, or fire clay, in which are placed such substances as are desired to act upon the bath of molten iron in the furnace; this has been found to be a very effective and economical manner of imparting to the bath of iron such properties as are desired to be given to it, and also which evolve oxygen also form, very effective fluxes by reason of their salts combining with the silica, maguesia, and alum- nia, in the iron and oxides covering the bath and lining the furnace, the iron and oxides are thus purified by the action of the gases and salts and alloyed with the proper quantities of the substances introduced into the bath for the purpose by means of the box or vessel; the operation is thus two-Told, the alloying takes place at the same time that the refining or purifying action is performed. By this process it is possible to obtain from the most inferior grades of pig iron an article of steel having all the welding properties of iron and of uniform quality, and of the tensile strength of 180,000 lbs. to the square inch. The annexed sketch represents the box with handle attached for convenience of the workmen in moving it about the furnace. When thus applying two to three per cent of nitrates to the weight of the cast iron in a puddling furnace that was “ fixed “ with iron ore, a gain of ten per cent of puddled bars was obtained over the weight of the pig iron charged in the furnace, whilst the time of the labor in puddling was shortened fully one third ; there was consequently a saving to this extent in labor, time, and “fuel. Wm. Fairbairn, Esq., the eminent English engineer, has recently reported to a scientific association, that nitrate steel, produced from the most inferior grades of pig iron, that of Northamptonshire, England, is superior in quality to the pneumatic process steel made from the best Lancashire pure steel irons. This process is cheaper than the English nitrate process referred to,or any other process of making iron or steel, and pr®- duces more uniform results than any, and of the best quality. Nitrate of soda is formed in Peru in inexhaustible quantities ; the tract of territory covered by it is 120 miles long a»d s^eral feet deep, and it can be delivered in English or American ports at about £8 lOs., per tun or $42 in gold or about two cents per pound, the price here now is quoted at four and a half cents (gold), this is owing to the scarcity at present existing, caused by the derangements of operations in Peru by earthquakes last year. . Patented Aug. 17,1869, by James Henderson. Further information may be had by addressing Player and Henderson, 30 Broadway, New York © 1869 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. Improvement in Flooring Clamps. A want has long been felt in laying floors for some devico, could be quickly applied to press the boards together [before nailing. The improvement shown in our engraving 1\las been used, and is claimed to answer all the purposes required . A reprssents the stock of the clamp, havirng two right- angled brackets, B and C, which are in use placed over and under the joists. '-The lower bracket is provided with a set- screw 0r stud, D, which is designed to bite into the wood to prevent slipping. The upper bracket supports a hinged tongue, E, which may be raised to permit the application of said stock to joists, and swings down ,again to prevent the stock from falling lateraUy. Near tho top of said stock a cranked lever, F, is pivoted to A, having a sharp heel, G, which, when an use, bites into the top of the joists, to prevent -.slipping. It is also provided with a segmental rack , H,to hold what is gained by the clamping k^r I,which is provided with a pawl to catch into the rack, H ; but the clamp may also be used without the rack. In operation a clamping block, J, is laid on the joists in front of the board to be clamped, and nailed. The tongue or guard, E, is then raised, and the stock or clamp, A, is placed on the joist in fr°nt of said block, letting the tongue, E, swing down. By p ulling the levers apart the flooring is effectually clamped. The lever, F, forces the set-screw or stud, D, into the bottom of the joist, and by the same motion the I!l,larp hecl of F is inserted above, thus giving a sure hold to the clamping lever, 1. The inventor claims that this implement will pay its 'cost in saving of time and labor in a single fortnight. Patented through the Scientific American Agency, Aug. 3, 18G9. For further information or for State rights apply to the inventor, David Nevin, Boulder City, Colorado. sapon the rocks, and I found clinging to my right hand, by Ms long arms, a large octopod cuttle fish, resembling the one illustrated in this article, and I began to suspec.li. that I had caught a Tartar. His long arms were wound around my hand, and these arms, by the way, were covered with r°ws of suckers, some what like those with which boys lift and escape from them was almost impossible. I knew that this fellow's sucking propensities were not his worst ones, for these cuttle fishes are furnished with sharp jaws, and they know how to use them too, so I attempted to get rid of him. But the rascal, disengaging one slimy arm colordo
This article was originally published with the title "James Henderson's Improvement in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel"