Kindly keen vour Queries on senara te sheets of panel' when corresponding abollt such matters as paten ts, subscriptions. books, etc. This will greatly facilitate .nswering your questions, as in many cases they ha ve to be referred to experts. The full name and address should be given on every sheet. No attention will be paid to unsigned queries. Full hints to correspondents are printed from time to time und will be mailed on req uest. (12538) T. E. W. says: Would, like some information in regard to silvering u speculum for a retecting telescope. What formula and how to handle it? What curves shall I use in making high and low power eyepieces for a 12-inch retector of 72-inch focus? A. You will find in the Supplement 1671 the process for silvering a speculum clearly and fully described. In Supplement :;99 is a full and valuable article giving the data for eyepieces of a good range of focal lengths. We will send these for ten cents each. (12539) B. F. J. asks: Can you give me any Information regarding paper that can le discolored by an electric current? A. There are a number of ways of preparing paper so that an electric current will discolor it. The methods of rapid telegraphy are based on such an action. The simplest is to use a paper which has been wet with a, solution of starch and potassium iodide in hot water. The paper turns dark at the positive pole. Another method is to use : solution of sodium sulphate in water mixed with a solution of phenolphthalein in alcohOl and water. With this solution the negative pole produces a pink color. This is what is used in the well-known pole tester, which consists of a glass tube, flled with a colorless liquid, with a wire let in at each end. We add that the strength of these solutions may be varied widely with the saje result. (12540) J. M. asks: A curious thing happened in my neighbor's house. One day-it was just before noon-the lamp chimney expioded into small pieces, measuring, the largest, ' inch down to less tban % inch. 'l'he lamp was not burning. 'l'he explosion made quite a report. Can the Scientific American tell US what was the cause? A. The lamp chimney which went to pieces so suddenly and completely was strained in rapidly cooling, and probably was strained more in some directions than in others. The strain was finally so great that the glass gave way in the weakest place, and then the whole chimney 'ent into bits. Glass should be annealed very carefully by cooling very slowly to avoid such accidents. Lamp chimneys sometimes break when the lamp is burning, because one part gets much hotter than the others. (12541) J. M. M asks: The Nebular Hypothesis assumes the cooling of hot bodies in space. I have been unable to find any explanation consistent with the present theories of heat and of the nature of the ether, as to how such cooling takes place, and what becomes of the heat lost by the cooling body. Obviously, it must either exist in space or be destroyed. We cannot assume its destruction. The assumption that it txists in space in the form of heat waves in the ether leads to diffculties. If this be so, only an infinitesimal Portion of the heat iost would ever be picked up by any other body, and the total amount of energy in the materia I universe is and always has been constantly decreasing-hardly a safe assumption. Nearly everybody knows how greatly the narrow and imperfect vacuum of a thermos bottle retards the radiation of heat. The absolute and limitless vacuum of space must be far more efficient. I shall be greafy olliged if you will clear up my difficulty, or will refer me to some discussion of the questions involved. A. No one can answer the question you ask as to the final disposition of the heat radiated Into space constantly by the sun and all the heavenly bodies. It is as unanswerable as that other conundrum, “What becomes of all the pins?” The law of the Conservation of Energy requires us to believe that It is received by other bodies which are colder and is absorbed by them for a time, to be radiated again, and so pursue a ceaselesS round of radiation. Your statement as to the thermos bottle is not quite correct. Radiation is not impeded by a vacuum. The little whirling radiometer shows that. A century ago or more, Rumford placed a thermometer In , a Tor-rlcellium vacuum, such as is found in the barometer, and showed that it was immediately affected by external heat, by immersing the vacuum bulb in hot water. 'I'he vacuum in the thermos bottle prevents conduction and convection, the polished surfaces prevent radiation as far as it can be prevented. The thermos bottle thus becomes the best insulator for heat waves which we have. It is a modited Dewar bulb, such as is used for liquid air, made more durable than the usual Dewar bulb. You will find in our Supplement 1855, price ten cents, a valuable article upon the “Heat Insulating Efficiency of the Vacuum .Tacketed Bottle." September 2H, 19 11 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN LEGAL NOTICES PATENTS If you have an invention which you wish to patent you can write fully and freely to Munn 1 Co. for advice in regard to the best way of obtaining protection. Please send sketches or a model of your in:ention and a description of the devlce, explammg ltS operatlOn. All communica : ions are strictly confidential. Our vast practlce, extendmg over a perlOd of more than sixty years, enables us in many cases to advise in regard to patentability without any expense to the client. Our Hand Book on Patents is sent free on request. This explains our methods, terms, etc., in regard to PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, FOREIGN PATENTS, etc. All patents secured through us are described without cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. MUNN&COMPANY 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK Branch Office, 625 F Street, Washington, D. C. P AT1 17 M rT* C SECURED OR FEE J\ 1 EN T S RETURN: D Free report as to Patentabili ty. Il lustra te d Guide Book. and \h at To Invent with Litst of I nventions Wanted and Prizes offered for inventions sent free. V ICT(Ht .T. F V ANS&CO., Wasbington. D.C. Classified Advertisements Advertising in this column ia 70 cents a Itne. No less tban four nor more ,IIun 1. lines accepted. Count seven words to the line. All orders JUust be accomoanied by a remittance. AERONAUTICS. RAMBOO.- Special Grades for Aeronlutic Work up to 2 jn . he8 in Diamerer. Reed, Rattan, 8pJit Bamboo for mode]s_ Kor further particulars address, J. Deltonr, Inc., 496th Avenue, New York City. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. 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W ANfTED- A m an 01 woman to ac t a. our information reporter. A l l or sp are tire. N o ex perien ce n necces-Bary. $50 to $300 per month. Notbing to sell. Sends'amp for Darticulars. Hales Association, ma Association Bldg. Indianapolis, inchana. WANTED-A large motor car corporation wants to empIo; a yount man who is fa)iliar :ith lubricating oils, and jSYg ompetent to direcl their distribution. Address, giving age. experience and present connection. Only acJI re :mbitiour man wanted. Address Oils, P. O. iox 815, Detrgl;, Mich. LOCAL REPRE"ENTATlVE WANTED.-Splendid income as8ured right man l' o act as our reprfsemative after learning our business tboroughly by mail. Former experience unnecessary. AU we require is honesty, ability, ambition and willingness to learn a lucrative, busi-ness. No soliciting or rraveling. Tbis is an exceptional opportunity for a man in your section to get into a big payin OT business without capital and become independent for lite. Write at once for full particulars. Ad. dress E. R. Marden, Pres.. ihe National ('-Operative R: : t :Ie CompanY:L 378 Marden k °tlding:W::gr! g? ton, D. C. ______________ miscellaneous. MO''ORCYCLER CHEAP.-Send to-day for free cata. log of new and used motorcycles. Also motorcycle ac-ces01i:s and attach:Sl: motor outfi, for rnverting gr:;gres into motorcycles. staw ° ufacturing compauy, Dept. 2(. Galesburg. Kans. GINIENG Raisinl Is the surest way to make Big Money on Little Capital. One acre will yield 5000lbs. '10s at $6 a lb. 1 wilI . uy all yug raise. Grows a;Jwhere. leqnires st 'r spare time only. if you are not s' t l tfied with E our pr sent income, write Ye today. T. a. Sutton, 780 Sher' oE: lve., Louis iille, Ky. lK. BIG M°NEY operating a Daya atk Post Card Mchine. Pboto postal cards made and deliv:: e J on the spot in ten minutes in the open street. No dark room necessary--it does not require an experienced photograpber to make first-class pictures. Pays a gross profit of 500 ier cent. Writft today for free sam lbe and catalogue; Day I"ark specialp go: 1r : pt ){t' , :::g uis. FREF; '-INVEST1'¥ fobPROFIT” Magazine. S1nd n iur name and L will mail you this magazine absolutelY free. Before you Invest a dollar any-wbere-get thls mHgazine -it is worth $10 a copy to any man who intends to invest $5 or more per month. Tells you how f.s000 can srow to $22t00g —how to idge a ? H ' rent classes gf in;g <' ments; t'e Real learninf: o'er of igur Joney. This ma:azine sii mois free i f you writ e to-day:, i . l' '! rb: :. Pub!isher. 42H, 28 W. Jackson Blvd .. Chicago. "C.N lrlB ;IE 'ISTS Br MIS;fKEN ?"; A ;t;unding theories, solid basls for Kelvin's i'eory of vortex mot Ie l . Matter doet not “ bpld” tOJeher . *'at-traot,” “ repe l! ,” act at any distance. o r act withoutCOlllf-tact. No “potential” energy. Only one t wiimate elemlnt, aet z i:: Momentum (moti ;ett) of aether, basis t all enrgy, (and ,henomena); mv, true enerI ne a'ure. “An XKig Calcutation;” perpetual mgtion (theretll cal) hased upon system of levels. Orbital vortex motion of aether carrieB earth. Grav.ty, a “push” down . Pam-pblet, len cents, (coin). C. C. Gates, Tuscola. III. Artificial Life (Cone/udell from page S72.) causes or ('onditions of development and growth. For the egg cell of many plants or animals is in a resting stage and can begin to develop, or, it can resume its activities, only after fertilization. Quite apart then from the relation to heredity, the process of fertilization must be somehow intimately related to the process of growth , th e process 0 f ce II -d<'IVISl. On anI1 those other processes that constitute the life of the organism. To produce articial parthenogenesis is therefore to find the physico-chemical equivalent of a fundamental vital process. For twenty years experimenters were able to make various physical and chemical agents do the work of the living sperm in causing the egg to begin its development; but the substitute was not quite complete, for the development in every case proceeded only a short way. A fertilized egg begins its development by a division of the nucleus into two halves, which form the centers of two cells. Each of these divides again, making four; these divide into two again, and so on, until (in very many species of animals) there is formed a hollow sphere of one layers of cells (Figs. 4 to 7). At this stage all the cells are practically alike. From this point on there appear various changes and differentiations in development. Most of the earlier experiments in artificial parthenogenesis did not carry the development of the young organism much beyond this stage. In recent years it has been possible to obtain artificially parthenogenetic individuals of sea-urchins and other organisms developed to a much farther stage, in some cases even up to the ap,>earanc! of the adult form. The first record .j artificial parthenogenesis is that of the Russian zoologist, Tkhomj'0ff, whQ in lSSG made rh8 Ulfertilized eggs of silk worms develop by brushing them gently, or by placing them for a short time in CQncentrated sulphuric acid. During the following year Dewitz tried to induce development in unfertilized frog's eggs by treating them with corrosive sublimate, and reported successful results. But his experiments were repeated by Wilhelm Roux, who found that what Dewitz took to be early segmentation stages in the unfertilized frog-eggs were merely wrinklings on the surfaces. However, Richard and Oscar Hertwig observed the beginnings of segmentation under the influence of various poisons. In 1898, Kulagin experimenting with the unfertilized eggs of frogs and of fishes, obtained the beginnings of segmentation through the use of diphtheria antitoxin. These results have not been repeated, and their significance is not clear. Prof. Morgan used a variety of salts in the attempt to induce artifcial parthenogenesis, and .btained a succession of nuclear diviSions, but no true segmentation. The most elaborate and fundamental experiments in artificial parthenogenesis are those by Prof. Jacques Loeb, begun in 1899. After familiarizing himself with the behaviQr .f sea-urchin eggs under different conditions, and in relation to the sperms of several other marine animals, he began a series of experiments that have served as the basis for practically all subsequent work in this field. His frst experiment consisted in raiSing the osmotic pressure of the water containing unfertilized eggs, by the addition of a quantity of common salt solution, and then returning the eggs to normal sea water. Although the results were different with different species, he obtained positive results with all of them. Yet the develQpment of the eggs was nQt exactly the same as in the case of eggs nQrma IIy f ertil. zed . One difference was that the fertilized eggs always formed a thin but distinct membrane before developing; the fertilized eggs developed much more rapidly than the parthenogenetic eggs; the fertilized eggs developed in about 100 per cent of the cases, whereas with the experimental eggs he obtained at first from 1 t 0 2 per cent. The larvr of fertiIized eggs had a smooth outline and swam near the surface .f the water; the larvr from the parthenogenetic eggs had a ragged outl .ne-owr. ng to the absence of a meln- brane-and clung to the bottom of the tanks. (Fig. 3b.) From these differences it was included that the osmotic action of a hyper-tonic solution suffices to initiate nO.t all of the effects of fertilization, but only some. But later Loeb was able to induce the formation of a membrane in unfertilized eggs by the use of certain organic acids (monobasic acids of the fatty series, such as acetic, butyric, etc.). Now the treatment 0 f th ese fggs WI·th th e h yper-ton·lC salt solution after the formation of the membrane resulted in the normal development of the sea-urchin eggs up to the so-called “Pluteus” stage. (Fig. 2.) In these the rate of development and the surface-seeking habit were also as in the fertilized eggs. When others tried to check this work by repeating the experiments in other laboratories, the results were widely divergent. Prof. Loeb himself then showed that these differences were due to the different chemical condition of the sea water at the various biological stations: the degree of alkalinity of the water is an essential factor. While in his earlier experiments he never had more than one egg in five develop, he was able to get 100 per cent after finding the relation of the alkalinity to the beginning of development. By means of an alkaline bath he induced the formation of membrane. in the unfertilized eggs of a mlrine worm (Polyno(), and these were then induced to develop into normal larvr by means of osmotIcally active solutions: and by varying the concentration of the salt in the sea water, the rate of development could be regulated. By changing the alkalinity of the water, the sperms of star-fish were so modified that they fertilized the eggs of the sea-urchin. Step by step the results of these and other experiments were analyzed, and Loeb concluded that the first effect of fertilization, or the first essential for the resumption of activity on the part of the egg, is some liquefaction or hydrolYsis (.r both) .f certain substances in the egg. But how this change was brought about was unknown. Hans Winkler thought that the sperm brings into the egg an enzyme or catalyzer; he reported to have, caused unfertilized eggs to develop by treating them with an extract from sperms. Dr. Gies, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia University) repeated Winkler's experiments end obtained .nly negative results. Usmg the unfertilized eggs of fishes, Cremer also had only negative results. Loeb showed that it was neither the addition of a positive catalyzer nor the removal of a negative catalyzer that started the segmentation. After the activity of the resting egg ' Is renewed by either a sperm .ell or by some one of the physico-chemical agentS-Which Morgan compar"d to a stimulu8-there is neeCe! something to make the nucleus grow and diVide; this second factor Loeb considered to be something that will start the process of oxidation in a certain direction, since it is only through oxidation that nuclear matter could be made .ut of the reserve nutrients in the egg cell. Yves Delage obtained results parallel to those of Loeb, producing a membrane on unfertilized sea-urchin eggs by means of acids and the subsequent liquefaction by means of an alkali. Later he was able to combine the action of the tWQ factors in one solution by using tannate of ammonia. With this combinatiQn he was able to secure development without the presence of oxygen; his methods for eliminating oxygen, have, however, been criticized. He obtained also similar results with the eggs of starfish. A a result of some of Loeb's work, the action of the chemicals used in these various experiments was compared to the action of ions, or of electric charges. To test the validity of the assumption that alkalies acted because of the negative ions (-OH) produced when they were dissolved in water, and that acids acted because of the positive ions (+H), Delage arranged an apparatus in which charges of electricity could be sent through the unfertilized eggs. He obtained a varying number of developing eggs as a result of sending first a positive and then a negative charge through the preparation. The following year, however, .n repeating his Here is tbe ,J1S Instrument Ready- Charged with Pyrene 3 inches in diameter 14 inches long weight 5 lb •. 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WEm I i experiments with improved apparatus, he concluded that neither electric charges nor electrie currents have a direct effect in producing artificial parthenogenesis. The development of the unfertilized eggs in his first series of experiments he attributed to the action of acids and alkalies produced in the sea water under the influence of the electric charges. From these results, and from other experiments, in which he induced unfertilized eggs to develop through the use of various neutral chemicals - organic and inorganic - he concluded that the artificial parthenogenesis was always due to some specific chemical action upon some catalyzer, and a physical action upon the surface tension. Delage succeeded for the first time in ralsmg artificially parthenogenetic eggs up to the adult form. - Two of the individuals that had developed almost to maturity were both males. Parthenogenetic development was produced artificially by several investigators both in this country and in Europe, in the eggs of various species of marine worms, echinoderms and molluscs. For example, Prof. Lefevre of the University of Missouri induced normal development of the eggs of the worm Thalassema mel-lita by placing them for a few minutes in dilute acids. Six years ago Prof. Michael F. Guyer of the University of Cincinnati caused the unfertilized eggs of frogs to develop by injecting into them blood or lymph from adult frogs. Although there was evidence that the white corpuscles carried on (or initiated) some spedal activities within the eggs, it would now seem that the beginning of segmentation may have been starteu merely by the pricking of the eggs with the needle of the hypodermic syringe. For a few years later, Dr. E. Bataillon of the University of Dijon made the, unfertilized eggs develop by merely stabbing them with a very fine point of glass or metal. There was no introduction of any chemical sub-stance, nor of electrical charge or “polarity” or anything else from the outside. The shock alone seemed to be suflicfent in some cases to start the segmentation, but in order to have the process continue there is needed the introduction of a second factor, which he believes to be a catalyzer, or activator. Similar exped-ments made with the eggs of perch were without results, probably because the temperature of the water was not adjusted to the needs of the an. mals. Expenments by Bataillon on the eggs of the lamprey eel, using salt water for starting the segmentation, were successful. Following up Morgan's suggestion that the phYSIco-chemIcal effect of fert .lization and the action of any agent used in artifi0ial parthenogenesis were similar to a “stimulation,” Dr. Ralph Lillie set about to find what the common factor was in these cases. He found that in the stir-ulation of a muscle as weH as in the fertilization of an egg the first efeet was an increase in the permeability of the protoplasm membrane. Following np this lead McClendon tried various substances that cause the solution of red blood corpuscles and stimulation. In all cases he obtained segmentation of the eggs but these substances had nothing in common from a chemical point of view, except the fact that they increase the permeability of the plasma. From all the later experiments it is inferred that the first effect of fertiIization is the loss of some substances. This may be brought about by changing the permeability of the plasmatic membrane mechanically, chemically, electrically or by change of temperature; and this effect seems to be identical with the first effect in the stimulation of a muscle, or of a sensitive plant, or of a gland. So far this agrees with the conclusions of Loeb. But it is possible that the reason for the beginning of segmentation after the increase in permeability lies in the fact that this change brings about the remov.ll of a substance-perhaps the product of protoplasmic activity-that interferes : with further activity. A second stage, in fertilization as well as in stimulation, is accompanied by a change of electric potential at” the surface of the egg-perhaps due to the introduction of new ions, in the case of fertilization; this condition may also be brought about artificially by means of mechanical, chemical or electri- cal agents. Delage's sea-urchins and Ba-taillon's tadpoles give the most advanced stages in animals developed through artificial parthenogenesis. Whether it is possible to establish a mature generation of animals having only one parent, it is too early to say. Histological examination may show that these animals contain the nuclear framework for only one-half of a normal animal's inheritance-as was found by Morgan to be the case in the non-uncleated egg fragments of sea-urchin in Boveri's experiment, and as was also found to be the case in the larvae of Thalassema raised by Lefevre. Whatever may be the limits for successfully inducing parthenogenetic development, these investigations must throw considerable light upon the nature of “living matter” and on the problems of heredity. New York State Barge Canal (Ooncluded from pale 2,7.) paratively low divide in the vicinity of Rome, followed by another continuous descent, to the Hudson. From this it will be seen that there H'r·e two critical points in furnishing a water supply for the canal. The problem at the western end is readily solved by the abundance to Lake Erie, but throughout the history of the State canalIs, the question of sup· plying the Rome summit level has always presented more difficulties, sand has led to the building of a chain of I'eservoirs among the hills to the south and within the Adirondacks on the north. For the enlarged canal these existing sources are retained, and the two large reservoirs are added. The work of building the dam and cleadng the site at Delta, for impoundmg th e wa t ers 0 f th e upper M 0 h aw k , about five miles north of Rome, is now about three-quarters done. Across the greater part. of the river gorge, 600 feet wide at its base, the dam has reached its full height of 100 feet above the lowest foundation. When the gaps left for the river and an existing canal are dosed, and the top of the dam is extended to Us 1,000 feet of length, there will be formed a reservoir some four miles long and two miles wide at the base of its triangular shape, havin! an av:rage dep: of 23 fe:t and a :!pacity of about 20,750,000,000 gallons. The reservoir willI be of value in regu. . lating the flow of the stream below the dam. The present low-water flow is from 100 to 150 cubic feet per second, and the maximum flood discharge, of which the record is about 8,200 cubic feet per second. It is estimated that the reservoir will limit all summer floods to a maximum of 2,500 cubic feet and winter floods to about 2,600 cubic feet per second. Large artificial lakes, built for the supply of navigable canals, are relativeily few in number, and, if we ignore partiaIIy natural bodies of water, like the Indian River Lake, probably there are not in existence any comparable in size with those projected at Delta and Hinckley for the use of the Barge Canal. However, much larger Teservoirs have been constructed for other purposes. The basin at Delta wUl hold less than one-twentieth part of the capacity of the Salt River reservoir, in Arizona, the 11rgest in the world, and will cover little more than one-third the area of the Ashokan reservoir . ,the New York city water supply.