Mr. M. Umstadter, of Norfolk, Va., informs us that he has completed a machine that will justify ten thousand characters per hour, the work being' done with far greater exactness than can be found in any printed book. The Norfolk Virginian, in speaking of this invention, says respecting it: Other machines have been invented and put in operation, but the trouble with all has been the want of any appliance for " justifying," or making the lines the same length, with due regard for the space between words and the proper division upon syllables. This has, in every instance heretofore, been done by hand, and thus, as labor-saving implements the previous inventions have been of little value. To obviate this difficulty has been the chief care of the inventor in this instance, and he claims that his machine will set and "justify " as many type in a given space of time as six men. The justification is effected by a space of his own invention, of this shape )(, formed of brass or steel strips riveted together in the middle, and capable of being compressed into one-half of the ordinary thickness. The machine proper is two feet wide, and thirty inches long, divided into as many compartments as there are different types; into these compartments the types are placed in the proper position, filling the chamber, into which they fit loosely, their own weight keeping them pressed down to the bottom. In front of the machine is a double row of iron keys; lettered to correspond with the chambers of type. By pressing upon one of these keys a type is forced from the bottom of one of the chambers into an iron trough, fitted to the exact thickness of the size of type used, so that when once in the trough or slide it is impossible for it to fall over on its side. Underneath this trough runs a belt, furnished with steel hooks or teeth, and driven by a treddle beneath, 'i hese hooks convey the type along the trough to an apparatus at the end of the machine, where they are placed in regular order until a line is full, when the striking of a bell announces the fact to the operator, who, by simply pulling a small lever, places the line in an upright position on a frame. The machine can be seen at David Morris' establishment, on Union street, where he is busily engaged upon an automatic distributing apparatus to be attached to the machine, when it will be the most perfect invention for the purpose yet brought before the public. The sample of the work sent to us is very good, but no better than what has been done by other ma:hines for the same purpose. A Hygienic Ice Chest. At the last meeting of the Massachusetts Institute of Theology in Boston, Dr. Garrett exhibited and explained what he he called a hygienic ice chest, which .he claimed would ventilate a room by means of ice. The apparatus had the form of a secretary, the middle portion containing ice, the lower receptacle for the water from the melting of the ice, and the upper portion containing convenient shelves. He said the coldness of the ice would make a downward draft of air through a slit in the top of the apparatus, and that the air thus cooled and deprived of its moisture would issue from the sides into the apartment, purified and refreshed. He added that the noxious effluvia of the sick room would thus be drawn in upon and condensed by the ice, and remain in the water below. It was not claimed that it supplied any oxygen to or removed carbonic acid from the air of the room, l.ut that it removed unwholesome effluvia. Mr. Lowe spoke of the hygienic importance of the relative humidity of the air within and out of doors, especially in sickness. This apparatus, by its ice, would make the issuing air drier, and, therefore, more healthful in the dog days, when the damp air is so oppressive. Moist air is the best conductor of odors, and the moisture is lessened by the ice. He thought, however, that the ice should be put in the top and not in the middle portion of the apparatus. Mr. Duncklee made some remarks on the importance of securing in our dwellings a certain relative humidity, and said that from 40 to 65 per cent is the best, both for sick and well. Trial of Steam Fire Engines. At a recent Steam Fire Engine trial, held at Springfield, 111., the citizens, at the outset, appeared to be prejudiced in favor of the piston engine, as being more simple and capable of more continuous work at a high rate of speed ; but tin; rotary machine seemed to secuie friends from the first hour of the trial. On the important points of the time taken in raising steam, and the facility with which a working pressure is maintained, and the capacity for throwing a large amount of water, the rotary demonstrated superiority. The fact that though she threw her water a greater distance than her opponent, the hose and engine remained perfectly still, demonstrates her economy for repairs of machinery and hose. The consumption of fuel in the rotary was also much less. THE workmen in the Springfield armory, in Massachusetts, have taken steps to form a workingmen's association, to cooperate with similar associations throughout the country on the eight-hour and other questions.
This article was originally published with the title "New Type-Setting and Distributing Machine"