REfARCHES ON THE EVOLUTIO: OF THE STELLAR SYSTEMS. VOL. II. By Prof. '1. J. J. See. 1910. 735 pp., 4to; 57 full-page insert plates. In place of Laplace's theory that rings of vapor were once thrown off from the sun to form the planets, and from the planets to form the satellites, Prof. See offers us his capture theory. Instead of regarding the planets as gradually detached from the sun and set revolviug in approximately circular orbits. Prof. See endeavors to show that the planets have developed from small nuclei originating in our nebula, at a great distance from the sun, and that their orbits have since been reduced in size and rounded in to almost perfed circles by moving in a resisting mc'dium. If that idea is true, the planets were never part of the sun, and Laplace's ideas arc wrong. Similarly, Prof. See cndcavOJ's to show that satellites now revolving about the planets were originally independent bodies moving in regular elliptical orbits about the sun, but that they were afterward captured and made satellites by dropping in toward the planets about which they now revolve. An existing medium in the form of cosmieal dust is assumed to be responsIble for the capture of the satellites. The effects of repulsive forces in nature are dwelt upon in this volume even to greater extent than attractive forces. Heavy bodies drHting toward powerful centers of attraction under the action of gravitation alone are assumed to pass into smaller and rounder orbits, with each revolution, by moving in this resisting medium. Light bodies of small mass, in the form of fine cosmical dust, are driven away from the stars by repulsive force, and thus lead to the formation of nebulr in remote regions of space. . ccordingly, the repulsive force at work in the stars scatters the dust to form the nebulr; the condensation of the nbulr forms the stars, so that a cyclical process is at work in the universe, the nebulr producing the stars and the stars in turn producing the nebulm. Adequate analysis of Prof. See's work can be undertaken only by an astronomer who takes the trouble to check lip his calculations. As a daring piece of theorizing on the basis of modern discoveries and mathpmatical calculation, Prof. Sec's book must certainly command respect. It cost him fourteen years of more or less constant work to produce it, a fact which is amply demonstrated by its size. THE CONQVEST OF THE AIR. By Alphonse Berget. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911. 249 pp. Numerous illustrations. This second edition of Prof. Berget's book has been conSiderably re·written in the effort to bring it up to date. That effort has not been altogether successIul. We learn, for example, that the ,right machine still starts on railS, although, as a matter of fact, the Wright macli'e has for some time be(n running on wheels, like most biplanes and monoplanes. Apparently, the Wright brothers count for very little as inventors with Prof. Herget. He regards them as mere imitators of Chanute and Lilienthal, and considers Bleriot as the real inventor of the man· carrying aeroplane. We learn with some astonishment that the Wright machine owes its success entirely to the remarkable skill of the 'righ t brothers as pilots, although the author dOQ not point out wherein the operation of a Bleriot or any other machine with warping wings, is easier. The part played by such men as Maxim and Langley in the development of flying machines is not sufficiently apparent. Indeed, the chief criticism we have to make against this book- is the spirit of French jingoism in which it is written. This applies not only to the discussion of the flying machine, but to the discussion of the dirigible as well. If the reader can overlook these faults, he will find here a good deal of sound 3(ronautical and fvi!tion prin{'iple laid down in a straightforward way which cannot but prove instructive to the man who knows nothing of the subject. The translation, we regrpt to stat<” is not altogether idiomatic, and is evidently done by someone not thoroughly familiar with the subject. THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. By Frederick Winslow Taylor, M.E., Sc,D. New York: Harper&Brothers, 1911. Pnce, $1.50 net. These much-discussed Principles are the fruit of Mr. Taylor's thirty years of experience and experimenting. Briefly, his claims are that by the discovery of the laws governing labor. fatigue and rest, and by their scientific application to well·planned tasks, he is able to double and quadruple the output of his men without pushing them to the point of f'XhauHtion. For example, a man who under the old conditions loaded 12 % tons of pig iron per day, now transfers 47 % tons from the pile to the car. In the case of shovelers, the determination of the shovel load is a question of prime importance, and with each different occupation there enters new factors that must be painstakingly weighed and reduced to scientific formulr. In the face of much shrewd criticism, Mr. Taylor bas no less shrewdly defelded his position and bis theories. Tbere is little doubt that his discoveries inaugurate an era of vastly improved methods, pa rticularly among “i'ne heavier orcu- pations. It will be found impossible, however, to rcduee the more complex human activities to exact formulm without destroying to a certain extent the spontaneity, the elasticity, which comes of man's sense of personal mastery and freedom. To use an illustration from athletics, no two jumpers clear the bar in exactly the same way, and to force one method upon all tyros would soon reduce the number of potential champions. So long as the installation of the new methods is intrusted only to capable organizers, aud a sufficient margin of safety is maintained to cover the varying personal equation, the spread of these principles of scientific management will be attended only by gra tifying results. HISTORY OF THE SHERMAN LAW. By Albert H. Walker of the New York Bar. New York: The Equity Press, 1910. 8vo.; 320 pp. Price, $2. The writer characterizes the Sherman Law as a latter·day Magna Charta, a defensive weapon by which the craft of the well-intrenched minority should be shorn of its power to dictate prices on the products necessary to the life of the exposed and helpless majority. Xcver before has the history of this Law's birth, its fight for life, and its final victory. been presented to the people in such condensed yet adequate form. It makes a readable chapter in our history that should be welcomed by all who have the welfare of the nation at heart. Thousands of speeches, arguments, and decisions have been taken by Mr. Walker and boiled down until the substance of them all is given, and well·given, too, within the space of some three hundred pages. OUR HOME CITY. By William Arthur. Omaha, Nebraska: William Arthur, 1911. 12mo.; 133 pp. Price, 25 cents. This is the description of an ideal city from the author's point of view His proposal is that a thousand families shall buy the site at agricultural prices, each family building on land leased from the city. The city keeps the title to all land, and owns and operates all public utilities. A plan of such a city forms the cover-design of the booklet. and presents a lay·out that combines symmetry with accessibility and convenience. LOMBROSO'S CRIMINAL MA:. By Gina Lombroso Ferrero. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911. 8vo.; 332 pp. Illustrated. Lombroso's criminological theories gave penology a new twist. More and more we are beginning to regard the criminal, not as a savage whom civilization has failed to tame, but as a diseased personality, a subject for the hospital rather than the prison. The book before us is by Loimbroso's daughter, Madam. Gina Lombroso Ferrero, a lady wno has done not a little psychological research on her own account, and is therefore peculiarly well fitted to present a book on her famous father's criminological investigations. Madame Fer· rero's book, judging from its style, is intended primarily for the thoughtful readpr who has no particular scientific training but who wishes to keep abreast of the sch,ntific times. For such a reader the book seems eminently )ll qualified. Prof. Lombroso himself read the manuscript before his death and prepared an interesting introduction in which he traces the manner in which he conceived his theory of crime. ELEKTROCHElISCHE UMFORMER. By Johannes Zacharias. Vienna and Leipzig: A. Hartleben, 1911. 261 pp. This book is a very good review of the progress which has been made in the manufacture of galvanic current producers and their application. DAS SCHICK SAL DER PLANETEN. By Svante Arrhenius. Leipzig: Akade-mische Verlagsgesellschaft, m.b.H. A. Hartleben, 1911. This is a reprint of Prof. Arrhenius's essay on the atmosphere of planets in Ostwald's “Annalen del Naturphilosophie.” Arrhenius's conclusion may ! thus summarized: As the ragma cooled, a solid crust was formed. Not until then was there an atmosphere or a planetary interior. From the interior of the planet, gases, particularly steam and carbon dioxide, exuded and arose to the highest Ifv,ls of the atmosphere. On this highly absorbent nascent atmosphere which lies above the clouds, sunlight reacts photo-chemically. Because of the low temperatures of these upper layers, there Is a great preponderance of photo·chemical reactions, which are not appreciably affected by cold. As the result of these photo·chemical reactions, and as a result of the ordinary reactio'ns which occur later, oxygen and carbon dioxide are formed. Such gases in the original atmosphere as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, whioh predominate in the outer layers of celestial bodies, arc gradually consumed by oxygen, so that finally, 'besides oxygen, only a few chemically inert gases are left, such as nitrogen. Steam and carbon dioxide, however, will continue to permeate the atmosphere through crevices in the planetary crust. It was under these circumstances that life frst developed. This is the condition of the earth, and possibly of Yenus. Gradually the thickness of the crust increases, gradually the waters evaporate, gradually volcanic action ceases, gradually the surfaee of th” planet is transformed into a dpRert, gJ'adually vegetation dies away, gradually oxygen cooses to be produced, gradually, in a Iord, the living planet becomes a dead world. THE PRINCIPLES OF AEROPLANE CONSTRUCTION. By Rfnkin Kennedy, C.E. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1911. 137 pp. Price, $1.50. In this excellent book Mr. Kennedy has explained the principles of the aeroplane, and put in concise form the elemlmtary laws of mechanics and the inclined plane which govern its construction. Formulr are presented for the determination of the principal dimensions of the aeroplane in its simplest form, with numerically worked out calculations with the two systems in use. KOMETEN UNII ELEKTROXEN. By Augusto Righi, Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H., 1911. In this admirable little monograph, Prof. Righi has applied the discoveries of the English school of physicists, who have given us the electronic theory, to the phenomena of comets. Radiation pressure alone is not suffcient to explain many of the vagaries of a comet's tail. But the application of the electron tbeory undoubtedly helps considerably to clear up many a mystery. The last chapter in the monograph is devoted to the consiJeration of the passing of the ea rth through the tail of Halley's comet, on May 19th, 1910. FLYING MACHI:ES TO-DAY. By William Duane Ennis. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1911. 205 pp.; numerous illustrations. Price, $1.50. Prof. Ennis has written one of the most sensible books on flying machines that we have seen. 'he title of his work, to ! sure, is rather misleading, for he discusses lighter-than·air craft as well as aeroplanes. \ritten primarily for the layman, the book sets forth the principles of the aeroplane ' and tbe dirigible with such clearness that a man of average education ought to be able to understand the explanation. It is difficult, of course, for a work on aviation to be strictly np-to·date, for the art progresses so rapidly that improvements are made almost from week to week. Still, it must be said that the author made a commendable effort to kelp his reader informed of the more recpnt progress in flying machine construction. THE U"IVEHSAL RAILWAY MANUAL. 1911. Containing Valuations of the Principal British, American, and Foreign Railway Stocks. Edited by Capt. L. E. Hopkins, R.E. London: Society of Railway Stock Holders. New York: The Macmillan Company. 12mo.; 596 pp. Price, $2.50 net. This valuable book is based on the company valuations, reports of government statistics, etc. There is also a considerable free criticism as to the financial position of companies, which is entirely disinterested. The work has been done in the most admirable manner, and the book ,is one of the best compendiums of financial information that we have ever seen. The maps and diagrams are particularly clear, and nhe book is one which should be in the library of every well-informed person. Railway systems of the world form a most fascinating subject. CHARTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE FOR AERONAUTS AND AVIATORS. By A. Lawrence Rotch, S.B., A.M., and Andrew H. Palmer, A.M. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1911. This book of Prof. Rotch's is the first attempt made in this country to collect for the use of the aviator and the aeronaut in a readily understood form, the vast amount of data which have been accumulated at the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, one of the pioneer institutions of its kind. We believe that somewhat similar work has been done in Germany and Italy. The book consists of a series of charts which gives the relative heights attained by vardous aerial vehicles ; atmospheric density and temperature; average temperature, barometric pressure, wind vplocity, and pressure up to 30,000 feet; maximum wind velocities and pressure up to 30,000 feet at Blue Hill ; wind pressures fo, constant velocities up to 30,000 feet; wind pressures for constant velocities up to 10,000 fpet: monthly temperatures up to 12,000 feet at Blue Hil!; monthly wind velocities up to 12.000 feet at Blue Hill; hourly wind velocities up to 10.000 feet at Blue Hill; frequency of constant wind velocities, 1,000 to 10,000 feet at Blue Hill: frequency of winds at Blue Hill, 650 feet ; velocity of winds at Blue HIil, 650 feet; frequency of winds at Blue Hill, 1,650 feet; velocity of winds at Blue Hill, 1,650 feet; frequency of winds at -Blue Hill, 3,300 feet; velocity of winds at Blue Hlil, 3,300 feet; frequency of winds at Blue Hill, 6,600 feet; velocity of winds at Blue Hill, 6,600 feet; frequency of winds at Blue Hill, 10,000 feet ; velocity of winds at Blue Hill, 10.000 feet; wind velocity and direciion up to 13,000 feet at St. Louis; winds at various heights as vela ted to barometric pressure at the ground ; frequency of winds in the N. E. trade region of the Atlantic Ocean ; velocity of winds in the N. E. trade region of the Atlantic Ocean ; aerial routes in summer across the North Atlantic Ocean. Each chart is accompanied by simply-worded explanationR. whieh will enahle tIl(' aeronaut and the aviator to appreCiate the significance of the fnctR ('onvt'yt'(j hy the charts.