The manufacture of illuminating gas on a small scale suitable for private dwellings, railway cars, locomotives, steamers, etc, has long engaged the attention of scientific men, but up to a recent date all attempts have failed to meet the wants of the community or the wishes of the inventors Indeed, all the different machines have been made substantially on the same principle, viz, a machine for forcing or blowing air through or over some hydrocarbon or material saturated with hydrocarbon oil Since Oliver P Drake, of Boston, made his gas machine, twenty years ago, up to the present time, all improvements have been merely attempts to perfect the Drake plan, and were subject to the same difficulties, viz, the deterioration of the liquid, the variation of pressure, the change in density, the variable effects of the temperature, the great cost of the airforcing apparatus, etc Mr Hiram S Maxim, of New York city, the inventor of this new mode, being long associated with the gas machine interest, both in Boston and New York, as draftsman and engineer, for over forty different machines, all on the old system, and knowing all the advantages of that system, has boldly deviated therefrom, and now presents to the public a gas machine, simple, compact, and reliable, operating every day in the year alike, and entirely different in principle and construction from any other heretofore made His first experiment on this new mode was made in the winter of 18667, and consisted of a twolight machine, holding two quarts of liquid, with a heating chamber underneath feeding its own flame, the size and heat of fio fjprre ^xvmg governed and controlled by the pressure of the gas generated His next was a modification of this first, heated by steam, controlling the steam in the same manner that the flame was controlled on his first machine, and designed for and used as a locomotive headlight It consisted of a horizontal cylindrical tank, placed under the reflector, and divided into two connected compartments filled with gasoline Around one of these steam circulated, and in the other was a coil of steam pipe Steam came direct from the locomotive boiler, passed through a gas superheater on top of the tank, and downward into a steam jacket surrounding a portion of the liquid contained in an elastic shell, then through the coil in the other compartment, and out As the liquid became heated in the elastic shell, it evolved gas until a pressure was generated sufficient to expand the head of the shell, which operated on a steam valve and stopped its flow When the pressure was relieved the shell collapsed and allowed a fresh supply of steam to flow The vapor generated by the heat of the steam passed upward and through the superheater around the steam pipe, and into and through an argand burner This was patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, Nov 26,1867 All attempts to burn the pure vapor with this machine were unsatisfactory, the flame being very sensitive; hence, in the spring of 1868, he discovered a mode of injecting air into the vapor before it reached the burner, and it was found that carbonated air made by this process was very far superior to that made in the ordinary way This was patented for railroad cars through the Scientific American Patent Agency, June 2, 1868 Another apparatus, having automatic valve gear for controlling the flow of vapor, and embracing the main features of the machine shown in the engraving, was also patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, Sept 8, 1868 In all these the whole body of liquid used was heated The waste of liquid and the expense of heating the mass for a small number of burners, led to the invention of a mode of heating only a small portion at a time A small heater connected with the tank containing the liquid, under a pressure of air was found to work admirably An apparatus of this kind was patented by H S Maxim and James Radley, May 4, 1869, which is fully shown in the accompanying locomotive steam headlight and housemachine engravings The first headlight made under this patent had the tank Containing the liquid in the corner of the headlight, the liquid and air being forced in by a special pump and can, used for both housemachine and headlight, and constructed to pump either liquid or air This pump can is shown at the right of the large engraving, and is only attached while filling the tank It was found, however, that by placing the tank on top of the headlight case the gravity of the liquid gave abundance of pressure, therefore the use of the compressed air in the steamgas locomotive headlight was dispensed with The smaller engraving represents an improved steam gas locomotive headlight in perspective A is the tank contain ing the liquid, from which a feed pipe runs down on the back \ side of the case, connecting with an evaporizing chamber im1 mediately beneath the burner Steam being introduced from the boiler of the locomotive on the opposite side of the case, circulates around the vaporizing chamber, converting the liquid into vapor, and passing up from the heater the hot air is injected, and the gas flows through the burner The pipes for the inlet and outlet of steam are so arranged that but one hole is made in the case The larger engraving is a perspective view of an improved apparatus equally applicable to dwelling houses, factories?, churches, hotels, steamers, etc To operate the machine, gasoline is pumped in at the cock, B,until the liquid reaches the top of the gage, C, then air is forced in until a pressure of 25 lbs is indicated on the gage, D A combined air and liquid pump can, E, goes with each machine, which, as above stated, is detached from the machine after charging with air and gasoline The compressed air acts as an elastic spring on the gasoline, forcing it into a retort contained in the case, F, from the bottom of the tank The gasoline is forced up through a small pipe inside of the tank and out through the cock, G, thence downward and into the bottom of the abovementioned retort, with a force equal to the pressure of the air in the tank Under the heater and inside of the heater case is a small cup surrounding the bottom of the burner, which, being filled with alcohol and ignited, heats the burner, and when nearly burned out, the heater cock, H, can be opened, and the apparatus will furnish its own heat After ten minutes the cock, I, can be opened, and the machine is ready for use The flame can be left burning all the time in the heater, all further attention being to fill the tank more or less often as the fluid is consumed In the density regulator, J, are holes to admit air, which, when wide open, makes the gas poor or thin Being half closed, the gas will be, and will remain, at the right density,no matter what number of lightsare used By this regulator the quality of the gas can be changed ut will, and permanently set to furnish gas of the required density Gas made by this mode stands a more severe test, without any appreciable varying of the lights or the quality of the gas, than even the street gas The heat is applied to the top part of the generating retort, leavingthe lower end comparatively cool, so that a small quantity of gasoline remains at the bottom, while the top is filled with hot vapor As the vapor is forced up through the pipe, K, the gasoline rises until it boils sufficiently to generate more vapor and fill the space The square top is a gasometer so arranged that, as the gas is drawn off the top falls and trips a small valve, which admits more of the hot vapor, and again rises As the vapor escapes from the retort with great velocity it draws a current of air through the density regulator, J, mixing it thoroughly with the gasoline vapor in the gasometer A machine three feet in hight and fourteen inches square is calculated to supply sixty burners, and the light given is as steady and agreeable to the eye as that of the illuminating gas now in use, while its cost is far less Having ourselves had much experience in the working ot such machines we were inclined to discredit some of tho statements made in regard to this one, particularly those made in regard to its performing good work in cold weather, where the gas requires to be conveyed through long pipes On other machines the gas, under such circumstances, often becomes so impoverished by condensation that it fails to give a good light We therefore took the trouble to personally inspect the working of this machine, and at our request the gas was passed through ten feet of lead pipe coiled and immersed in a freezing mixture of salt and pounded ice; and, that the test might be still more severe, only one burner was used, so that the gas was forced to pass very slowly through the refrigerating section of pipe Under these circumstances there appeared to be no difficulty whatever iu adjusting the density regulator so that the flame at the burner should remain undiminished Further information may be obtained by addressing Radley, McAlister Co, 162 Greenwich street, New York The control of these inventions, so far as they relate to the lighting of buildings, has been transferred to M H Strong and Thos E Hastings, either of whom may be addressed at No 19 Cliff street (Room No 10), New York, where a machine may be seen in operation MR FISIC'S private office is only equaled in its gorgeous appointments by Mr Jay Gould's, and both are unique A restaurant is one of the appurtenances, and the whole building, which was once a theater, is now a palace Tho Erie shareholders seem to have a good show for dividends